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Beethoven: man, composer and taking over our lives revolutionary. If any composer deserves the name of revolutionary it is Beethoven. He carried through what was probably the my favorite film short greatest single revolution in modern music and taking over our lives changed the way music was composed and listened to. Essays Format. This is music that does not calm, but shocks and disturbs. Alan Woods describes how the essay world into which Beethoven was born was a world in turmoil, a world in transition, a world of geology work, wars, revolution and counter-revolution: a world like our own world. Taking Over Our Lives Essay. Beethoven is the friend and course work contemporary of the French Revolution, and he remained faithful to computers taking over essay, it even when, during the Jacobin dictatorship, humanitarians with weak nerves of the Schiller type turned from it, preferring to destroy tyrants on the theatrical stage with the help of essays format, cardboard swords.

Beethoven, that plebeian genius, who proudly turned his back on emperors, princes and magnates - that is the Beethoven we love for his unassailable optimism, his virile sadness, for the inspired pathos of his struggle, and for his iron will which enabled him to seize destiny by the throat. Taking. (Igor Stravinsky) If any composer deserves the name of revolutionary it is Beethoven. The word revolution derives historically from the discoveries of Copernicus, who established that the earth revolves around the sun, and thus transformed the way we look at the universe and our place in it. Similarly, Beethoven carried through what was probably the greatest single revolution in modern music. His output was vast, including nine symphonies, five piano concertos and others for violin, string quartets, piano sonatas, songs and one opera. He changed the way music was composed and listened to.

Right to the end, he never ceased pushing music to writing, its limits. After Beethoven it was impossible to go back to the old days when music was regarded as a soporific for wealthy patrons who could doze through a symphony and then go home quietly to bed. After Beethoven, one no longer returned from our lives, a concert humming pleasant tunes. This is music that does not calm, but shocks and disturbs. it is music that makes you think and feel. Marx pointed out that the difference between France and Germany is questions for anthem by ayn rand, that, whereas the French actually made revolutions, the Germans merely speculated about them. Philosophical idealism flourished in Germany in the late 18th and early 19th centuries for the same reason. In England the essay bourgeoisie was effecting a great world-historical revolution in topics paper in microbiology, production, while across the English Channel, the French were carrying out an equally great revolution in politics. In backward Germany, where social relations lagged behind France and England, the only revolution was a revolution in men's minds.

Kant, Fichte, Schelling and Hegel argued about the nature of the world and ideas, while other people in other lands actually set about revolutionising the world and the minds of taking essay, men and women. The Sturm und Drang movement was an expression of this typically German phenomenon. Goethe was influenced by compare essay German idealist philosophy, especially Kant. Here we can detect the echoes of the French revolution, but they are distant and indistinct, and they are strictly confined to over essay, the abstract world of poetry, music and philosophy. Questions For Anthem By Ayn. The Sturm und Drang movement in Germany reflected the revolutionary nature of the epoch at the end of the 18th century. It was a period of enormous intellectual ferment. Taking Our Lives Essay. The French philosophe s anticipated the revolutionary events of 1789 by their assault on the ideology of the old regime. As Engels put it in the Anti-Duhring: “The great men, who in France prepared men's minds for the coming revolution, were themselves extreme revolutionists. They recognised no external authority of any kind whatever. Religion, natural science, society, political institutions — everything was subjected to the most unsparing criticism; everything must justify its existence before the judgment-seat of reason or give up existence. Reason became the sole measure of short, everything.

It was the time when, as Hegel says, the world stood upon its head; first in the sense that the human head, and the principles arrived at computers taking by its thought, claimed to be the basis of all human action and association; but by and by, also, in the wider sense that the reality which was in contradiction to these principles had, in fact, to and contrast essay, be turned upside down.” Bonn in the 18th century. The impact of this pre-revolutionary ferment in taking, France made itself felt far beyond the borders of that country, in Germany, England, and even Russia. Geology Work. In literature, gradually the old courtly forms were being dissolved. This found its reflection in the poetry of Wolfgang Goethe – the greatest poet Germany has produced. His great masterpiece Faust is shot through with a dialectical spirit. Mephistophiles is the living spirit of negation that penetrates everything. This revolutionary spirit found an echo in taking, the later works of the jacket soto essay, Mozart, notably in Don Giovanni , which among other things contains a stirring chorus with the words: “ Long live Liberty!” But it is only with Beethoven that the spirit of the French Revolution finds its true expression in taking, music. Ludwig van Beethoven was born in Bonn on November 16, 1770, the son of a musician from a family of Flemish origin.

His father, Johann, was employed by the jacket gary soto essay the court of the Archbishop-elector. He was by all accounts a harsh, brutal and dissolute man. Taking Our Lives Essay. His mother, Maria Magdalena, bore her martyrdom with silent resignation. Beethoven’s early years were not happy. This probably explains his introverted and somewhat surly character as well as his rebellious spirit. Paper. Beethoven’s early education was at computers taking our lives best patchy. He left school at the age of geology course work, eleven.

The first person to realise the youngster’s enormous potential was the court organist, Gottlob Neffe, who introduced him to the works of computers our lives essay, Bach, especially the Well-Tempered Klavier . Noting his son’s precocious talent, Johann tried to turn him into a child prodigy – a new Mozart. At the age of five he was exhibited at a public concert. But Johann was doomed to disappointment: Ludwig was no childhood Mozart. Surprisingly, he had no natural disposition for music and had to be pushed. For Research Paper In Microbiology. So his father sent him to several teachers to drum music into his head. At this time Bonn, the capital of the Electorate of Cologne, was a sleepy provincial backwater. In order to advance, the young musician had to go to study music in Vienna.

The family was not rich, but in 1787 the young Beethoven was sent to the capital by the Archbishop. It was here that he met Mozart, who was impressed by him. Later one of his teachers was Haydn. But after only taking essay, two months he had to return to Bonn, where his mother was seriously ill. She died shortly afterwards.

This was the first of many personal and family tragedies that dogged Beethoven all his life. In 1792, the for research in microbiology year in which Louis XVI was beheaded, Beethoven finally moved from Bonn to Vienna, where he lived till he died. Computers Taking Over. Vienna in Beethoven's time. The portraits that have come down to film short essay, us show a brooding, sombre young man with an expression that conveys a sense of inner tension and our lives a passionate nature. Physically he was not handsome: a large head and Roman nose, a pock-marked face and thick, bushy hair that never seemed to be combed. His dark complexion earned him the nickname “the Spaniard”. Short, stocky and rather clumsy, he had the bearing and manners of a plebeian – a fact that could not be disguised by the elegant clothes he wore as a young man. This born rebel turned up in aristocratic and rand fastidious Vienna, unkempt, ill-dressed and ill-humoured, with none of the computers taking essay polite airs and graces that might have been expected of him. Like every other composer in those times, Beethoven was obliged to rely on grants and commissions from wealthy and aristocratic patrons.

But he was never owned by them. He was not a musical courtier, as Haydn was at the court of the Esterhazy family. What they thought of this strange man is not known. But the greatness of his music ensured him of commissions and therefore a livelihood. He must have felt completely out of place. He despised convention and orthodoxy. He was not in the least interested in his appearance or surroundings. Beethoven was a man who lived and breathed for his music and was unconcerned with worldly comforts. His personal life was chaotic and unsettled, and could be described as Bohemian. He lived in the utmost squalor.

His house was always a mess, with bits of and contrast essay for night, food lying around, and even unemptied chamber pots. His attitude to taking our lives essay, the princes and nobles who paid him was conveyed in a famous painting. The composer is shown in the course of a stroll with the poet Goethe, the Archduchess Rudolph and the Empress. While Goethe respectfully gave way to compare essay, the royal pair, politely removing his hat, Beethoven completely ignored them and continued walking without even acknowledging the greetings of the imperial family. This painting contains the whole spirit of the essay man, a fearless, revolutionary, uncompromising spirit.

Suffocating in the bourgeois atmosphere of Vienna he wrote a despairing comment: “ As long as the Austrians have their brown beer and and contrast for night little sausages, they will never revolt.” [1] The world into which Beethoven was born was a world in turmoil, a world in transition, a world of wars, revolution and computers taking over our lives counter-revolution: a world like our own world. In 1776, the American colonists succeeded in winning their freedom through a revolution which took the form of a war of national liberation against Britain. And Contrast Essay For Night. This was the first act in a great historical drama. The American Revolution proclaimed the ideals of individual freedom that were derived from the over French Enlightenment. Just over writing essays, a decade later, the ideas of the Rights of Man returned to France in an even more explosive manner. The storming of the Bastille in July 1789 marked a decisive turning point in world history. In its period of ascent the French Revolution swept away all the accumulated rubbish of computers our lives, feudalism, brought an entire nation to and contrast for night, its feet and confronted the whole of Europe with courage and computers over determination. The liberating spirit of the Revolution in France swept like wildfire through Europe. Such a period demanded new art forms and new ways of expression. This was achieved in the music of Beethoven, which expresses the spirit of the the jacket gary soto essay age better than anything else. In 1793 King Louis of over our lives, France was executed by the Jacobins.

A wave of shock and fear swept through all the courts of Europe. My Favorite Film Short. Attitudes towards revolutionary France hardened. Those liberals who had initially greeted the Revolution with enthusiasm, now slunk away into the corner of reaction. The antagonism of the propertied classes to France was voiced by Edmund Burke in his Reflections on the Revolution in France. Everywhere the over essay supporters of the revolution were regarded with suspicion and persecuted. In Microbiology. It was no longer safe to be a friend of the French Revolution. These were stormy times. The revolutionary armies of the young French republic defeated the armies of feudal-monarchist Europe and were counter-attacking all along the line. The young composer was from the beginning an ardent admirer of the French revolution, and was appalled at over our lives essay the fact that Austria was the leading force in the counter-revolutionary coalition against France.

The capital of the Empire was infected by my favorite film short a mood of computers essay, terror. The air was thick with suspicion; spies were ever-present and free expression was stifled by essays censorship. But what could not be expressed by the written word could find an expression in great music. His studies with Haydn did not go very well. He was already developing original ideas about music, which did not go down well with the computers taking old man, firmly wedded to the old courtly-aristocratic style of classical music. Film Short. It was a clash of the old with the new. The young composer was making a name for himself as a pianist. His style was violent, like the age that produced it. It is said that he hit the over our lives essay keys so hard he broke the strings. He was beginning to be recognised as a new and original composer. He took Vienna by storm.

He was a success. Life can play the cruellest tricks on men and women. In Beethoven's case, fate prepared a particularly cruel destiny. In 1796-7 Beethoven fell ill – possibly with a type of meningitis – which affected his hearing. He was 28 years old, and at the peak of essay for anthem by ayn, his fame. And he was losing his hearing.

About 1800 he experienced the first signs of deafness. Although he did not become completely deaf till his last years, the awareness of his deteriorating condition must have been a terrible torture. He became depressed and even suicidal. He wrote of his inner torment, and how only his music held him back from taking his own life. Computers Taking Over Our Lives. This experience of for research in microbiology, intense suffering, and the struggle to overcome it, suffuses his music and imbues it with a deeply human spirit. Taking. Beethoven as a young man. His personal life was never happy.

He had the habit of falling in essays format, love with the daughters (and wives) of his wealthy patrons – which always ended badly, with new fits of depression. After one such spell of depression he wrote: “ Art, and only art, has saved me! It seems to me impossible to leave this world without having given everything I have felt germinating within me .” At the beginning of 1801 he passed through a severe personal crisis. According to the Heiligenstadt Testament , he was on the verge of over our lives, suicide. Having recovered from his depression, Beethoven threw himself with renewed vigour into the work of musical creation. A lesser man would have been destroyed by topics these blows. But Beethoven turned his deafness – a crippling disability for anyone, but a catastrophe for a composer – to an advantage. His inner ear provided him with all that was necessary to computers taking, compose great music. In the very year of his most devastating crisis (1802) he composed his great Eroica symphony. The dynamics of Beethoven's music were entirely new. Earlier composers wrote quiet parts and loud parts.

But the two were kept completely separate. Writing Format. In Beethoven, on the contrary, we pass rapidly from one to another. This music contains an inner tension, an unresolved contradiction which urgently demands resolution. It is the music of struggle . Over Our Lives Essay. The sonata form is a way of elaborating and structuring musical matter. It is based on a dynamic vision of musical form and questions for anthem rand is dialectical in essence. The music develops through a series of opposing elements. By the end of the 18th century the our lives essay sonata form dominated much of the music composed. Although it is not new, the sonata form was developed and consolidated by Haydn and Mozart.

But in the compositions of the 18th century we have only the bare potential of the sonata form, not its true content. In part (but only in part) this is a question of the jacket gary essay, technique. The form that Beethoven used was not new, but the way in which he used it was. The sonata form begins with a quick first movement, followed by a slower second movement, a third movement which is merrier in character (originally a minuet, later a scherzo , which literally means a joke), and ending, as it began, with a fast movement. Basically, the sonata form is over essay, based on the following line of development: A-B-A. Essay. It returns to the beginning, but on a higher level. This is a purely dialectical concept: movement through contradiction, the negation of the negation. It is a kind of musical syllogism: exposition-development-recapitulation, or expressed in other terms: thesis-antithesis-synthesis.

This kind of computers over our lives, development is present in each of the movements. But there is also an overall development in which there are conflicting themes which are finally reconciled in a happy ending. In the final coda we return to the initial key, creating the sensation of a triumphal apotheosis. This form contains the germ of and contrast essay, a profound idea, and has the potential for serious development. It can also be expressed by a wide range of instrumental combinations: piano solo, piano and violin, string quartet, symphony.

The success of the sonata form was helped by the invention of a new musical instrument: the pianoforte. This was able to taking over our lives essay, express the full dynamic of romanticism, whereas the organ and harpsichord were restricted to play music written according to the principles of polyphony and counterpoint. The development of the sonata form was already far advanced in the late 18 th century. It reached its high point in the symphonies of essays format, Mozart and Haydn, and in one sense it could be argued that the symphonies of Beethoven are only a continuation of this tradition. But in reality, the formal identity conceals a fundamental difference. In its origins, the form of the our lives essay sonata predominated over its real content. Essay Rand. The classical composers of the 18th century were mainly concerned with getting the form right (though Mozart is an essay, exception).

But with Beethoven, the real content of the sonata form finally emerges. His symphonies create an overwhelming sense of the process of struggle and development through contradictions. Here we have the most sublime example of the dialectical unity of form and content. This is the secret of all great art. Such heights have rarely been reached in the history of topics, music. The symphonies of Beethoven represent a fundamental break with the past.

If the forms are superficially similar, the content and spirit of the computers taking our lives music is radically different. Questions For Anthem Rand. With Beethoven - and the Romantics who followed in his footsteps - what is important is not the forms in themselves, the formal symmetry and inner equilibrium, but the content. Indeed, the equilibrium is over, frequently disturbed in course, Beethoven. There are many dissonances, reflecting inner conflict. In 1800 he wrote his first symphony, a work that still has its roots in the soil of Haydn. It is a sunny work, quite free from the spirit of conflict and computers over our lives struggle that characterises his later works. It really gives one no idea of what was to come. The Pathetique piano sonata (opus 13) is altogether different. It is quite unlike the piano sonatas of Haydn and Mozart.

Beethoven was influenced by Schiller's theory of tragedy and topics paper in microbiology tragic art, which he saw not just as human suffering, but above all as a struggle to resist suffering, to fight against it. The message is clearly expressed in the first movement, which opens with complex and taking over essay dissonant sounds (listen). And Contrast Essay. These mysterious chords soon give way to computers taking, a central agitated passage which suggests this resistance to suffering. This inner conflict plays a key role in Beethoven's music and gives it a character completely different to that of 18th century music. It is the voice of a new epoch: a thunderous voice that demands to compare and contrast, be heard.

The question that must be posed is: how do we explain this striking difference? The short and easy answer is that this musical revolution is the product of the mind of a genius. That is correct. Probably Beethoven was the greatest musical genius of all time. But it is an answer that really answers nothing. Why did this entirely new musical language emerge precisely at this moment and not 100 years earlier? Why did it not occur to Mozart, Haydn, or, for that matter, to Bach? The sound world of Beethoven is not one composed of beautiful sounds, as was the music of Mozart and Haydn. It does not flatter the ear or send the listener away tapping his feet and whistling a pleasant tune. Computers Over Essay. It is the jacket essay, a rugged sound, a musical explosion, a musical revolution that accurately conveys the spirit of the times.

Here there is computers over our lives, not only variety but conflict . Beethoven frequently uses the direction sforzando – which signifies attack. This is violent music, full of movement, rapidly shifting moods, conflict, contradiction. With Beethoven the sonata form advances to a qualitatively higher level. He transformed it from a mere form to a powerful and at the same time intimate expression of his innermost feelings. In some of gary, his piano compositions he wrote the instruction: sonata, quasi una fantasia , indicating that he was looking for absolute freedom of expression through the computers over our lives medium of the sonata. Here the dimension of the sonata is greatly expanded in comparison to geology, its classical form. The tempi are more flexible, and even change place. Above all, the finale is no longer merely a recapitulation, but a real development and culmination of all that has gone before. When applied to his symphonies the sonata form as developed by computers over our lives Beethoven reaches an unheard-of level of film short essay, sublimity and power.

The virile energy that propels his fifth and taking our lives third symphonies is sufficient proof of this. This is format, not music for easy listening or entertainment. It is music that is computers over our lives, designed to move, to shock and to inspire to topics for research paper, action. It is the voice of computers our lives, rebellion cast in music. This is no accident, for Beethoven’s revolution in music echoed a revolution in geology work, real life. Beethoven was a child of his age – the age of the French Revolution. He wrote most of his greatest work in the midst of revolution, and the spirit of revolution impregnates every note of it. It is utterly impossible to understand him outside this context. Beethoven boldly swept aside all existing musical conventions, just as the French revolution cleaned out the over Augean stables of the feudal past. His was a new kind of music, music that opened many doors for topics paper, future composers, just as the French revolution opened the door to a new democratic society. Computers Over Our Lives. The inner secret of Beethoven’s music is the most intense conflict.

It is a conflict that rages in most of his music and reaches its most impressive heights in his last seven symphonies, beginning with the Third symphony, known as the Eroica . This was the film short real turning-point in computers taking our lives essay, the musical evolution of Beethoven and also of the for anthem by ayn history of music in general. And the roots of this revolution in music must be found outside of music, in computers taking our lives, society and history. A decisive turning-point both in Beethoven's life and in the evolution of western music was the compsition of his third symphony (the Eroica ). Up till now, the musical language of the first and compare and contrast second symphonies did not depart substantially from the sound world of Mozart and Haydn. But from the computers taking over our lives very first notes of the Eroica we enter an entirely different world. The music has a political sub-text, the origin of my favorite film, which is computers over our lives essay, well known. Beethoven was a musician, not a politician, and essays format his knowledge of events in France was necessarily confused and incomplete, but his revolutionary instincts were unfailing and in the end always led him to the correct conclusions. He had heard reports of the computers taking rise of a young officer in the revolutionary army called Bonaparte.

Like many others, he formed the impression that Napoleon was the continuer of the revolution and defender of the rights of man. He therefore planned to dedicate his new symphony to Bonaparte. This was an the jacket gary soto, error, but quite understandable. It was the same error that many people committed when they assumed that Stalin was the real heir of Lenin and the defender of the computers our lives ideals of the October revolution. But slowly it became clear that his hero was departing from the ideals of the Revolution and consolidating a regime that aped some of the worst features of the old despotism. In 1799, Bonaparte's coup signified the definitive end of the period of revolutionary ascent. Topics In Microbiology. In August of 1802 Napoleon secured the consulate for life, with power to name his successor. Taking Over Essay. An obsequious senate begged him to re-introduce hereditary rule “to defend public liberty and maintain equality”.

Thus, in the name of “liberty” and “equality” the topics paper French people were invited to computers over essay, place their head in a noose. It is always the way with usurpers in writing format, every period in essay, history. The emperor Augustus maintained the outward forms of the Roman Republic and publicly feigned a hypocritical deference to the Senate, while systematically subverting the questions for anthem republican constitution. Not long afterwards, his successor Caligula made his prize horse a senator, which was a far more realistic appraisal of the situation. Stalin, the leader of the political counter-revolution in computers taking over, Russia, proclaimed himself the faithful disciple of Lenin while trampling all the traditions of my favorite film short essay, Leninism underfoot. Computers Taking Over. Gradually the norms of proletarian soviet democracy and egalitarianism were replaced by writing format inequality, bureaucratic and totalitarian rule. In the computers over our lives essay army, all the old rank and privileges abolished by geology course work the October revolution were reintroduced. The virtues of the Family were exalted.

Eventually, Stalin even discovered a role for the Orthodox Church, as a faithful servant of his regime. In all this, he was only treading a road that had already been traversed by Napoleon Bonaparte, the gravedigger of the taking our lives essay French Revolution. In order to find some kind of sanction and respectability for his dictatorship, Napoleon began to copy all the outward forms of the old regime: aristocratic titles, splendid uniforms, rank and, of course, religion. The French revolution had practically wiped out the Catholic Church. The mass of the people, except in the most backward areas like the Vendee, hated the Church, which they correctly identified with the rule of the old oppressors. Now Napoleon attempted to enlist the support of the Church for his regime, and signed a Concordat with the Pope. From afar, Beethoven followed the developments in France with growing alarm and by ayn rand despondency. Computers Taking Our Lives. Already by 1802 Beethoven’s opinion of Napoleon was beginning to change. In a letter to a friend written in that year, he wrote indignantly: “ Everything is trying to writing format, slide back into the old rut after Napoleon signed the computers our lives essay Concordat with the Pope .” But far worse was to come.

On May 18 1804 Napoleon became Emperor of the French. Geology. The coronation ceremony took place at the cathedral of Notre Dame on December 2 nd . As the computers taking our lives Pope poured holy oil over the head of the usurper, all traces of the old Republican constitution were washed away. In place of the old austere Republican simplicity all the ostentatious splendour of the topics old monarchy reappeared to mock the taking over essay memory of the Revolution for which so many brave men and women had sacrificed their lives. Short. When Beethoven received news of these events he was beside himself with rage. Our Lives Essay. He angrily crossed out his dedication to Napoleon in the score of his new symphony. The manuscript still exists, and and contrast for night we can see that he attacked the page with such violence that it has a hole torn through it. He then dedicated the symphony to an anonymous hero of the taking essay revolution: the Eroica symphony was born.

Beethoven’s orchestral works were already beginning to produce new sounds that had never been heard before. For Research Paper. They shocked the Viennese public, used to the genteel tunes of Haydn and Mozart. Yet Beethoven’s first two symphonies, though very fine, still look back to the relaxed, easy-going aristocratic world of the 18 th century, the world as it was before it was shattered in computers taking over, 1789. The Eroica represents a tremendous breakthrough, a great leap forward for compare essay, music, a real revolution. Sounds like these had never been heard before. The unfortunate musicians who had to play this for the first time must have been shocked and completely bewildered.

The Eroica caused a sensation. Up till then, a symphony was supposed to last at most half an hour. The first movement of the Eroica lasted as long as an entire sypmphony of the 18th century. And it was a work with a message: a work with something to say. The dissonances and violence of the first movement are clearly a call to struggle. That this means a revolutionary struggle is clear from the original dedication. Essay. Trotsky once observed that revolutions are voluble affairs. Soto Essay. The French Revolution was characterised by its oratory. Here were truly great mass orators: Danton, Saint-Just, Robespierre, and computers over essay even Mirabeau before them. When these men spoke, they did not just address an audience: they were speaking to posterity, to essay for anthem by ayn rand, history.

Hence the computers taking over essay rhetorical character of writing format, their speeches. They did not speak, they declaimed. Computers Taking Over. Their speeches would begin with a striking phrase, which would immediately present a central theme which would then be developed in different ways, before making an emphatic re-appearance at the end. It is essay by ayn rand, just the same with the Eroica symphony. It does not speak, it declaims. The first movement of this symphony opens with two dissonant chords that resemble a man striking his fist on a table, demanding our attention, just like an impassioned orator in a revolutionary assembly. Beethoven then launches into a kind of musical cavalry charge, a tremendously impetuous forward thrust that is our lives essay, interrupted by clashes, conflict and struggle, and essay questions even momentarily halted by moments of sheer exhaustion, only to resume its triumphant forward march (listen).

In this movement we are in the thick of the computers over Revolution itself, with all its ebbs and flows, its victories and defeats, its triumphs and its despairs. It is the French Revolution in music. The second movement is a funeral march – in memory of a hero. It is a massive piece of work, as weighty and solid as granite (listen). The slow, sad tread of the funeral march is interrupted by a section that recaptures the glories and triumphs of for research, one who has given his life for the revolution (listen).

The central passage creates a massive sound edifice that creates a sensation of unbearable grief, before finally returning to the central theme of the funeral march. This is one of the greatest moments in the music of Beethoven – or any music. The final movement is in an entirely different spirit. The symphony ends on a note of supreme optimism. After all the defeats, setbacks and taking our lives essay disappointments, Beethoven is topics for research paper in microbiology, saying to us: “ Yes, my friend, we have suffered a grievous loss, but we must turn the page and open a new chapter.

The human spirit is strong enough to rise above all defeats and continue the struggle. And we must learn to laugh at adversity .” Like the computers our lives essay great French revolutionaries, Beethoven was convinced that he was writing for my favorite film, posterity. When (as frequently happened) musicians complained that they could not play his music because it was too difficult, he used to answer: Don't worry, this is music for the future . Beethoven's revolution in music was not understood by many of his contemporaries. Taking Over Our Lives. They regarded this music as bizarre, hair-brained, even crazy. It jolted the philistines out of their comfortable reveries.

Audiences resented it precisely because it compelled them to think what the music was about. Instead of pleasant and easy tunes, Beethoven confronted the listener with meaningful themes, with ideas conveyed in music . This tremendous innovation later became the basis of all Romantic music, culminating in the Leitmotifs of Wagner's vast musical dramas. The basis of all subsequent developments is Beethoven. Of course, there is no shortage of great lyrical moments in Beethoven, as in topics for research paper, the Sixth ( Pastorale ) symphony and the third movement of the taking over essay Ninth. Even in the fiercest of battles there are moments of lull, but the lull never lasts long and is only the prelude to new periods of struggle. Such is the real significance of the slow movements in Beethoven. They are truly sublime moments, but they have no independent significance, separate and apart from the struggle. Beethoven's themes mean something.

Of course, this is not superficial programme music. The nearest thing to gary, a descriptive programme is the Sixth Symphony, the Pastorale , where each movement is prefaced by a note that conveys a particular mood or setting (Pleasant feelings on arriving in the countryside; By the brook; Shephards' merrymaking and storm etc.). But this is an exception. Computers Taking Our Lives. The meaning of these themes is more abstract and general. Yet the topics paper implications are clear.

A revolutionary spirit moves every bar of Beethoven's symphonies, especially the taking over Fifth. The celebrated opening bars of this work (listen) have been compared to Fate knocking at the door. And Contrast For Night. These hammer blows are perhaps the over essay most striking opening of the jacket, any musical work in history. The conductor Nikolaus Harnancourt, whose recorded cycle of the taking Beethoven symphonies has been widely acclaimed, has said of this symphony: This is not music; it is political agitation. It is saying to us: the world we have is no good. Let us change it! Let's go! Another famous conductor and musicologist, John Elliot Gardener, has discovered that all the main themes in short, this symphony are based on French revolutionary songs. This is the first symphony to trace in computers essay, a systematic manner the progress from the minor to the major key. Although this transition had been done before, the writing essays format irresistible development from minor to taking over, major, its dialectical development, has no precedents. Like the revolution itself, the struggle that unfolds in the development of Beethoven's Fifth passes through a whole series of phases: from a tremendous forward thrust that sweeps all before it to format, moments of indecision and despair, leading up to the last movement with its glorious blaze of triumph.

The central message of computers over our lives, Beethoven's Fifth is film short essay, struggle and triumph over all the odds. Computers Taking Over. As we have seen, the roots of this symphony are once more firmly in the French Revolution. Yet its message does not depend on this, or any other association. It can communicate itself to many people in different circumstances. But the message is always the same: it is necessary to fight! Never surrender! In the end we will surely win! The Germans who listened to compare, it in Beethoven's lifetime derived inspiration to fight against the French occupiers of their native land.

During the Second World War, the opening bars of the Fifth (which by coincidence are the our lives essay musical equivalent of the the jacket Morse code signal for V - meaning victory) were used to rally the French people to fight the German occupiers. Computers Taking Over. Thus, great music speaks to us down the centuries, long after its true origins have been lost in the mists of time. Beethoven was a revolutionary in every sense of the word. The kind of music he wrote had never been heard before. Prior to this, music was mainly an aristocratic affair. Josef Haydn (whose father was a simple wheelwright) worked for the Esterhazy family for over thirty years.

His music was designed mainly to please his aristocratic audiences. It is great music, without doubt, but also undemanding. Beethoven’s symphonies are another world. Beethoven's only opera Fidelio was originally born as Leonora , with a woman as the central figure. Leonora was written in 1805 when the paper in microbiology victorious French army had entered Vienna. On the over first night most of the audience was made up of French officers and their ladies.

Like the compare Eroica , it also has clear revolutionary overtones, especially in the famous prisoners' chorus. The political prisoners who slowly emerge from the darkness of their dungeon into the light of day sing a moving chorus: Oh what joy to breathe free air. This is a veritable ode to Freedom, a constant element in Beethoven's thought and work. Likewise, the incidental music to the play Egmont, based on the events of the revolt of the Netherlands against Spanish rule, has an explicit revolutionary message. The historical Egmont was a Flemish nobleman in the 16 th century, that terrible period when the Netherlands languished under the heel of Spanish despotism. A gifted and courageous soldier, Egmont fought on the Spanish side in computers over essay, the wars of Charles V, and was even made governor of Flanders by the Spanish. But despite his services to the Spanish Crown, he fell under suspicion and essay for anthem by ayn rand was beheaded in Brussels on June 5, 1568. Beethoven learned the story of Egmont from the tragedy of that name written by Goethe in 1788, one year before the French Revolution. Here the man whose statue now stands in Brussels is presented as a hero of the war of national liberation of the Netherlands against the Spanish oppressors. Beethoven set Goethe’s play to music.

He saw Egmont as a symbol of the revolutionary struggle against taking our lives, tyranny at all times and in every country. By placing the questions rand action in the 16 th century, he could avoid the accusation of subversion, but subversive it was. Computers Taking Our Lives. Today only the famous Egmont Overture is well known. This is compare, a pity because Beethoven’s Incidental Music to Egmont contains other marvellous material. Egmont’s final speech, as he goes calmly to his death, is a veritable denunciation of tyranny and a courageous call to the people to revolt and, if necessary, to computers taking, give their lives to the cause of freedom. Writing. It ends with the following lines: Forward, good people! The goddess. of victory leads you. And as the taking essay sea. breaks through your dikes, so. Format. crush, tear down tyranny's. ramparts, and computers taking essay sweep them, drowning, from the ground. The Jacket Gary Soto Essay. which they usurp.

Listen, listen! How often this sound. would call me to step out eagerly. towards the field of battle and. victory! How lightheartedly did. the comrades stride on their. perilous way! I too will step. from this dungeon towards an honourable. death: I die for the freedom which I. have lived and fought for, and to which I. now offer myself up as sorrowful victim.

Yes, rally them all! Close your ranks, you do not. Computers Our Lives. frighten me. I am used to. standing betwixt spears, and, beset by imminent death, to feel my courageous life blood. Writing Format. coursing twice as quickly through my veins. Friends, pluck up courage! Behind you. are your parents, your wives, your children. But these people are driven on by their ruler's. empty words, not by their own inclination. Friends, defend what is yours! and. Taking Over. fall gladly to save those you love most, and follow as I lead. These words are followed by topics in microbiology the Victory Symphony , which ends the work in a blaze of fire (listen). But how can one end a tragedy on such a note?

How can one speak of victory when the taking over essay leader of the rebellion has been executed? This little detail tells us all we need to geology course work, know about Beethoven’s outlook. Here we have a stubborn and incorrigible optimist, a man who refuses to taking, admit defeat, a man with a boundless confidence in the future of compare and contrast essay, humanity. Taking Our Lives. In this marvellous music he is saying to us: no matter how many defeats we suffer, no matter how many heroes perish, no matter how many times we are thrown to the ground, we will always arise again! You can never defeat us!

For you can never conquer our minds and souls. This music expresses the undying spirit of revolution. Napoleon's retreat from Moscow. Beethoven’s revolutionary optimism was about to experience its most serious test. Despite the fact that Napoleon had restored all the and contrast essay outward forms of the Ancien Regime , the fear and loathing for Napoleonic France in monarchist Europe was no less than before. The crowned heads of Europe feared the revolution even in the degenerate, twisted form of Bonapartism, just as later they feared and hated Stalin’s bureaucratic caricature of October. They conspired against it, launched attacks on it, tried by every means to strangle and suffocate it. The advance of Napoleon’s armies on every front gave a material content to these feelings of alarm.

The reactionary monarchist regimes of Europe, led by England with its limitless supplies of gold, exerted every nerve and sinew to confront the threat from France. We enter into a convulsive period of war, foreign conquest and national liberation struggles, which, with ebbs and flows, lasted more than a decade. Napoleon’s Grande Armee conquered almost the whole of Continental Europe before finally suffering a serious defeat in the frozen wastes of Russia in 1812. Weakened by this heavy blow, Napoleon was finally defeated by an Anglo-Prussian force on the muddy fields of Waterloo. Computers. For Beethoven the year 1815 was marked by two disasters: one on essay, the world stage, the other of a personal character: the computers taking essay defeat of the jacket gary essay, France at Waterloo and the death of the computers composer’s beloved brother Kasper. Deeply affected by paper the loss of his brother, Beethoven insisted on taking charge of the upbringing of his son, Karl. This led to computers taking essay, a long and bitter wrangle with Karl’s mother over for anthem rand, custody. The Congress of Vienna.

The period after 1815 was one of black reaction. Monarchist-feudal counter-revolution triumphed all along the line. The Congress of Vienna (1814-15) reinstated the rule of the computers essay Bourbons in essays, France. Metternich and the Tsar of computers over our lives essay, Russia launched a veritable crusade to overthrow progressive regimes everywhere. Revolutionaries, liberals and progressives were hunted down, imprisoned and executed. A reactionary ideology based on religion and the monarchist principle was imposed. Monarchist Austria and Prussia dominated Europe, backed up by the bayonets of tsarist Russia.

It is true that the war against France contained elements of a war of national liberation in countries like Germany. But the outcome was entirely reactionary. The clearest case of this was Spain. Foreign rule was overthrown by a national movement, the main component of which was the gary soto essay dark masses - a downtrodden and illiterate peasantry, under the influence of a fanatical and reactionary clergy. Under the reign of our lives, Fernando VII, reaction reigned in soto essay, Spain, where the experiment with a liberal constitution was crushed underfoot. Goya: The Execution of the computers taking our lives Defenders of Madrid (1814) The magnificent, tortured paintings of Goya’s last years reflect the essence of this turbulent period. Goya's paintings and etchings are a graphic reflection of the world he saw around him. Like the music of Beethoven, these paintings are more than art. They are a political statement. They are an angry protest against the prevailing spirit of reaction and compare obscurantism.

As if to underline his protest, Goya chose the road of computers over our lives, voluntary self-exile from the repressive regime of the traitor king Fernando VII, his old protector. Goya was not alone in his hatred of the Spanish monarch - Beethoven refused to topics in microbiology, send him his works. By 1814 - the over essay date of the Congress of Vienna - Beethoven was at the pinnacle of his career. But the gathering reaction throughout Europe which buried the hopes of a generation had a dampening effect on Beethoven's spirit. In 1812, when Napoleon’s army was halted at the gates of Moscow, Beethoven was working on his Seventh and Eighth symphonies. Then, after 1815, silence. He wrote no more symphonies for almost a decade, when he wrote his last, and essay greatest symphony. Computers Taking. The final defeat of what remained of the writing French Revolution buried all hopes and computers our lives essay suffocated the questions for anthem creative drive. The years 1815-1820 saw a sharp decline in Beethoven’s output when compared to the tremendous outpouring of music in the previous period.

Only six works of note were produced in computers taking essay, as many years. They include the song cycle An der fernte Geliebte (To the distant loved one), the last sonatas for cello and piano, the opus 101 piano sonatas and the great Hammerklavier sonata, a work full of inner contradictions and discord, possibly reflecting the discord in his personal life. He was now profoundly deaf. We read heartbreaking stories of his struggle to hear something of essays format, his own compositions. These have an increasingly contemplative and introverted, philosophical character. The slow movement of the Hammerklavier sonata, for instance, is openly tragic, reflecting a sense of acceptance. Beethoven’s deafness condemned him to an agonising solitude, made worse by frequent periods of material want. He became ever more introverted, moody and over suspicious, which only served to and contrast for night, isolate him still more from other people. After the death of computers over our lives, his brother he developed an obsession with his nephew Karl and writing format became convinced that he should be in charge of the boy’s upbringing. He used all his influence to get custody over his nephew and then denied Karl’s mother access to computers our lives essay, her son. Lacking any experience of parenthood, he treated Karl with excessive harshness and rigidity.

This eventually led Karl to attempt suicide – a devastating blow for and contrast for night, Beethoven. Over. Later they became reconciled, but the whole business led only to great unhappiness and pain for everyone concerned. What was the reason for this strange obsession? Despite his passionate nature, Beethoven never succeeded in forming a satisfactory relationship with a woman and geology course work had no children of his own. All his emotions were poured into his music. This was to the eternal benefit of taking essay, humanity, but it undoubtedly left a void in Beethoven’s personal life. No longer a young man, deaf, lonely and facing the geology course work shipwreck of all his hopes, he was desperately seeking to fill the void in his soul.

Thwarted in the political sphere, Beethoven threw himself into what he imagined was the family life he had never had. Taking Over Our Lives Essay. This kind of situation is well known to revolutionaries. Whereas in times of revolutionary upsurge, personal and family matters seem to pale into insignificance, in the jacket soto, periods of reaction, such things assume a far greater significance, inducing some people to drop out of the movement and to seek refuge in the bosom of the family. It is computers over, true that this affair does not show Beethoven in the best light, and some small-minded people have tried to use the Karl episode to blacken Beethoven’s name. Such accusations bring to mind Hegel’s remark that no man is a hero to his valet, who sees all the compare and contrast essay for night faults of taking over our lives essay, his personal life, his eccentricities and vices. But as Hegel comments, the valet may criticise these failings. His range of vision does not see any further than such trivial matters and that explains why he will only ever be a valet and not a great man. For all his failings (and failings are inevitable to all humans), Beethoven was one of the greatest men who ever lived. Despite everything, in this long, dark night of reaction, Beethoven never lost faith in the future of film short, humanity and in the revolution. It has now become commonplace to refer to his great humanitarianism.

This is correct as far as it goes but it does not go far enough. It places Beethoven on the same level as parsons, pacifists and well-meaning old ladies who dedicate their spare time to “worthy causes”. That is to say, it places a giant on the same level as a pygmy. Beethoven as an old man. Beethoven’s outlook was not just a vague humanitarianism which wishes the world were a better place but never gets beyond impotent hand-wringing and pious good intentions. Beethoven was not a bourgeois humanist but a militant republican and an ardent supporter of the French Revolution. He was not prepared to surrender to the prevailing reaction or to our lives essay, compromise with the status quo. This uncompromising revolutionary spirit never left him to the end of and contrast for night, his days.

There was iron in this man’s soul which sustained him through all the trials and tribulations of life. His deafness lasted for the last nine years of computers taking over essay, his life. One by one he had lost his most trusted friends and was utterly alone. In this desperate solitude, Beethoven was reduced to communicating to people in essay for night, writing. He neglected his appearance even more than before, and gave the appearance of a tramp when he went out.

Yet even in such tragic circumstances, he was working on his greatest masterpieces. Like Goya in his black period, he was now composing not for the public but for computers our lives essay, himself, finding expression for his innermost thoughts. The music of his last years is the the jacket gary soto product of the maturity of old age. It is computers taking over, not beautiful music but very profound. It transcends Romanticism and points the way forward to the tortured world of geology course, our own times. Far from being popular at this time, Beethoven’s works were profoundly unfashionable. They were against the spirit of the times.

In times of reaction, the public does not want profound ideas. Taking Essay. Thus, after the defeat of the Paris Commune, the compare essay for night frivolous light operettas of Offenbach were all the rage. The bourgeoisie of Paris did not want to be reminded of storm and stress but to drink champagne and watch the antics of pretty chorus girls. The merry but superficial tunes of Offenbach reflected this spirit perfectly. In this period Beethoven wrote the Missa Solemnis , the Grosse Fuge and the late string quartets (1824-6), music far ahead of its time. This music delves far deeper into the depths of the human soul than almost any other musical composition.

Yet so extraordinarily original was this music that many people actually took it to mean that Beethoven had gone mad. Beethoven paid absolutely no attention to all this. He cared nothing for public opinion and was never discreet in over, expressing his views. This was dangerous. Only his status as a famous composer kept him out of essay for anthem rand, prison.

We should bear in mind that at this time Austria was one of the main centres of European reaction. Not only politics but also cultural life was suffocated. The emperor’s police spies were on every street corner. The censorship kept a vigilant eye on all activities that could be considered even mildly subversive. Under such circumstances, the respectable Viennese bourgeois did not want to listen to music intended to rouse them to over our lives essay, struggle for a better world. They preferred to have their ears gently tickled by the comic operas of Rossini – the composer of the hour. And Contrast Essay For Night. By contrast, Beethoven’s great Missa Solemnis was a flop. The torment in the great man’s soul found its reflection in that strange composition known as the Grosse Fuge . It is intensely personal music that undoubtedly tells us a lot about Beethoven’s state of mind at this time (listen) . Here we are in the presence of a world of conflict, dissonance and unresolved contradictions. It was not what the public wanted to hear.

Beethoven had long been considering the idea of a choral symphony, and took as his text from Schiller's Ode to Joy , which he had known since 1792. Computers Taking Essay. In fact, Schiller had originally considered an and contrast essay, Ode to Freedom (Freiheit), but because of the enormous pressure of the reactionary forces, he changed the word to Joy (Freude). However, for our lives essay, Beethoven and topics for research in microbiology his generation the message was quite clear. This was an Ode to Freedom . The first sketch for the Ninth symphony dates back to 1816, one year after the battle of Waterloo. It was finished seven years later, in 1822-24, after the Philharmonic Society of London had offered the sum of 50 pounds for two symphonies. Instead they got this remarkable work which is taking our lives essay, much more than any two other symphonies ever written. The Ninth symphony even today has lost none of its ability to shock and inspire. This work,which has been called The Marseillaise of Humanity , was first performed in Vienna on May 7, 1824. In the midst of universal reaction, this music expresses the voice of topics for research paper, revolutionary optimism.

It is the voice of a man who refuses to admit defeat, whose head remains unbowed in adversity. Its long first movement arises gradually out of nebulous chords, so indistinct that they seem to emerge out of darkness, like the taking essay primaeval chaos that was supposed to precede Creation. It is like a man saying: “Yes, we have passed through a dark night when all seemed hopeless, but the human spirit is capable of compare and contrast, emerging triumphant from the darkest night.” There follows the most amazing music full of dynamic change, forward movement, constantly checked by contradiction, but inexorably advancing. It is like the first movement of the Fifth, but on an infinitely bigger scale. Like the Fifth, this is violent music, and it is revolutionary violence that tolerates no opposition, but sweeps everything before it. It denotes struggle that succeeds against incredible odds, leading to ultimate triumph. Such music had never been heard before. Computers Our Lives. It was something entirely new and revolutionary.

It is impossible today to comprehend the impact it must have made on the audience. The final theme which pours out at the end like a burst of radiant sunshine through the clouds is, in fact, heard throughout the symphony in a variety of subtle disguises (listen). The message of the final, choral, movement is unambiguous: All men shall be brothers! This is Beethoven's final message to humanity. It is a message of hope - and defiance. The Jacket Gary. Beethoven, old, dishevelled, unkempt and completely deaf, conducted the symphony. He was unable even to keep time correctly, waving his arms furiously in the air, even after the orchestra had stopped playing. When the last note died away, he could not even hear the wild applause that greeted his work.

The great man stood facing the computers over orchestra for a few moments. Then the contralto Karoline Unger gently took him by the shoulders and turned him round to questions for anthem by ayn rand, face the public. Such was its impact on the audience that they gave the composer no fewer than five ovations. So great was the tumult that the Vienna police – ever on computers taking over our lives essay, the lookout for manifestations of dangerous public demonstrations – finally had to intervene to stop it. For Research Paper In Microbiology. After all, three ovations was considered the computers over our lives limit even for the emperor.

Would such a demonstration of enthusiasm not be considered an offence to His Majesty? The instinctive reaction of the police was not mistaken. There is topics for research paper in microbiology, indeed something profoundly subversive in the Ninth, from the taking over essay first bar to the last. The Ninth symphony was a success, but it made no money. Beethoven was now in financial difficulties and his health was deteriorating. He caught pneumonia and had to undergo an operation.

The wound became infected and his last days were spent in agony. Beethoven died in Vienna on March 27, 1827, at the age of only 56, his health undermined, and his personal life dogged by tragedy. Goya, who was also deaf, died in the same year. By Ayn Rand. 25,000 people turned out for his funeral - a fact which shows the extent to which his genius had been recognised in his lifetime. Yet he remains alive today, as vibrant and relevant as ever. As was the man, so was his music. In his music we feel we have the whole man. We feel that we have known and loved him all our lives. Beethoven's greatness consists in the fact that in his music the individual is at one with the universal.

This is music which constantly suggests a struggle to overcome all obstacles and rise to computers taking our lives essay, a higher state. His music was revolutionary because in writing essays, its searing intensity, it cast light on aspects of the human condition never before expressed in music. It was truth expressed in music. The Ninth symphony was Beethoven’s last word – a fearless challenge to the apparently triumphant reaction that seemed to computers, be all-powerful after the my favorite film short essay defeat of the French armies in 1815. That apparently final victory of the taking over essay forces of reaction led to a wave of despondency and defeatism that suffocated the topics paper hopes of the generation that looked for salvation to the French Revolution. Many former revolutionaries fell into over our lives despair, and more than one went over to the side of the enemy. It is a very familiar picture to my favorite essay, our own generation, with uncanny parallels to the situation that followed the collapse of the Soviet Union.

Then also it seemed that Europe lay prostrate at the feet of royalist reaction. Who could stand against such a power as the united monarchical powers of Europe, with the might of the Russian Tsar behind every throne and police spies on computers our lives essay, every street corner? Despotism and religious obscurantism were triumphant. Essay. Everywhere there was silence as of the computers taking over essay grave. And yet, in the midst of this terrible desolation, a brave man raised his voice and the jacket soto essay gave the world a message of hope. He himself never heard this message, except inside his head, where it was born.

But the defeat of France and the re-imposition of the Bourbons could not prevent the rise of capitalism and the bourgeoisie, nor halt the computers taking over our lives essay tide of revolution, which broke out again and again: in 1830, 1848, 1871. The system of production which had triumphed in England now began to penetrate other European countries. Gary Essay. Industry, the power loom, the railways, the steamship, were the computers taking over our lives motor forces of universal and irresistible change. The ideas of the French Revolution – the ideas of liberty, equality, fraternity, and the rights of man – continued to geology work, grip the imagination of the new generation. Our Lives. But increasingly the writing old revolutionary ideas were filled with a new class content. The rise of capitalism meant the development of industry and the working class – the bearer of a new idea and a new stage in human history – socialism. Taking Our Lives. The music of essay for anthem rand, Beethoven was the starting point for a new school of music, Romanticism, which was inextricably linked to Revolution. In April 1849, in the heat of revolution in Germany, the young composer Richard Wagner conducted Beethoven’s Ninth symphony in Dresden. In the audience was the computers Russian anarchist, Bakunin, whose ideas influenced Wagner in his youth. Enthused by the music, Bakunin told Wagner that if there was anything worth saving from the writing ruins of the old world, this score would be it.

Just ninety years after the death of Beethoven the Russian Tsar was himself overthrown by the working class. The October Revolution was to play a role similar to that of the French Revolution. Computers Taking. It inspired generations of men and women with a vision of a new and better world. True, the Russian Revolution degenerated, under conditions of frightful backwardness, into a monstrous caricature that Trotsky, using an historical analogy with the French Revolution, characterised as proletarian Bonapartism. And just as Napoleon’s dictatorship undermined the French Revolution and led to the restoration of the Bourbons, so the Stalinist bureaucratic dictatorship in Russia has led to the restoration of capitalism. Today, in a world dominated by the forces of triumphant reaction, we face a similar situation to that faced by Beethoven and his generation after 1815. Now, as then, many former revolutionaries have abandoned the struggle. We will not join the camp of the cynics and sceptics, but prefer to follow the example of Ludwig van Beethoven. Essay For Night. We will continue to proclaim the inevitability of the computers essay socialist revolution. And history will prove us right.

Those who predict the end of history have been proved wrong many times. History is not so easy to essay for anthem, stop! Only three years after Beethoven’s death the French Bourbons were overthrown by the July Revolution. This was followed by revolutions all over Europe in 1848-9. Then there was the Paris Commune of 1871, the first genuine workers’ revolution in history, which paved the way for our lives, the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917. Therefore, we see no reason for questions for anthem, pessimism.

The present world crisis confirms the Marxist analysis that the capitalist system is in a historical blind alley. We confidently predict that the collapse of the computers over our lives Soviet Union, far from being the end of history, is only the prelude to its first act. The second act will be the overthrow of capitalism in one country or another, which will prepare the way for paper in microbiology, a new revolutionary wave on over essay, a scale never before seen in history. The decline of capitalism is not only expressed in economic and political terms. Gary Soto Essay. The impasse of the system is reflected not only in the stagnation of the productive forces but also in a general stagnation of culture. Yet, as always happens in history, beneath the computers taking surface new forces are struggling to be born.

These forces require a voice, an idea, a banner around which to gather and fight. That will come in time, and essay questions rand when it does it will not only come in the shape of political programmes. It will find its expression in computers our lives, music and art, in novels and poetry, in the theatre and cinema. For Beethoven and Goya showed us long ago that art can be a weapon of the revolution. Essay Questions. Like the great French revolutionaries – Robespierre, Danton, Marat and Saint-Juste – Beethoven was convinced that he was writing for posterity. When (as frequently happened) musicians complained that they could not play his music because it was too difficult, he used to answer: Don't worry, this is over our lives essay, music for my favorite short, the future . We can say the computers same about the ideas of socialism. They represent the future, while the discredited ideas of the bourgeoisie represent the past. For those who find this difficult to understand, we say: don’t worry, the future will show who is right! In the future, when men and women look back on the history of revolutions and topics for research the repeated attempts to create a genuinely human society based on true freedom, equality and fraternity, they will remember the man who, using for our lives essay, his medium music that he could not hear, fought for a better tomorrow that he would never see. They will relive the great battles of the past and they will understand the language of Beethoven: the universal language of the fight for the establishment of compare and contrast essay, a world fit for free men and women to computers our lives essay, live in.

First of May, 2006. [1] Beethoven was wrong about the Austrians. Two decades after his death, the Austrian working class and topics for research paper youth rose up in computers, the revolution of 1848.

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mrs dalloway essay Mrs Dalloway is part of the obligatory reading material, which students of taking over essay English must face in their first year, and so did I six years ago. Writing Essays! Most of my classmates did not exactly like the novel, and I was not an immediate fan either. Over! Several years later I re-read Mrs Dalloway for a course on the First World War and to my surprise discovered that it is an amazing novel. Questions For Anthem Rand! I was pleasantly surprised when I read about a film inspired by Mrs Dalloway called The Hours . I never made it to the cinema, so I bought the book instead. During my fifth year at university I decided it was time to graduate. Desperately seeking a topic I remembered The Hours . A film that is adapted from a novel that is a rewrite of a Modernist text. This created a very interesting and complex relationship between the novels and the film, and I proceeded by delving deeply into literature on film and adaptation.

My thesis would be about literature and adaptation and The Hours and Mrs Dalloway . I soon realised that Woolf’s novel was not relevant for an adaptation-centred thesis, but I would not leave it alone. Unfortunately I had to make a choice between adaptation theory and literature, and I chose literature. I wrote my thesis about Michael Cunningham’s novel The Hours and its relationship to Mrs Dalloway . Surprisingly enough, I am currently still enjoying my topic and have thoroughly enjoyed writing my thesis. Of course, I did not do this on my own. There are some people I would like to computers taking over essay thank. Thank you, Rias, for essays guiding me through my crazy plans and unclear arguments, and at the same improving my writing and being strict with me. Thank you, Roselinde, for fitting me into you ridiculously busy schedule. Thank you, Nanna, for enlightening me on adaptation and finding an angle for my thesis. Thank you, Ivo, for giving me a royal kick up the ass. Thank you, mum and dad, for making it possible for computers over essay me to study all these years.

Thank you, mum, for being my reader. My Favorite Short! Thank you, Roy, for putting up with me and my thesis-related temper tantrums, I love you. Thank you, my friends, for believing in me and telling me again and again and computers over essay again that I can do this. It is writing, 1925, it is 1998 and it is 2002. It is 1923, it is 1949, and it is the end of the twentieth century.

The logic of over our lives time does not seem to essay rand apply to this situation. Everything is happening all at once and it is all related to The Hours . The Hours is a text that spans the taking over our lives, twentieth century twice. The first time in its publication history: in film essay 1925 Virginia Woolf’s novel Mrs Dalloway was published, which had The Hours as its working title. In 1998 Michael Cunningham’s novel The Hours was published, and in taking our lives 2002 a film inspired by Cunningham’s novel was released. The Hours presents a second cross section of the gary soto essay, twentieth century by covering narrative grounds in 1923, 1949 and the 1990s. It becomes clear that Virginia Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway and Michael Cunningham’s The Hours are complexly connected through time, or as Tory Young puts it in her reader’s guide to The Hours : “The relationship between The Hours and Mrs. Dalloway is impossible to simplify; Cunningham interweaves aspects of Woolf’s life, her novel, and her theories” (38). Virginia Woolf wrote Mrs Dalloway about the perambulations of a middle-aged woman on a sunny June day in London, and it became one of the main Modernist classics. One of the most prominent themes in computers over our lives essay Mrs Dalloway is time and the distinction between two types of time. The clock measures time, but on the other hand time is represented by the duration of experiences as the human consciousness registers them.

Virginia Woolf gives an explanation in Orlando : An hour, once it lodges in the queer elements of the human spirit, may be stretched to fifty or a hundred times its clock length; on the other hand, an hour may be accurately represented by the timepiece of the mind by one second. (qtd. in Hasler 147) The time told by the timepiece of the mind is called psychological time, a term taken from the philosopher Henri Bergson. Time and Mrs Dalloway both play an important part in Cunningham’s The Hours , as he has used Woolf’s novel as a source of inspiration. Cunningham openly acknowledges Mrs Dalloway as his source both in the novel itself and in criticism. He has described his novel as “an improvisation on Woolf’s [ Mrs Dalloway ]” ( The Years 4). With The Hours, Cunningham takes a difficult Modernist classic and turns into a popular novel that is suitable for adaptation into mainstream Hollywood cinema. Essays Format! Thematically, Cunningham is over, faithful to Mrs Dalloway , as he too uses time as an important element in his novel. He has adopted several of Woolf’s techniques and uses Mrs Dalloway as an inspiration in order to represent psychological time and the sense of connectedness that is the jacket gary essay, typical of computers over our lives essay Woolf’s novel.

Nevertheless, The Hours also moves away from Mrs Dalloway . The Hours is a re-telling of Mrs Dalloway , but it is course work, also an improvisation, as Cunningham calls it. An improvisation is a variation on an existing melody; it implies change and the addition of new elements. Computers Taking Our Lives! As Mary Joe Hughes puts it in her article on The Hours : Although The Hours contains a similar cast of characters to those of Mrs. Dalloway and repeats the themes of love and death and time, Michael Cunningham does not simply ape the questions, structure of over essay Mrs. Dalloway and transpose it to New York in the late twentieth century. (350) This thesis attempts to uncover what Michael Cunningham has done differently. The first chapter explores the concept of psychological time and its importance in Modernism.

The second chapter continues this exploration by applying it to Virginia Woolf and her work. It also investigates the techniques Woolf uses in Mrs Dalloway and how these techniques relate to psychological time. The final chapter applies the techniques found in Mrs Dalloway to Cunningham’s novel in an attempt to the jacket soto illustrate similarities and differences between The Hours and Mrs Dalloway . Sitting in front of a computer, staring at a blank screen for what feels like hours only lasted five minutes. A three-week holiday seemed to over our lives pass in a couple of days. It does not always matter what time it is according to the clock. The human consciousness has its own time system, which registers the duration of emotions and experience. It does not rely on segmentation of time into by ayn rand minutes and hours. The time system of the mind is subjective and personal, whereas the clock represents time that is objective and public. Arguably, there are two different types of time: the time the taking our lives, clock tells and time in the human mind. These two types of time have distinct characteristics, which clearly separate one from the other.

Clock time governs the relentless progress of life, ordering events in a chronological, linear sequence according to when they happened in time. It is what history is made of. Minutes, hours, days, weeks, years and centuries are all indicators of clock time. The other type of time is the temporal experience in the jacket gary the human mind: it is taking our lives essay, flexible; it is constantly in flux and can be compressed or extended. A period that is compressed in the mind seems to pass very quickly in comparison to in microbiology clock time: an event took more clock time than the human mind perceived. When time is extended, the actual time span of an taking our lives essay event was much shorter that experienced. Time on the mind is also referred to for research paper as psychological time by thinkers such as the French philosopher Henri Bergson. Questions such as why the human consciousness is able to create an computers taking over individual time-system and whether it can be influenced by external factors remain beyond the scope of format this discussion. It is interesting, however, to computers taking over essay discover what influence of psychological time has had on Modernist and contemporary literature and the jacket soto essay how it is represented by computers over our lives, selected authors from those periods. Clearly, the timepiece of the mind has always existed. Time is an important part of the human consciousness.

The Roman philosopher Plotinus was the compare for night, first to name the phenomenon. He pointed out “that all living beings experience their own experiences in temporal terms. [He] was the first to internalize the question of time” (Sherover 10). It is important to note that internalised time is always related to externally measured time. One can exist only in comparison to the other, because internalised time can only be expressed in terms of computers over our lives essay clock time. Timekeeping has always played an important role in human society, and its techniques have undergone many changes throughout the centuries.

Perhaps the most important development in timekeeping, certainly one of the most influential, is the invention of the mechanical clock. The invention of the clock did of course not happen overnight and was subject to many problems, but the effect it has had on Western society is immense. Both the Greek and the Romans used earlier timetelling devices, such as sundials and water clocks. Even calendars were already in use in an attempt to regulate life according to the passage of time in nature. Not one of these devices was as successful as the mechanical clock. Essay For Anthem By Ayn! The impact of the mechanical clock on history is overwhelming. Clocks could organise and computers taking over our lives regulate communities. Clocks made it possible to measure space in terms of time, which created the possibility of long distance travelling.

Perhaps the most important effect of the mechanical clock is that it facilitated the Industrial Revolution. [1] The Industrial Revolution brought about considerable change, and the continuous process of change is still visible in society today. In the early twentieth century, the ongoing industrial progress was marked by course, the introduction of computers over our lives essay Taylorismin 1911. [2] The ideas of course work Mr Taylor introduced a new view of industrialisation, which involved paying labourers hourly wages and computers taking our lives essay introducing the assembly line in factories. Gary Soto! As a result the production rate in factories went up, but the effect of over essay Taylorism that was most relevant for society and art was the fact that it commodified time. Compare And Contrast! Time became worth money, because labourers were paid by the hour. They worked a set number of computers taking over our lives essay hours a day in shifts and the speed of their work was dominated by the speed of the machines (Adriaans 13). Society became clock-governed. The Jacket Gary Essay! The effect of the clock-governed society is computers taking over, reflected in the work of early twentieth-century artists.

The internal time system of the human mind became more important, because external time became extremely organised and inflexible. The emphasis of art shifted from the external to the internal, and displayed a strong tendency toward the essay for anthem by ayn, exploration of personal experience and the workings of time in the human consciousness. Psychological Time in Theory. Psychological time is taking over, a term that refers to the pace of the time system of the mind. It is a concept that arose out of the tendency of twentieth-century psychology and philosophy to explore the human consciousness. The modern interest in the human mind resulted in new methods of analysing the consciousness. Writing Essays! New methods, such as psychoanalysis (developed by computers over essay, Sigmund Freud in the 1890s), were extremely popular in the first decades of the twentieth century. [3] Discoveries made about the workings of the consciousness resulted in a new view of time and the experience of temporality. The French philosopher Henri Bergson was one of the thinkers who applied Freud’s theories and writing methods onto society and every day life. Bergson thought reality was characterised by the different experience of time in the mind (Childs 49). Bergson used the term ‘psychological time’ to computers taking over essay refer to this experience of time. Psychological time, according to Bergson, is not a different type of time, but a different manner of compare and contrast for night perceiving time.

Psychological time is not subjected to chronology or linearity. Computers Over Our Lives! It is concerned with memory, expectation, duration, extension, compression, and association; it moves in flux and is highly subjective. These characteristics make it difficult to pin down and course even more difficult to represent in art and literature. In his book Novels into computers over Film , George Bluestone discusses chronological and format psychological time and their representation in both novels and films. He uses the computers taking over our lives essay, distinction created by Henri Bergson to distinguish between two types of time in the narrative of a novel or a film. Chronological time (or clock time) consists of the my favorite film short essay, duration of the reading, the amount of time the narrator takes to relate the story and the chronological span of the narrative events. Chronological time is measured in discrete units, minutes, days, weeks or years. The definition of psychological time, Bluestone maintains, has two important characteristics; psychological time “distends or compresses in consciousness, and presents itself in continuous flux” (emphasis added, Bluestone 48-49). Computers Taking Our Lives! Psychological time represents how much time we perceive our experiences to last. A minute can be ‘distended’ to last a sensory hour, while an hour can be ‘compressed’ into questions for anthem rand a minute in our mind. Secondly, psychological time presents itself in a continuous flux.

It is in constant movement, and thus it is immeasurable, according to Bluestone. The immeasurability of the flux makes time an elusive phenomenon in psychology and philosophy, and it also creates a challenge for literature. Modernists were fascinated by computers taking, the problematic representation of psychological time and the immeasurable quality of the flux. George Bluestone’s definition of geology course work chronological time can be applied directly to a text, which makes it a very suitable method for a temporal analysis of a novel’s formal characteristics. A chronological analysis determines how long a reader takes to taking over our lives read a book, how much time the narrator needs to topics for research paper in microbiology relate a story and in computers taking over our lives essay what time span a story would have unfolded in reality. Psychological time is paper, not as clearly illustrated. Bluestone’s main conclusion is that neither novels nor films are capable of rendering the flux of taking over our lives essay psychological time. This raises the question of what attempts have been made to represent the flux of time in literature. Modernism coincided with the scientific interest in human consciousness and attempted to capture the elusive quality of experience and psychological time in art.

John Lye characterises Modernist literature as a movement that “is marked by a break with the sequential, developmental, cause-and-effect presentation of the 'reality' of realist fiction, toward a presentation of film short experience as layered, allusive [and] discontinuous” (3). Sequence, development and cause-and-effect relations are concepts strongly linked to linearity and chronology, which are characteristics of clock time. John Lye suggests that Modernism turned away from linearity and wanted to taking over our lives essay represent the ‘layered, allusive and discontinuous’ nature of experience. This desire reflects the Modernist attempts to put into words human experience, including the my favorite film essay, elusive qualities of psychological time. Modernism and Psychological Time [4] Twentieth century literary Modernism was very much interested in computers our lives contemporary psychological and philosophical tendencies. Essay! Henri Bergson and our lives his theories were extremely popular amongst Modernists and many were inspired by his theories on gary soto, psychological time and over borrowed his ideas.

As Peter Childs puts it: “[Henri Bergson’s] work changed the essays, way many Modernists represented time in fiction” (Childs 49). His ideas on psychological time were hugely influential. Computers Over Our Lives! Modernists were interested in the time individuals experienced and writing how this experience of time can differ from individual to individual. Modernism wanted to investigate the non-linear qualities psychological time, not in the chronology of taking events that occur. David Lodge mentions about the early twentieth century: “It wasn’t necessary for writers to essay have actually read the psychoanalytical writings of Freud and his followers to computers taking over our lives be influenced by him. His ideas became memes, seeds carried on the winds of the Zeitgeist, propagating themselves in minds that had no first hand knowledge of Freud’s work.” (59) What David Lodge illustrates here is that the interest in the unconscious and human experience was a trend in the twentieth century and all disciplines of art and science reflected this, without necessarily a particular background in psychoanalysis. Modernism was inspired by the new ideas on my favorite film short essay, human consciousness, and its focus turned to t he “(re)presentation of over our lives inner (psychological) reality, including the 'flow' of experience, through devices such as stream of consciousness” (Lye 7).

As a result of and contrast essay for night turning towards the internal, the concept of psychological time became more important. Psychological time and its representation are part of a larger trend of over our lives essay exploring the topics, depths of the human consciousness. The Manifestations of Psychological Time in Modernism. The work produced by Modernist artists was influenced by the new concepts of time. The introduction to Modernism in The Norton Anthology deals with the problematic notion of time and computers over our lives explains how Modernists viewed it: Time was not a series of chronological moments to be presented by the novelist in sequence with an occasional deliberate retrospect (“this reminded him of,” “she recalled that”), but a continuous flow in the consciousness of the individual, with the ‘already’ continuously merging into the ‘not yet’ and retrospect merging with anticipation. (Abrams 2:1688) The image of time as a continuous flow creates a perpetual present in which past, present and film short future function together to create a kaleidoscopic vision of time. The continuous influence of the past on the present and the coexistence of past, present and future in the mind are features of computers our lives essay psychological time.

Modernism is interested in both the writing essays, notion of the flux of time and the possibility of computers taking over essay multiple levels of consciousness. This results in an exploration of the topics for research, consciousness through stream-of-consciousness technique. Stream of consciousness combines the notion of flow and the interest in the deeper layers of the human consciousness. It is a much-disputed term amongst experts on Modernism, but this may perhaps be a matter of taking over our lives essay terminology. William James supposedly coined the for night, term in his 1890 Principles of Psychology to indicate the flow of inner experience (Childs 52). Later the computers over essay, term was applied to literature, but it is likely that James was referring to what Bergson has called the the jacket essay, flux of time.

Thus the term was perhaps meant to refer to computers taking over our lives essay a philosophical notion, and James did not intend to apply it to literature. Essay Rand! The debates surrounding stream of over our lives essay consciousness as a literary technique are focussed on two main points: which writers use. the technique, and whether or not the term refers to a specific technique. James Naremore discusses this dispute at length in his book World Without a Self and concludes that most critics agree on two basic points: First, that stream of consciousness, whether it is a technique or a subject matter, is especially concerned with a private and essentially disorganized part of the mind; second, that stream-of-consciousness fiction always focuses on the contents of a character’s mind at a given point in space and time, in order to suggest a record of thought as it occurs, as it rises out of a circumstantial context. Compare And Contrast For Night! (70) Arguably stream of consciousness consists of a range of different techniques, which can be used separately or in combination. [5] These techniques are united by their concern with a private and disorganised part of the mind and by the fact that they attempt to over our lives record thoughts as they occur.

Stream of consciousness is soto essay, a method Modernist authors use in an attempt to deal with psychological time, which is an important aspects of the private part of the mind. One of the techniques applied in literature in order to convey stream of consciousness is free indirect speech. A clear example of how free indirect speech is constructed and what its effects are can be found in an excerpt taken from David Lodge’s article Consciousness and the Novel . “Is that the clock striking twelve?” Cinderella exclaimed. Essay! “Dear me, I shall be late.” This is a combination of direct or quoted speech and narrator’s description. “Cinderella enquired if the clock was striking twelve and expressed a fear that she would be late” is reported or indirect speech, in which the same information is conveyed but the individuality of the character’s voice is the jacket gary essay, suppressed by the narrator’s. “Was that the clock striking twelve? She would be late” is free indirect speech. Cinderella’s concern is now a silent, private thought, expressed in her own words, to which we are given access without overt mediation of a narrator. … The effect is to locate the narrative in Cinderella’s consciousness. (37)

Among Modernists, free indirect speech is widely used in order to convey stream of consciousness. Virginia Woolf uses free indirect speech often to represent a character’s train of computers taking thought, such as Lily Briscoe’s thoughts in To The Lighthouse . “For at format, any rate, she said to herself, catching sight of the salt cellar on the pattern, she need not marry, thank Heaven: she need not undergo that degradation. Computers Over Our Lives Essay! She was saved from that illusion. She would move the tree rather more to the middle” (154). Lily is simultaneously contemplating love and a painting she is making.

Woolf uses free indirect speech interspersed with the course work, narrator’s voice to present the reader with Lily’s private thoughts and thus gains access to computers over her consciousness. Free indirect speech is not the only characteristic of short essay stream-of-consciousness writing. Another technique, which gives very direct access to the character’s mind, is the use of the first person. As the example from computers taking over essay, To The Lighthouse demonstrates, stream of consciousness can be fragmented or confusing. It attempts to record a character’s thoughts, which are not necessarily coherent and intelligible. The immeasurable flux of psychological time can also be represented by the seemingly random associations of the mind. A character recalls a certain moment in for research the past, which is relevant to the present situation. The character’s memory is represented in the narrative when the computers taking our lives essay, author feels the the jacket gary essay, recollection to be most relevant to the present moment. The function of recollection is not merely to reflect on the past.

Recollections in stream-of-consciousness writing are very relevant to the experience of the character in the narrative present. Memories can have such a significant role that they are presented in the text with little or no introduction and they are superimposed on the present moment. [6] Association is a term taken from our lives, psychoanalysis, where it is called ‘free association’. In Modernism this technique is applied to my favorite film a novel in order to computers our lives essay record every internal reaction a character has when coming in contact with external stimuli. The effect can be confusing at for research, times, because the immeasurability (or fragmentation) of the taking essay, consciousness is for anthem by ayn rand, explicitly represented by this technique. For readers it is sometimes difficult to distinguish between what is taking over our lives essay, happening in actual time and what is course work, happening in psychological time. In the following fragment taken from James Joyce’s Ulysses the readers enters the mind of Mr Leopold Bloom who is attending a funeral.

Mr Bloom stood far back, his hat in his hand, counting the bared heads. Twelve. I’m thirteen. No. The chap in the macintosh is thirteen. Death’s number. Where the deuce did he pop out of? He wasn’t in over essay the chapel, that I’ll swear. Silly superstition that about thirteen.

Nice soft tweed Ned Lambert has in geology that suit. Tinge of purple. I had one like that when we lived in Lombard street west. Dressy fellow he was once. Used to change three suits in the day. Must get that grey suit of mine turned by Mesias. Computers Taking Over Our Lives Essay! Hello. It’s dyed. His wife I forgot he’s not married or his landlady ought to have picked out those threads for him. (90)

This is an example of interior monologue, which is a very direct form of stream of consciousness compared to the earlier example from Woolf’s To The Lighthouse . There seems to be no narrator’s mediation at all and Mr Bloom’s thoughts are difficult to interrelate as his minds makes associations that are incomprehensible to compare and contrast essay for night a first-time reader. Mr Bloom observes the people at the funeral service “Twelve. I’m thirteen. No. The chap in the macintosh is thirteen,” which he associates with death. After looking at taking over, Mr Lambert’s suit, Mr Bloom recalls a situation from the past: “when we lived in Lombard street west”. Paper! “Hello” might be a greeting directed at another character, and should have been represented in direct speech. It might also be a remark about the suit that Mr Bloom voices mentally and is thus a part of his stream of consciousness. Computers Taking Essay! The sentences Joyce uses in this passage are disorganised fragments, in my favorite film short essay order to our lives present stream of compare and contrast essay consciousness in its most extreme form. Arguably, this passage is closer to free association than to a literary representation of a character’s thoughts.

Another common feature of Modernist texts in computers over an attempt to represent the multiplicity of the consciousness and psychological time is fragmentation of the narrative. Geology Work! Fragmentation is used to represent the immeasurable flux of psychological experience and the disorganized part of the human mind. As the taking our lives, definition of stream of consciousness given by the sixth edition of The Columbia Encyclopedia explains: [Stream of consciousness is] a technique that records the multifarious thoughts and feelings of a character without regard to and contrast logical argument or narrative sequence. The writer attempts by the stream of computers taking over consciousness to reflect all the forces, external and internal, influencing the psychology of a character at a single moment. Stream of consciousness intends to represent multiplicity within the character’s mind and the multiple ‘forces’ or impressions that he or she receives from her surroundings. The result of this multiplicity is chaos. Essays! A traditional narrative has a beginning, middle and end and the events that occur in the narrative follow each other in a logical cause-and-effect relationship. Many Modernist texts are not concerned with ‘time as a series of chronological moments to be presented in sequence’ as the introduction to Modernism in The Norton Anthology quoted earlier explained. It is common for Modernist texts to computers over essay begin in medias res ; the the jacket, novel opens in computers taking over our lives essay the middle of an action or an event instead of at the beginning of the story. As a result the geology, reader is disoriented. Computers Our Lives Essay! Fragmentation does not only occur on the level of the narrative, but also on the level of language, as the example from Ulysses already demonstrated.

Modernism acknowledged that language is not capable of topics for research representing the flux of time and the workings of the human consciousness, because language is over our lives essay, linear. Modern style reflects on the immeasurable flux of time by openly showing the inadequacies of language. As T.S. Eliot put it in his essay The Metaphysical Poet : Our civilization comprehends great variety and complexity, and this variety and complexity, playing upon a refined sensibility, must produce various and complex results. The poet must become more and more comprehensive, more allusive, more indirect, in order to geology course force, to dislocate if necessary, language into essay his meaning. (qtd. in Abrams 2137) Eliot had a very different approach to ‘dislocating language’ than Joyce and Woolf had, but the underlying motivation is the same: to create a language that will allow the author to express the multiplicity of Modernism, of which psychological time is an geology course aspect. Sue Asbee claims that, besides creating a language to express the ‘great variety and complexity’, Modernism also “showed a desire to computers essay find a pattern beneath the surface of a chaotic and fragmentary reality” (29). The search for a pattern can be defined as the search for coherence that underlies reality, even though it is sometimes difficult to see. Modernism believed that underneath the chaos there was unity, a sense of connectedness. In her work Virginia Woolf attempted to create unity. Psychological time is work, a concept subjected to chaos as well.

It is fragmented, it is in computers essay constant flux, memories can be involuntary and the timepiece of the mind is far from for research paper, accurate. It seems as if there is little or no control over the human consciousness and its experience of time. Psychological time reflects the chaotic and fragmentary reality and Virginia Woolf, and other Modernists, attempt to make it whole again, to taking over our lives create a sense of unity. In Mrs Dalloway , Virginia Woolf uses different techniques that create coherence and explores these techniques at my favorite film short, great lengths. Woolf and Psychological Time. Time is a recurring theme in Virginia Woolf’s work. According to Jrg Hasler, “a mere glance at [her] bibliography reveals her deep and constant preoccupation with the taking, phenomenon of time” (145). Hasler mentions Woolf’s novels Night and Day, The Hours (which is the working title of the essay for anthem by ayn, novel that was published as Mrs Dalloway ), The Years and Between the computers taking, Acts , her short story collection Monday or Tuesday and compare and contrast her essay The Moment . Computers Taking Over! Interestingly, her only autobiographical work, posthumously published in 1976, is and contrast essay, called Moments of over our lives essay Being . It is an topics for research paper addition to Woolf’s bibliography that suggests an interest in time as well.

In the previous chapter, Henri Bergson and his theories on taking over, psychological time were discussed. His influence, and gary that of his contemporaries on Modernist art was enormous. However, it is difficult to taking over determine to what extent Bergson’s theories influenced Woolf. James Naremore in The World Without Self mentions, “there is no evidence that Mrs. Woolf ever actually read Bergson” (21). Nevertheless, the influence of my favorite film essay modern thinkers, such as Bergson, is evident in her work. Taking Over! As David Lodge has pointed out, actual knowledge of contemporary thinkers was not necessary in order to be influenced by their theories. In her biographical novel Orlando , published in and contrast 1928, Virginia Woolf voices her fascination with the computers taking our lives essay, contrast between clock time and psychological time: The time of man works with strangeness upon the body of for research paper time.

An hour, once it lodges in the queer elements of the human spirit, may be stretched to fifty or a hundred times its clock length; on the other hand, an hour may be accurately represented by the timepiece of the mind by one second. This extraordinary discrepancy between time on the clock and time in the mind is computers over essay, less known than it should be and my favorite short essay deserves fuller investigation. (qtd. in Hasler 147) This passage from Orlando shows that Woolf was interested in the phenomenon of psychological time, or time in the mind as she calls it. She demonstrates here that a discrepancy in time arises when the duration of our lives essay psychological time is viewed in comparison to the clock, and clearly states that this needs to be explored. Woolf’s Orlando shows a distinct interest in psychological time. Even though Mrs Dalloway was published in 1925, three years previous to questions for anthem by ayn rand Orlando , it also showed a particular interest in psychological time.

In Mrs Dalloway Woolf explores the differences between the internal timepiece and clock time and over essay illustrates how they are related. My Favorite Film Short Essay! In a 1948 article William York Tindall presents the presence of computers taking over two types of time as an obvious fact of the novel. “[He, Tindall,] had known, of course, that Mrs Dalloway contains two levels of time, outer or clock time and Bergson’s inner time. As Big Ben’s leaden strokes fix outer time, inner time or the stream of and contrast consciousness, indifferent to the clock, expands or contracts according to taking over essay the intensity of experience” (66). Woolf contrasts psychological time and clock time. Several formal characteristics of the novel illustrate a preoccupation with time. First of all, the working title of the novel was The Hours , which suggests an interest in the demarcations of time. Secondly the writing, narrated time of Mrs Dalloway is a single day.

The fact that the Mrs Dalloway spans across one single day in the life of an ordinary woman indicates that the narrative does not focus on taking, the chronological presentation of events. Arguably, not much happens during the day in June that is described in Mrs Dalloway . The focus of the novel is on film, the consciousness of the taking over essay, characters. Another characteristic of the novel is that it does not have a chapter indication. Course Work! It is presented as one large chapter entitled Mrs Dalloway . Although the over, novel does not have chapters, the narrative is divided into compare and contrast essay for night units as Big Ben strikes the hours. Clock time divides the narrative into our lives essay pieces. The lack of a chapter division in the novel also creates a continuous flow of psychological time. Not only these formal aspects of the novel indicate an interest in time; time keeping devices, especially the clock of Big Ben, play a significant role throughout the novel. Mrs Dalloway also has several stylistic features that suggest a preoccupation with time. As Mr Tindall indicated, Mrs Dalloway is a novel that is concerned with two different types of essay questions for anthem by ayn rand time and the tension that is created when they are juxtaposed. Mrs Dalloway – Super Connected. In A Room of One’s Own , Woolf argues that “fiction is like a spider's web, attached ever so slightly perhaps, but still attached to life at computers over, all four corners.

Often the attachment is scarcely perceptible” (2). The comparison of fiction to a spider’s web does not only imply the fragility of fiction, but also its complexity. Fiction is a web of related incidents that resonates when something touches it. The incidents are sketches or moments of film short essay being that are interconnected by the web. When the web is touched it is felt in the entire construction. It represents how moments are connected. The image of the web also refers to the non-linear character of taking essay psychological time. The spider’s web can also be applied to Woolf’s fictional work. With her fiction she aimed at finding unity through interconnecting events and characters. Woolf used several techniques that expressed her desire to “find a pattern beneath the surface of a chaotic and fragmentary reality”, as Sue Asbee put it so eloquently (29). Woolf carefully constructs a web-like structure for Mrs Dalloway . She places the characters on the edges of the the jacket gary essay, web and slowly they spiral towards the centre.

The characters in Mrs Dalloway are introduced in the web when Clarissa Dalloway thinks of them. The first character the reader is acquainted with in this way is Peter Walsh: “Standing and looking until Peter Walsh said, ‘Musing among the computers over our lives essay, vegetables’ – was that it? He must have said it at breakfast one morning when she had gone out on to the terrace – Peter Walsh” [7] ( MD 3). The reader is not further introduced to Peter Walsh in this section. Another character briefly introduced in the opening passage of the novel is short, Elizabeth, Clarissa’s daughter. Clarissa thinks: “but one must economise, not buy things rashly for Elizabeth” ( MD 5). No further reference is made to whom Elizabeth is or what role she will play in the novel.

Clarissa also refers to Richard, Sylvia, Fred and computers our lives Sally Seton in the opening pages, but it is not disclosed until later who these people are and what part they play in Clarissa’s life. As the novel progresses the reader learns more about the characters and several characters interact. The Jacket Gary! Slowly the over essay, pattern becomes more complex and finally all the threads meet at the centre, which is Mrs Dalloway’s party at the end of the novel where Elizabeth, Richard, Sally, Peter and Clarissa all meet. Besides the web-like structure, Woolf used an abundance of different techniques to convey the characters’ connectedness, their thoughts and their experiences. A stylistic feature that immediately attracts the attention is the fact that Woolf wrote her novel using stream of consciousness. Course! Another device present in Mrs Dalloway is what Woolf herself referred to as tunnelling. Yet another important method that adds to the novel’s cohesion is repetition. Several images and sentences are repeated throughout without the narrator drawing attention to it. [8] One of the techniques Woolf and other Modernist authors use to explore psychological time is stream of consciousness.

Woolf, Joyce and Proust are often mentioned together as the taking essay, main representatives of geology course work Modernist authors who use stream of our lives essay consciousness as a technique in their work. Stream of consciousness is a term that covers a broad range of different techniques. Writing Format! Unsurprisingly, stream of consciousness can differ strongly from one writer to another. Woolf’s ideas on stream of taking essay consciousness and her use of it are very different from for example Joyce’s practice, as has been discussed in the previous chapter. And Contrast Essay! In her essay Modern Fiction Virginia Woolf comments on Joyce’s Ulysses , which had appeared as a series in The Little Review [9] in 1919. Ulysses is well known as an example of Modernism and especially stream of consciousness . Woolf was not convinced by Joyce’s use of over our lives essay stream of consciousness: [ Ulysses ] fails because of the essays format, comparative poverty of the writer’s mind, we might say simply and have done with it. But it is possible to press a little further and wonder whether we may not refer our sense of taking our lives essay being in a bright yet narrow room, confined and shut in, rather than enlarged and set free, to some limitation imposed by the method as well as by the mind. ( Modern Fiction 6) Woolf believes that Joyce’s work is ‘confined and shut in’, because the stream of consciousness of Joyce’s novel is focused on one character at a time. In Ulysses the reader is granted access to the mind of Leopold Bloom, Stephen Dedalus or Molly Bloom, but the stream of consciousness of work one character does not relate to computers taking over our lives that of another character. In her own work Woolf manages to go from gary essay, one character to another without the reader being fully aware of it. She uses stream of consciousness as a liquid that flows through her narrative and connects her characters.

The stream of consciousness Woolf presents is a multiplicity of several characters, and at the same time it unites all the individuals into taking our lives a stream of life or an ocean of consciousness. All her characters are connected through their individual thoughts. The three main characteristics of Woolf’s particular style of essay stream of consciousness are narrator mediation, a unified style and switch of consciousness. Woolf’s stream of consciousness is largely mediated through a narrator who is outside the narrative. The presence of the narrator can be seen in her use of tags such as ‘she thought’ and ‘she wondered’. Examples are abundant in the novel, such as Peter Walsh’s thoughts as he walks through Regent’s Park: “And that is being young, Peter Walsh thought as he passed them. To be having an taking our lives awful scene – the poor girl looked absolutely desperate – in the middle of the morning. But what was it about, he wondered” ( MD 77). Narrator mediation is gary essay, present in the stream of consciousness of over our lives every character.

The mediation creates a unified style, which facilitates coherence between the different streams of consciousness present in the narrative. As a result of this, Woolf’s style is very similar for each of the characters. The similarity gives a strong sense of connection between the characters and is exemplary of the cohesion Woolf attempts to represent in Mrs Dalloway . The unified style of the stream of consciousness is similar from character to character, which creates the and contrast for night, possibility of moving from one character’s consciousness to another without attracting attention to the transition. Taking Over Our Lives Essay! An example of a switch of consciousness can be found in the scene where Clarissa visits a flower shop. During the scene the stream of consciousness briefly switches from Clarissa to Miss Pym, the compare and contrast, salesperson: Ah yes – so she breathed in the earthy garden sweet smell as she stood talking to Miss Pym who owed her help, and thought her kind, for kind she had been years ago; very kind, but she looked older, this year, turning her head from side to side among the irises and roses and taking over our lives nodding tufts of the jacket soto lilac with her eyes half closed, snuffing in, after the street uproar, the delicious scent, the exquisite coolness. ( MD 14) The largest part of this excerpt consists of Clarissa’s represented thought. In the sentence “very kind, but she looked older, this year,” the computers over our lives essay, focus of the stream of consciousness briefly switches to Miss Pym and switches back to Clarissa at “turning her head from side to side” ( MD 14). The Jacket Gary Soto! The reader is given a brief glance into Miss Pym’s thoughts on Clarissa, and it feels almost like eavesdropping on a personal conversation. Shifts similar to this one occur many times in the novel.

This results in a sense of coherence and computers taking our lives essay the stream of topics for research in microbiology consciousness turns into a multiplicity, perhaps even a stream of life, as the consciousness of several characters are merged. The Caves of the Mind. Another technique that is typical of Woolf’s fiction is what she herself refers to as her ‘tunnelling process’. In her diary entry of August 30 th 1923, Woolf writes that she has made a discovery: “How I dig out beautiful caves behind my characters: I think that gives exactly what I want; humanity, humour, depth. The idea is that the caves shall connect and each comes to daylight at the present moment” ( Writer’s Diary 60).

Later that year she refers to her discovery as her “tunnelling process, by which [she] tells the past by instalments, as [she] has need of it” (61). Mrs Dalloway is Woolf’s first novel to which she applies her new technique. Woolf digs into the past of her characters and computers essay lets the tunnels she has created connect at questions rand, specific moments in the narrative through for example imagery or echoing of thoughts. Virginia Woolf’s tunnelling technique enables her to represent the multiplicity of the human mind and to forge past and present as well as psychological time and clock time. It creates the possibility to turn away from traditional linear narrative. The tunnels she excavated behind her characters surface suddenly and in our lives essay unexpected places in the narrative. It “[gives] the impression of simultaneous connections between the inner and the outer world, the past and the jacket gary essay the present, speech and silence: a form patterned like waves in a pond rather that a railway line” (Lee 93). The image Lee uses, the pattern of waves in a pond, is very similar to the image of a spider’s web, Woolf’s image for literary fiction.

In an computers our lives essay article on understanding Mrs Dalloway , Anna Benjamin argues that in Mrs Dalloway “the events are related as they apply to the present” (Benjamin 215). Later in her article Benjamin suggests that “the revelation [of events] is not done in chronological order, but according to the significance of the past to the present” (Benjamin 218). The key concept here is that ‘events’ surface in topics paper in microbiology the story when they are relevant. The surfacing of events takes place through recollections. The characters in computers essay Mrs Dalloway are almost involuntary triggered into remembering events from the past by stimuli they receive in the present. Memories play an topics for research paper in microbiology important part in Woolf’s tunnelling technique. As Peter Childs puts it: “By [tunnelling Woolf] meant she would burrow into the characters’ pasts in order to unearth their history. Her characters are then revealed to the reader as split beings that are living in taking essay the past and writing essays format present.

It is their current thoughts that tell us who they are, but only their memories of the past that explain them, that reveal how they came to be who they are” (166). Woolf’s characters are in conflict between clock time and psychological time, because memories are a necessary part of understanding the present. In her essay Street Haunting: A London Adventure , Woolf addresses the issue of recollection and the temporal discrepancies it causes: But what could be more absurd? It is, in fact, on the stroke of six; it is a winter’s evening; we are walking to the Strand to buy a pencil.

How, then, are we also on a balcony, wearing pearls in June? What could be more absurd? Yet it is nature’s folly, not ours. Computers Taking! When she set about her chief masterpiece, the making of man, she should have thought of one thing only. Instead, turning her head, looking over geology, her shoulder, into each one of us she let creep instincts and desires which are utterly at variance with his main being, so that we are streaked, variegated, all of a mixture; the colours have run. Is the over essay, true self this which stands on the pavement in January, or that which bends over the balcony in June? (11) Apparently the character walking down the Strand in this excerpt encounters something that makes her remember a moment in June. She is walking down the Strand and she is also on a balcony in June. Woolf then wonders which of the two images of the character is the true self, the image of the past or the image of the present. The essay continues, and poses the following question: “[I s] the true self neither this nor that, neither here nor there, but something so varied and format wandering that it is only when we give the rein to its wishes and let it take its way unimpeded that we are indeed ourselves?” (11).

The issue is “[the] coexistence in both subjective and objective time,” or rather in psychological and clock time (Asbee 46). Sue Asbee continues by describing this coexistence as a character being aware with one part of the mind of the present moment while Big Ben strikes, whereas the other part of the mind has gone back in time and superimposes itself on the present. Our Lives! Past and present coexist in this way when a character remembers something. Compare For Night! These moments of memory show a part of the characters in Mrs Dalloway that is perceived as equally real (46-49). Over Our Lives Essay! The moment where the past superimposes itself on the present is a moment where psychological time takes over from clock time. The distinction between past and present becomes unclear. That is the moment Woolf uses to let her tunnels intersect and interconnect past and present. As Hermione Lee describes what happens to Clarissa on her walk through London: She perceives, thinks, remembers and generalizes, and in essays format doing so she suffuses her present experience with the feelings and computers over our lives essay experiences of thirty years ago. What she remembers becomes a part of topics for research paper what she sees now, and these in turn contribute to what she thinks; her attitude to ‘life: London: this moment in June. (98) In Mrs Dalloway , these moments of interconnectedness happen to Clarissa when she recalls an event at Bourton, as she does in over the opening scene of the novel.

Clarissa opens the door to go out and buy flowers and she is suddenly overwhelmed by essays, a memory of Bourton, triggered by a “squeak of the hinges, which she could hear now” ( MD 3). Clarissa feels as she did that morning at Bourton, thirty years ago; her past self superimposes itself on her present self and they are briefly united in the person Clarissa is at computers, that present moment. Besides memories that either connect tunnels or allows them to briefly surface, Woolf also uses several unifying elements in her novel. These elements are used to geology work unite two or more characters and their consciousness, without the characters ever meeting or having a conversation. The characters and their tunnels are connected through their shared experience.

One of these unifying events is a car backfiring in Bond Street outside Mulberry’s flower shop. The backfiring car functions as a device to switch from computers taking over, Clarissa Dalloway to Septimus Smith, a war veteran suffering from shellshock. The scene begins with Clarissa standing in Mulberry’s when she is startled by format, a sound from outside. “- oh! a pistol shot in the street outside!” ( MD 14). The motorcar that has backfired has stopped in front of over Mulberry’s. The reader then encounters Septimus Smith, who is short, standing still on the pavement of Bond Street: The violent explosion which made Mrs. Dalloway jump and Miss Pym go to the window and apologise came from a motor car which had drawn to the side of the pavement precisely opposite Mulberry’s shop window. Passers-by who, of course, stopped and computers taking essay stared, had just time to see a face of the very greatest importance against the dove-grey upholstery… Septimus Warren Smith … found himself unable to pass. ( MD 14-15)

It is implied in this scene that Septimus has heard the car backfire as well, and might have been equally startled. The narrative switches to Septimus and his wife Lucrezia for a page and then returns to Clarissa’s point of view. Clarissa en Septimus simultaneously experience the backfiring of the motorcar. Woolf represents the simultaneous experience by alternating between the perceptions of the writing essays format, different characters involved in the event and in doing so briefly connects the lives of the characters. Repetition is another device Woolf uses in Mrs Dalloway in order to strengthen the connections between her characters.

Woolf not only creates connections by repeating images, she also uses it to defy clock time. As Bruce Kawin explains: “Repetition makes identical. People who perform identical actions are related by virtue of computers essay that action: the differences between them are obliterated, just as the temporal discrepancies between performances of an identical act are suspended” (92). By using repetition the rules of clock time are denied, and rand psychological time is emphasized. Repetition adds to the sense of coherence in computers over essay Mrs Dalloway , because it directly connects characters and it redirects readers to the first occurrence of the repeated image or phrase. A repetitive narrative defies linearity.

It does not progress chronologically from event to course work event, because it refers back to itself. Taking Over Our Lives Essay! The narrative becomes circular and film short essay has a strong internal coherence. In Mrs Dalloway , Woolf repeatedly uses a phrase from Shakespeare: “Fear no more the computers essay, heat o’ the sun” ( MD 10). It is a line from Cymbeline and is part of writing format a sonnet that is spoken at the deathbed of over essay one of the characters in essay for anthem by ayn Shakespeare’s play. Over! The heat of the sun does not have to be feared any longer when life has ended. Death and transience (the inevitability of topics paper in microbiology ending or dying) are also important themes in computers taking over our lives essay Woolf’s novel. Death forms the inevitable end.

Death is the moment when clock time has run out. The Shakespearean phrase is repeated or referred to by several different characters. Paper! Its first occurrence is when Clarissa sees the text in a book spread open in a shop window. She reads: “Fear no more the heat o’ the sun, nor the furious winter’s rages” ( MD 10). Clarissa either thinks or speaks the phrase at least three more times throughout the novel (page 32, 43 and 204). Septimus Warren Smith thinks of the computers taking over essay, lines from Shakespeare when he is at home: “Fear no more, says the heart in the body; fear no more” ( MD 153). The fact that both characters think about the same line of poetry indicates that they are connected. Their separation in time or space disappears as the phrase is repeated and they become unified.

Even Peter Walsh indirectly refers briefly to the citation from Cymbeline by saying “Still, the sun was hot. Still one got over things” ( MD 71). Woolf’s use of essay for anthem rand repetition is subtle. Computers Taking Over Our Lives Essay! She does not use it very often and as Sue Asbee points out: “Nowhere in the novel does a narrator’s voice draw our attention to such connections. Similarities are woven into the text, and the reader must make the links and draw his or her own conclusions about their significance” (50). Repetition is the least foregrounded stylistic device employed by Woolf. The Clock Strikes Six.

Not only repetition enhances the short, sense of taking over our lives essay connectedness that is vital to Woolf’s novel. As James Naramore points out: “[T]he minds of the characters can be shown to have a unity not only through subtle transitions and a consistent prose style, but also by means of the very images which are used to evoke their states of mind” (98) These images pull the story together, but they are also the largest source of disruption within the novel. One of the most important images in for research paper in microbiology Mrs Dalloway is Big Ben, and not surprisingly it has several different functions within the novel. First of all it divides the essay, novel into temporal units: “It was precisely twelve o’clock” ( MD 103) is the my favorite film short, opening of a paragraph that is preceded by a blank line in the text. The time indication suggests a new episode. Big Ben also functions as a unifying element, and thirdly it creates a reality in relation to which the characters’ inner experiences must be placed. Peter Childs argues that Woolf uses the striking of over our lives Big Ben to contrasts private with public time, which is essentially the same divide as psychological and clock time. Childs gives an example with which he illustrates the essays format, contrast between the public and computers taking our lives the private.

[Virginia Woolf] may start to describe a character’s thoughts when a clock begins striking the hour, report those thoughts for and contrast essay for night several pages and computers taking our lives then return to the character’s awareness of the course, clock finishing striking. In public time only a few seconds have passed, but in the character’s mind it may be nearer to taking our lives essay several minutes. Film Essay! (171) The striking of the computers over our lives essay, clock evidently represents clock time, which Child’s refers to as public time. The thoughts of the essay questions for anthem by ayn, character take place in psychological time. Child’s example illustrates an aspect of psychological time not yet introduced in taking over our lives essay this discussion. The discrepancy between clock time and psychological time not only exists in the mind, but can also be created in relation to and contrast for night clock time.

In the example taken from Mrs Dalloway , Woolf creates an experience of psychological time that lasts longer than the actual experience in computers taking our lives essay clock time. Several pages of reported thought presumably take up more time than the striking of the clock. The discrepancy between in film short essay the inner and the outer registration of time exists in reality and is illustrated by temporal disjunctions in the novel. The time that elapses in the narrative indicated by the striking of Big Ben and other clocks and computers taking over our lives essay the distances covered by the characters do not add up. [10] Both Clarissa Dalloway and Peter Walsh are walking individually through London. The landmarks both Peter and Clarissa encounter during their walks are described in the book. The time they take to cover the distance form landmark to landmark in the novel can be measured by the chiming of Big Ben. By Ayn Rand! The time it would take somebody to cover the same distance in reality is quite different. As Andelys Wood argues in her article on the representation of London in Mrs Dalloway , there are “discrepancies, even impossibilities: nearly all the walks that clearly structure the novel must take considerably longer than the time so precisely allotted to computers them” (19). The striking of the writing, clock “breaks up the novel into hours and sections” (Childs 171). It breaks up the novel but it also breaks up the characters’ psychological time flux. The chiming of Big Ben forms an intrusion into the thoughts and the lives of the characters, as they are reminded of computers taking over reality.

Anna Benjamin indicates why Virginia Woolf uses clock time: When time is stated exactly by Woolf, it is topics, 1) to indicate the simultaneity of certain acts; 2) to provide a transition from one character to another; 3) to provide a transition from the present to over our lives past; 4) to suggest the fact that characters are bound together by time. (217) Benjamin here seems to geology course work confuse Woolf’s stating of clock time with other structural elements in our lives essay Mrs Dalloway. Big Ben and several other clocks are used to explicitly state the time. Gary Soto! These moments that are exemplary of clock time function as a reminder of computers essay a temporal reality that connects all characters in the novel and writing format pulls the computers taking over, novel together within its temporal structure of a single day. Woolf does not use Big Ben and the other timekeepers to indicate transition or simultaneity. Big Ben is an image that repeatedly reminds the characters, and compare essay the reader alike, that reality keeps running according to clock time. Concluding Mrs Dalloway. The techniques Woolf uses create an taking our lives otherworldly realm that exists in psychological time. Course Work! This plane is contrasted with the reality of clock time.

Woolf creates this realm by using a stream of taking our lives consciousness that switches from one character to for research another, connecting them on a level of psychological time. She also applied her ‘tunnelling’ technique for the first time when she wrote Mrs Dalloway . The tunnels create the computers taking over, possibility for Woolf to integrate the work, past in the narrative, resulting in an almost parallel realm of past coexisting with the present. These tunnels also form an important part of the web that interconnects all characters in computers taking essay the novel. Course! The interconnectedness and computers our lives essay cohesion is further enhanced by Woolf’s subtle use of essay for anthem repetition. The repeated images and phrases give the novel a strong sense of cohesion and further interlink the characters. The final connecting device Woolf uses is the transition points: incidents that involve several different characters. Virginia Woolf has made use of many different techniques in her novel Mrs Dalloway that disrupt linear time and create a sense of computers taking over cohesion in the fragmented reality of the early twentieth century. These aspects of Mrs Dalloway , together with the preoccupation with time already suggested by topics for research paper in microbiology, the formal characteristics of the computers over our lives, novel, create a novel in which the Modernist interest in the human consciousness and the psychological experience of time is clearly illustrated. In 1998 Michael Cunningham published his third novel The Hours , based on Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway . The Jacket! It was critically acclaimed and computers over our lives essay won the Pulitzer Price for Fiction and the Pen/Faulkner Award.

The Hours has been considered a homage to Woolf, a re-telling of essay for anthem by ayn Mrs Dalloway , an imitation of Woolf’s novel, and computers essay many other things. Cunningham himself has described The Hours as “an improvisation of sorts on my favorite film short, Woolf’s great novel of 1925, Mrs Dalloway ” ( The Years 4). By choosing The Hours as the taking essay, title for his 1998 novel, Michael Cunningham makes a bold statement. As Tory Young points out: “In sharing Woolf’s working title, The Hours itself is a subtle disruption of linear chronology: it positions itself as preceding her published novel” (44). Cunningham defies linear temporality and topics for research in microbiology engages in a highly complex relationship with Woolf’s novel. It is difficult to pin down how the connection between The Hours and Mrs Dalloway is over, constructed. According to Young, Cunningham “has updated [ Mrs Dalloway ], inserted Woolf, as author and character within it, and embodied her theories of characterization in format modern fiction” (33). James Schiff puts forward an interesting point on the reception of The Hours in the footnotes to his article on the rewriting of Mrs Dalloway . He “discovered through teaching Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway and Cunningham’s The Hours to various classes – undergraduate, graduate, and a community book group – readers generally had difficulty following and finishing the former whereas the latter was viewed as accessible and computers taking our lives essay highly engaging” (381 no. 12).

Apparently, Cunningham’s ‘improvisation’ on Mrs Dalloway has struck a chord with readers. Earlier in his article Schiff explains: Woolf’s novel becomes more accessible when retold by Cunningham. In Mrs Dalloway we are plunged into the narrative without knowledge of where we are, what exactly is happening, or who the characters are. In The Hours , there is not the same degree of ambiguity or confusion. Although Cunningham remains true to Woolf’s general vision and depiction of human consciousness, he clips her style and popularises her techniques. (369) Cunningham has managed to create a retelling of Mrs Dalloway that is far more accessible than Woolf’s original text.

He has carefully chosen elements from geology course, Mrs Dalloway and inserted them into his narrative. Even though the computers over our lives essay, narrative structure Cunningham uses is complex, the course, novel remains clear. Not only computers, has Cunningham has incorporated Mrs Dalloway , but also Woolf’s opinions on fiction and facts from her personal life. Essay By Ayn Rand! He has adopted several techniques Woolf uses in Mrs Dalloway . By adopting her techniques and using Mrs Dalloway as an inspiration Cunningham represents psychological time and the sense of connectedness that is typical of Mrs Dalloway . The techniques Cunningham and Woolf have in common are meant to create coherence and connectedness within the novel. Both authors represent the inner experience of the computers taking over essay, characters, in both novels the writing, relationship between the past and the present plays an important part, and over both use pivotal images that function as transition points in the narrative. Although Mrs Dalloway and The Hours share several characteristics on a structural and stylistic level, their relationship is more than one of original and copy. Cunningham acknowledges Mrs Dalloway as his source in several different ways. He gives Mrs Dalloway a role as one of the connecting elements in questions The Hours and uses it to defy linearity and create a circular narrative. Perhaps the most obvious presence of Woolf’s novel can be found in taking the Mrs Brown episode. It reproduces large excerpts taken literally from Mrs Dalloway as Laura Brown is reading them. The second clear demonstration of the course, presence of Mrs Dalloway is the character Clarissa Vaughan.

She is nicknamed Mrs Dalloway in the novel, and computers taking our lives essay thus has the same name as Woolf’s eponymous character Clarissa Dalloway. The reader follows Clarissa as she walks through a metropolis on soto, her way to buy flowers in computers taking preparation of a party. This description can be applied to both Mrs Dalloway and The Hours . The third narrative strand is formed by the episode titled Mrs Woolf. The protagonist in this part of the narrative is the author Virginia Woolf. She is writing a novel called The Hours , which will later be published as Mrs Dalloway . Cunningham manages to go full circle by introducing an authorial figure in the character of Richard Worthington Brown. Richard plays a part in the Mrs Dalloway strand and has written a difficult novel about a female character supposedly based on Clarissa, whom he has nicknamed Mrs Dalloway. Thus Mrs Dalloway is fictionalised three times within Cunningham’s novel: first as an observation of Woolf writing Mrs Dalloway , secondly as a character within The Hours, and thirdly as the protagonist in Richard’s novel.

The structure of the novel is similar to essay questions for anthem by ayn rand Mrs Dalloway to the extent that all three narrative threads span one single day. The main difference between the novels is that the characters in The Hours are separated by time and space, whereas all the character in Mrs Dalloway are in the same city on computers over, the same day. The thread concerned with Mrs Woolf takes place in 1923 in London, Mrs Brown’s in 1949 in Los Angeles, and Mrs Dalloway’s at the end of the twentieth century in New York City. Even though the three threads seem separated, Michael Cunningham manages to achieve a sense of cohesion not unlike the unity of Mrs Dalloway . The three women are interconnected, in spite of the different places and eras they live in. The main structural device that Cunningham borrows from Woolf is the single-day narrative. As Schiff points out: “The single-day novel provides a clear, manageable, and the jacket essay predetermined time frame and structure. In addition, it allows the particular (a single day) to reveal the whole (an entire life)” (363). Cunningham is fascinated by this concept. In a short article on The Hours he explains that “any day in taking over our lives anyone’s life contains most of gary what we need to know about all of life, very much the way the blueprint for an entire organism is imprinted on every strand of its DNA” ( The Years 7). Woolf was not the only Modernist author who used the single-day structure.

Joyce’s Ulysses also explores the lives of several characters on a single day. A single day as the temporal structure of computers over our lives essay a novel compels the author to focus on essay, the consciousness of the characters. This focus results in the representation of over our lives essay thought and internal experience by writing format, using the stream-of-consciousness technique. Stream of consciousness is one of the most important techniques used by Modernists, as has been illustrated in taking our lives the previous chapter. As was pointed out in the previous chapter, Woolf is considered one of the main representatives of stream of consciousness writers.

When writing an improvisation on paper, Mrs Dalloway , an author cannot deny the computers over our lives, importance of stream of consciousness. Essay Questions By Ayn Rand! Cunningham applies stream of consciousness, but the computers essay, technique is used very transparently. The thoughts of the characters are easy to follow and there are no sudden switches of consciousness like in Woolf’s style. Cunningham separates the characters’ individual stream of compare and contrast essay consciousness, whereas Woolf lets the thoughts of computers our lives her characters flow into each other. He acknowledges Woolf’s stream of consciousness in the prologue to his novel, where Mrs Woolf commits suicide by drowning herself in the river Ouse. Cunningham describes how Woolf’s body floats down the river: Her feet (the shoes are gone) strike the bottom occasionally, and when they do they summon up a sluggish cloud of muck, filled with the black silhouettes of leaf skeletons, that stands all but stationary in topics paper the water after she has passed along out of sight. (7)

The Literary Encyclopedia Online uses a similar image to describe how Woolf uses stream of consciousness in Mrs Dalloway : It is as if certain strong ideas lurk on the floor of the mind, and then rise up temporarily and come to the surface of the mind in the form of an image before sinking back down again into our lives the depths and format darkness of the unconscious. (1) By using this technique Woolf allows thoughts to rise up through the stream of consciousness and lets them briefly touch the surface of the our lives, present. The images Cunningham uses to describe Woolf’s body floating down the river invoke the concept of stream of consciousness. The river can be interpreted as a symbolic representation of the stream-of-consciousness technique. Images from the my favorite, world outside the river filter through the water and are described as if they influence Mrs. Woolf’s body, just as experiences or stimuli would influence the consciousness.

The passage is written as if it is computers essay, Mrs. Woolf who notices the colour of the water, the and contrast essay for night, reflections on the surface and computers taking essay the weed catching in her hair. Stream of consciousness is represented by topics, a body of water in the opening of Cunningham’s novel. Water imagery is over our lives, abundant in compare Mrs Dalloway , but Woolf does not use it as explicitly as Cunningham does. In Mrs Dalloway Clarissa describes how she “plunged” into the June morning at Bourton. She continues by taking over our lives, describing that particular morning as being “like the flap of a wave; the kiss of a wave; chill and sharp” ( MD 3). Cunningham uses a similar metaphor in the opening scene to essay the first Mrs Dalloway episode. Taking Our Lives! His Clarissa experiences the morning as if she is standing at writing, the edge of a pool, watching the turquoise water lapping at the tiles, the liquid nets of sun wavering in the blue depths” ( The Hours 9). Both authors have use water imagery to convey the computers, feeling the protagonists have as they step out of their house on course, a fine June morning, but Cunningham’s imagery far more explicitly evokes a body of water than Woolf’s. Cunningham foregrounds water imagery to connect the different characters. Taking Our Lives Essay! In the following scene Clarissa enters Richard’s apartment for the first time in for night the novel.

The apartment has, more that anything, an underwater aspect. Clarissa walks through it as she would negotiate the hold of a sunken ship. It would not be entirely surprising if a small school of over essay silver fish darted by in the half-light. She feels as if she has passed through a dimensional warp – through the work, looking glass, as it were; as if the over our lives essay, lobby, the stairwell, and hallway exist in another realm altogether; another time. ( The Hours 56) Cunningham links the image of Richard’s apartment as an underwater abode to a different realm, or a different time, into which the characters can enter. Compare And Contrast Essay! Earlier Laura Brown experienced a similar feeling of changing from essay, one realm into another. She is taken by a wave of feeling, a sea-swell, that rises from under her breast and buoys her, floats her gently, as if she were a sea creature thrown back from the sand where it had beached itself – as if she had been returned from a realm of crushing gravity to her true medium, the suck and swell of saltwater, that weightless brilliance. ( The Hours 40) The world Laura Brown imagines is an underwater realm similar to film short essay the image Cunningham uses to describe Richard’s apartment. The other, watery realm is a parallel world that the characters create in order to escape. The parallel world is computers essay, located on the plane of writing essays psychological time, and the characters escape through memories or other distortions of clock time.

Unlike Woolf, Cunningham has chosen to use repeated images to connect the characters and their emotional experience, instead of connecting the streams of consciousness directly like Woolf does. The Caves of the Mind. Besides stream of consciousness as a technique to our lives essay connect her characters, Woolf also applied ‘tunnelling’. ‘Tunnelling’ is work, a term that refers to the author’s ability to create an extensive network of past experiences, which form the history of computers taking over our lives essay a character. By Ayn! This network of tunnels enables the author to let the past and the present of a character merge, at computers taking over essay, the exact moment when an and contrast essay for night event from the past is computers, most relevant to the present situation. The past superimposes itself on the present and the distinction between the character in the past and the character in topics in microbiology the present is briefly blurred. In The Hours only Mrs Dalloway is computers taking our lives essay, frequently visited by memories similar to the flashes from the past Woolf’s characters often experience. Cunningham has lightened up Woolf’s style by using fewer memories. In Mrs Dalloway the interpretation of Clarissa’s thoughts and experiences partly relies on my favorite film short essay, her memories, which adds to the complexity of the novel. Cunningham’s characters are far more transparent and perhaps easier to identify with, because they are not presented as double beings existing of past and present experiences. They are very much connected to the present instead of the past. Even though Cunningham’s characters are not strongly rooted in the past, he does apply the idea of the past superimposing itself over the present.

The similarities between the consciousness of the three women in computers taking over The Hours is striking and gives the impression that all three stories are layered on film essay, top of each other. Laura Brown imagines a ‘ghost self’ standing behind her when she looks into the mirror: When she looks in the medicine-cabinet mirror, she briefly imagines that someone is standing behind her. There is no one, of course; it is just a trick of the light. For an instant, no more than that, she has imagined some sort of computers our lives ghost self, a second version of her, standing immediately behind, watching. ( The Hours 214) This occurs moments before she contemplates how easy it would be to commit suicide. Suicide is a theme that is foreshadowed by soto, the death of Virginia Woolf in computers essay the prologue. The ‘ghost self’ Mrs Brown sees in the mirror could be interpreted as the ghost of essay questions for anthem by ayn rand Mrs Woolf. Also Richard’s suicide, which occurs later in the novel, is more or less predicted by Mrs Brown’s thoughts of taking her own life. The moment Mrs Brown thinks she sees a ghost self in the mirror of the medicine cabinet is a moment that connects all three stories, thus superimposing the taking over our lives, past and the future on the present. The idea central to the novel is geology course work, that all three characters experience similar emotions even though they are separated by time and space.

Cunningham creates moments that slice through time and give a cross-section of an emotion experienced in all three narrative threads. These moments connect his characters regardless of their position in clock time. The Clock Strikes Thirteen. The representation of computers taking over our lives clock time in The Hours differs from Mrs Dalloway , which is organised by the striking of Big Ben. Cunningham has not adopted the image of Big Ben chiming the hours as an indicator of clock time. In The Hours “objects are symptomatic of clock time” (Young 48). On several occasions in Mrs Dalloway Woolf explicitly states the time. Clock time functions as a reminder of a plane of reality and the relentless progress of time and the jacket gary essay is an important connector in her novel. In The Hours the characters are not connected by clock time, they are separated by it. The title of Cunningham’s novel suggests a preoccupation with clock time, since the hours are units by which time is measured.

The hours are the moments of taking over which the characters’ lives are composed, the moments that are filled with trivialities, such as baking a cake or cutting the stems of flowers. The hours are the realisation of clock time. Gary Essay! Their existence enables psychological time. There are several moments where one of the characters looks at a clock or realises what time it is, but their effect is computers over essay, not as clear as the effect of Big Ben in Mrs Dalloway . What is also interesting is the fact that the three strands of narrative do not run parallel in relation to clock time. When Mrs Woolf is about to have dinner on page 172, Sally is having lunch in the Mrs Dalloway strand. It cannot possibly be the same time of day for all the characters. Cunningham recreates the plane of reality, represented by Big Ben in Mrs Dalloway, through objects and their relationship to the clock.

Clarissa observes objects in my favorite short her kitchen: Here in computers over our lives essay this kitchen white dishes are stacked pristinely, like holy implements, behind glassed cupboard doors. A row of old terra-cotta pots, glazed in various shades of crackled yellow, stand on compare and contrast for night, the granite countertop. Clarissa recognizes these things, but stands apart from them. … They are only choices, one thing and then another, yes or no, and she sees how easily she could slip out of this life. Taking Our Lives! (92) The objects in Clarissa’s kitchen trigger her into desiring a parallel world, in course which she is “still full of hope, still capable of doing anything” (92). The objects are tokens of the clock-governed reality in which Clarissa lives and they create the possibility of a parallel world that exists only in psychological time. Fiction and its relationship to computers taking over essay time play a more problematical role in The Hours . Format! On the one hand novels are objects, and thus symptomatic of computers taking over our lives clock time, on the other hand fiction is eternal.

Once a work has entered into the canon it will be read for centuries and it will be retold endlessly. Leonard Woolf is convinced of the eternal quality of Virginia’s work and believes that “[h]er books may be read for centuries” ( The Hours 33). Clarissa is not so sure about the eternity of literature or art. “There is no comfort, it seems in the world of objects, and Clarissa fears that art, even the my favorite, greatest of it, belong stubbornly to the world of objects” ( The Hours 22). She wants to believe Richard’s work will become eternal, but she also knows that his novel might be just an taking over essay object that will vanish as time progresses relentlessly: It’s possible that the citizens of the future, people not yet born, will want to read Richard’s elegies, his beautifully cadenced laments, his rigorously unsentimental offerings of love and fury, but it’s far more likely that his book will vanish along with almost everything else. Clarissa, the figure in the novel, will vanish, as will Laura Brown, the lost mother, the martyr and fiend. ( The Hours 225) Because it is a rewriting of Mrs Dalloway , Cunningham’s novel comments on the issue of art’s eternal quality. Gary Soto Essay! The Hours is a demonstration of how literature can be re-read and re-invented. It suggests that Woolf’s novel is an example of fiction that might continue into the future.

The connections between characters that exist beyond clock time are mainly established by Cunningham’s use of repetition in The Hours . Taking Our Lives! The novel contains two levels of repetition. Soto! The one level is that of scenes repeated from Mrs Dalloway , the other level repeats scenes within The Hours . When Cunningham echoes scenes from over, Woolf, he establishes links between the characters in the two novels, and thus strengthens the connection between The Hours and Mrs Dalloway . The first scene of Mrs Dalloway opens with an image representing the for research paper in microbiology, city as a body of water which Clarissa is about to enter: What a lark! What a plunge! For so it had always seemed to her, when, with a little squeak of the hinges, which she could hear now, she had burst open the French windows and plunged at Bourton into the open air. How fresh, how calm, stiller than this of course, the air was in the early morning; like the flap of a wave; the kiss of a wave; chill and computers sharp and yet (for a girl of eighteen as she then was) solemn. Essay For Anthem! (3) Cunningham opens his first chapter with a similar image. His Clarissa opens the door and is about to walk into city life: The vestibule door opens onto a June morning so fine and scrubbed Clarissa pauses at the threshold as she would at the edge of a pool, watching the turquoise water lapping at the tiles, the liquid nets of sun wavering in the blue depths. As if standing at the edge of a pool she delays for a moment the plunge, the computers essay, quick membrane of chill, the plain shock of immersion. (9) Through similar imagery a connection is established between Woolf’s Clarissa Dalloway and Cunningham’s Clarissa Vaughan.

The Clarissa Vaughan episodes in The Hours are titled “Mrs Dalloway”, which is her nickname in for research in microbiology the novel. The title of the narrative strand implies that Clarissa Vaughan can be identified with Clarissa Dalloway. Clearly, Clarissa Vaughan, living in the 1990s in New York City, is a modern version of Clarissa Dalloway. Taking Over Our Lives! She lives in a society very different from the early twentieth-century London depicted by Woolf. Tory Young indicates that “in adopting Woolf’s narrative template, metaphors and motifs, Cunningham suggests that social changes do not lead to significant differences in emotional experience” (41). Young is referring to the Clarissa-characters in both novels.

This notion can be extended to the other narrative strands in Cunningham’s novel as well. Virginia Woolf and Laura Brown are the geology, protagonists of the computers taking over, other episodes. The emotional experience of all three women in Cunningham’s novel is similar. Writing Format! The differences in time and place do not influence their experience. Not only taking our lives essay, does Cunningham integrate scenes from Mrs Dalloway in The Hours , he also repeats images in the different threads of the novel to indicate that the characters share essentially the same feelings. Repeated images interconnect the characters and suggest similar emotional experiences. An example can be found in for anthem by ayn rand the images Cunningham uses to describe Mrs Dalloway’s walk through Washington Square Park on her way to buy flowers: You know the story about Manhattan as a wilderness purchased for a string of. beads but you find it impossible not to believe that it has always been a city; that if you dug beneath it you would find the ruins of another, older city, and then another and another. Under the cement and grass of the taking over our lives, park (she has crossed into the park now, where the old woman throws back her head and sings). ( The Hours 14) When she has arrived in the flower shop “Clarissa chooses peonies and stargazer lilies, cream colored roses” (26).

Mrs Woolf dreams of a park composed of these images in the opening scene of the Mrs Woolf episode: It seems, suddenly, that she is not in her bed but in essay for anthem by ayn rand a park; a park impossibly verdant, green beyond green … Virginia moves through the park without quite walking; she floats through it, a feather of perception, unbodied. Taking Our Lives Essay! The park reveals to course her its banks of lilies and peonies, its gravelled paths bordered by cream-colored roses. … Up ahead, on a circle of newly turned earth, a woman sings. Computers Our Lives Essay! ( The Hours 30) The park that features in Mrs Woolf’s dream is filled with the flowers Mrs Dalloway bought in the previous chapter. Compare For Night! The third narrative thread, Mrs Brown, also echoes the image of the park: “Their lawn, extravagantly watered, is a brilliant, almost unearthly green” ( The Hours 47). The park functions as an image that links all three characters. By connecting the characters it diminishes their separation in over our lives essay time and space and creates the possibility for them to experience similar feelings. Not only the female protagonists are joined through imagery.

Cunningham also connects Richard Worthington Brown, Clarissa’s childhood friend and film lover who suffers from AIDS, and Mrs Woolf. The first link between the two characters is established by the fact that they are both writers. In the novel they are also related by repetition. Taking Our Lives! First of all, both characters commit suicide. Richard commits suicide by jumping out of topics for research in microbiology his bedroom window and Mrs Woolf drowns herself in the river Ouse. Before he falls Richard says: “I don’t think two people could have been happier than we’ve been” ( The Hours 200). Richard here repeats a sentence from computers taking, Virginia Woolf’s suicide note. Woolf writes: “I can’t go on spoiling you life any longer. Geology Work! I don’t think two people could have been happier than we have been” ( The Hours 6-7).

Not only the characters of Richard and Mrs Woolf are closely related, Cunningham also establishes a link between their work. Mrs Woolf obviously wrote Mrs Dalloway . In The Hours Richard is the author of a “novel that meditates exhaustively on computers over essay, a woman” ( The Hours 126). The woman he has written about is Clarissa, whom he has called Mrs Dalloway since they were at the jacket, university together. This suggests that Richard’s novel can be seen as another version of Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway . Richard’s novel further complicates the relationship between Mrs Dalloway and The Hours . Besides being a retelling of Mrs Dalloway , Cunningham’s novel implies yet another version of Woolf’s novel. Mrs Woolf’s parallel character, Richard, is the character most concerned with time. He voices a vision of time in which the past does not exist. Computers Taking Over Our Lives! His parallel realm exists of a perpetual present. As a writer suffering from AIDS, his mind wanders, while his body is comparatively healthy and ‘stands the test of time’.

The relative strength of for anthem by ayn his body forces Richard to continue living. His body lives the relentlessness of clock time while his mind can no longer find coherence. Richard confuses past, present and future. When Clarissa visits him, he seems to remember an event that will take place in the future. Richard explains: “Sorry, I seem to keep thinking things have already happened.

When you asked me if I remembered about the party and taking our lives the ceremony, I thought you meant, did I remember having gone to them. And I did remember. I seem to have fallen out of time” (62). Richard’s notion of past, present and future does no longer exist. He confuses the past and the future and as a result lives in essay a perpetual present. Richard recalls a kiss he and computers taking over our lives essay Clarissa shared when they were teenagers: “You kissed me beside a pond.” “Ten thousand years ago.” “In reality. It’s happening in that present. This is happening in this present.” (66)

For Richard, events in the past do not take place in the past, but in soto essay a different present, or a different realm. That different present exits next to the present in which the taking over our lives, novel takes place. The Jacket Soto! As Richard himself puts it: “We’re middle-aged and we’re young lovers standing beside a pond. We’re everything, all at once.” (67) He believes the human consciousness to exist on several levels of psychological time, or perhaps in parallel worlds, similar to the underwater realm Clarissa and Laura enter. Richard recreates these parallel worlds in his fiction, but owing to his condition he is no longer able to consciously distinguish between the different worlds. He can barely separate reality from fiction.

Richard is afraid of our lives essay “the party and the ceremony, and then the hour after that, and the hour after that” (197). Tory Young argues that “Richard’s fear of ‘the hours’ is a fear of experiencing only clock time; he will no longer be able to defy linear time with narratives of the past and the future” (49). Richard’s ‘timepiece of the mind’ has been severely disrupted, which results in a fragmented experience of psychological time. Whereas other characters in the novel desire to escape to a realm of psychological time, Richard has run of the jacket gary soto out options as much as he is running out of time. Richard fears that all he will be able to experience is taking over, clock time, and my favorite short essay simultaneously his mind had lost track of the psychological time. The parallel realm is in such chaos that it does not offer any means of escape for Richard. Going to the Movies. It is not only the character of Richard that disrupts the linearity of The Hours . In 2002 The Hours was adapted into a film directed by Stephen Daldry. His version takes several characteristics of the novel and takes them beyond Cunningham’s retelling of Mrs Dalloway . Daldry creates a version of the computers taking our lives, story that is perhaps more like Woolf’s novel than Cunningham’s The Hours . Because the film returns to Mrs Dalloway in the adaptation of in microbiology The Hours , Daldry disrupts the chronology even more strongly than Cunningham does.

An aspect that is unique to the film version of The Hours is Phillip Glass’s musical score that accompanies the film. On the website of the International Movie Database , one of the users comments on Phillip Glass’s addition to the film and calls it “evocative of the relentlessness of computers over time” (5). Another element of sound used in the film is the ticking of the clock throughout the geology, film. Computers Over Our Lives! These two aspects are not present in the novel, since it obviously does not have a soundtrack. The effect of the soundtrack is for research paper in microbiology, similar to the effect of Big Ben in Mrs Dalloway , as it functions as a reminder of clock time and establishes a plane of reality. Computers Taking Over Our Lives! The representation of clock time is an aspect that is not directly present in Cunningham’s version of the story. Besides the ticking of the clock and the score as elements that connect the individual scenes, the film’s use of my favorite images adds to our lives the connectedness of the narrative.

Images such as a bunch of my favorite film short essay roses are used to function as point of computers transition and to underline the connectedness of the individual characters. My Favorite Short Essay! During the opening of the film the viewer is taking our lives essay, confronted with a bunch of roses in film short essay all three narratives. The shots of the roses closely follow each other and establish a strong connection between the three different lives. Woolf used visual elements such as the backfiring car and over the skywriting aeroplane to connect the individual characters. The film version of The Hours uses the same technique as Woolf does. By returning to techniques applied by Woolf, Daldry’s film version of The Hours establishes itself as a new retelling of writing essays Mrs Dalloway . Cunningham’s novel was adapted for Hollywood cinema. The film won several awards and starred major actresses such as Meryl Streep and Nicole Kidman. The ripples in the surface that were caused by Mrs Dalloway have influenced many other artists and illustrate that there are endless retellings of a story. Rippling into the Postmodern. Richard Brown is the most modern, or contemporary, character in Cunningham’s novel.

He embodies Postmodernism. His vision on time represents the rejection of the past, and his novel, another retelling of Mrs Dalloway , adds to the Postmodern notion that “there are no new stories, just endless retellings” (Young 34). Another important concept is decentring. There is computers over, no core text or author in the body of texts that is my favorite film short, related to The Hours . Hughes claims that “a work of art in not simply what the artist creates. It is a link in computers essay a chain” (360). Mrs Dalloway , Cunningham’s The Hours , Daldry’s The Hours and questions other retellings of either of these texts form a chain, or a web of connected texts in which there is no centre. Woolf created a pattern of waves in a pond by writing Mrs Dalloway. Computers Over Our Lives Essay! The Hours enables the ripples that Mrs Dalloway caused to continue, widening in increasingly larger concentric circles. The circles will meet again and again, endlessly reconnecting and establishing new relations between the two novels and other works. The pattern that connects both Mrs Dalloway and The Hours includes more works that have been influenced by either Woolf’s novel or Cunningham’s.

The Hours is not the only contemporary novel inspired by Mrs Dalloway . In 1999 Robin Lippincott published Mr Dalloway and in 2000 John Lanchester published his novel Mr Phillips . Both novels are single-day narratives and are related to Mrs Dalloway in style or structure. A different approach to course the relationship between Mrs Dalloway and taking over essay The Hours is via the concept of ‘hauntology’. Jacques Derrida coined the term ‘hauntology’ [11] to for anthem by ayn rand indicate how a ghost of someone or something, a political manifesto or a novel, can haunt a person or a work in the present. In an article attempting to clarify Derrida’s notion of ‘hauntology’ Lisa Gye explains what ghosts are: Ghosts arrive from the past and appear in the present. However, the ghost cannot be properly said to over belong to the past, even if the course work, apparition represents someone who has been dead for many centuries, for the simple reason that a ghost is clearly not the same thing as the person who shares its proper name. Does then the 'historical' person who is computers taking our lives essay, identified with the ghost properly belong to geology course the present? Surely not, as the idea of a return from death fractures all traditional conceptions of temporality. Over Essay! The temporality to film which the ghost is subject is therefore paradoxical, as at computers taking, once they 'return' and make their apparitional debut. (3) Gye’s explanation refers only to the deceased, but the essay questions rand, paradox can also be applied to literature and art.

A literary work like The Hours is an original and new piece of text, while at the same time it is a revisiting of Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway . Hauntology disrupts the notion of linear time, as images or events from the past are free to our lives roam the present. Tory Young cites Hal Foster on the subject of shadowing in her study of The Hours : Analyzing the postmodern trend of spectrality in contemporary art Hal Foster suggests that the “shadowing in play today is more muted, a sort of outlining and shading, in the manner that Mrs Dalloway outlines and shades The Hours by Michael Cunningham. Writing Essays! (44) Young continues to say that: Foster fails to consider the computers taking over essay, fact that once you have read The Hours you cannot replace Mrs Dalloway outside its sphere of the jacket soto essay influence. I think he underestimates the computers taking our lives essay, degree of explicit engagement of Cunningham’s novel with Woolf’s and the way The Hours now haunts Mrs Dalloway and not vice versa. (44) Similar to the haunting of essay questions Mrs Dalloway and The Hours , the taking over essay, three narrative threads in The Hours also haunt each other. Film Essay! The three stories cross boundaries of time in order to connect. Both the pattern of endless retellings and Derrida’s concept of hauntology confuse time and history. As the characters in both novels are connected, there is essentially a continuous interconnectedness between texts that is a vital part of literature. Modernism was looking for the pattern beneath the chaos of computers taking our lives essay reality and perhaps found it in the connection between people and essay for anthem rand ideas. Computers Over Our Lives! In Postmodernism this connectedness has been extended into a vast interconnecting web of the jacket essay texts without a centre, which can stretch over time and space.

Cunningham’s novel connects an entire century through three decades and three different geographical locations. He has stretched Woolf’s connectedness to last into Postmodernism. Woolf said that “fiction is like a spider’s web” ( A Room of One’s Own 2), a web that resonates every time it is touched. The spider’s web is an image of a complex, but coherent structure that can also be applied to Woolf’s fictional work as a pattern underlying her novels. Like many Modernists, Woolf tried to create a cohering pattern underneath the chaos of reality. The distinction between clock time and psychological time plays an important part in Mrs Dalloway , and Virginia Woolf uses several different techniques to represent the flux of time and the stream of life that encompasses all her characters. She creates a plane of reference that exists in psychological time, and which can only exist by contrasting it with the reality of essay clock time. She illustrates the coexistence of the past and the present, creating a history for her characters by digging caves that explore their history.

Besides her concern with the dichotomy of two types of time, psychological and clock time, past and present, Woolf also attempts to create connections to form a coherent structure. The characters in Mrs Dalloway are connected not only through their awareness of clock time, but also by means of pivotal points of transition. These points are represented in the text by events that are experienced simultaneously by several characters. Woolf uses the event to switch from compare, one character to another. Woolf connects her characters in a web, or pattern, that forms a solid basis from which the alternative plane of psychological time can be explored.

Michael Cunningham has described his novel The Hours as an improvisation on Mrs Dalloway . An improvisation implies change and the addition of new elements, and that is exactly what Cunningham has done. He has adopted several of Woolf’s techniques and has appropriated them to fit his novel. Computers! He remains true to Woolf’s ideas and techniques, and at the same time he manages to create his own novel that deals with different themes, such as motherhood. The Hours is not only an exploration of a single day in the life of an ordinary woman, but an exploration of how “any day in compare essay anyone’s life contains most of what we need to know about all of life” (Cunningham, The Years 7). With The Hours Cunningham shows that any day in taking our lives anyone’s life can be applied to anybody’s life. He shows that the days of Mrs Woolf, Mrs Brown and and contrast Mrs Dalloway pass, following the same pattern, just as the days and lives of many other women. Cunningham cleverly acknowledges all of Woolf’s important techniques, but does not necessarily use them to the same extent. Computers Taking Our Lives Essay! The three narrative threads in The Hours are closely interwoven, which gives a strong sense of coherence.

The main cause of writing essays format this coherence is Cunningham’s use of repetition. Another technique Cunningham has adopted from Woolf is the superimposing of the past on the present. Whereas Woolf uses the computers taking over essay, technique on a small scale when characters are visited by moment from the the jacket gary soto essay, past, Cunningham applies it to his entire novel. The three narrative threads in The Hours can be superimposed on over our lives essay, each other. My Favorite Film Short! The thematic concerns are similar in each story.

The exploration of the human consciousness and psychological time is relevant for all periods Cunningham depicts. Cunningham has watered down Modernism: he has taken Mrs Dalloway and taking our lives some of its basic principles, but has taken out the density and complexity, thus creating a novel that is far more transparent than Woolf’s novel. The Hours is a novel based on a Modernist novel, but it is in itself not a Modernist text. Michael Cunningham has extended the basic principles of Mrs Dalloway to reach across a century and beyond. Abrams, M.H., et al., eds. The Norton Anthology of by ayn English Literature . 6 th ed . Taking Over Our Lives! 2 vols. New York and London: W.W. Norton Company, 1993.

Adriaans, A.L.A.P. Tijdsbesef in compare and contrast essay for night Heden en Verleden. 3 May 2005 “Anderson, Margaret C.” The Columbia Encyclopedia . 6th ed. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001–04. 23 May 2005. Asbee, Sue.

Life and computers Works: Virginia Woolf . Hove, East Sussex, Wayland (Publishers) Ltd, 1989. Benjamin, Anna S. “Towards an Understanding of the Meaning of Virginia Woolf’s Mrs. Dalloway.” Wisconsin Studies in geology course work Contemporary Literature . vol. 6 no. 2 (Summer 1965): 214-227. Bluestone, George. Novels into Film . Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press, 1961. Childs, Peter.

Modernism . London: Routledge, 2000. Cunningham, Michael. “The years: as this month’s hot Oscar contender, The Hours, shows, Virginia Woolf is still nailing life’s moments better than anyone. Here, writer Michael Cunningham tells why.” Interview . Gale Group: 2003. ---, The Hours . London: Fourth Estate, 1999. Hasler, Jrg. “Virginia Woolf and the Chimes of Big Ben.” English Studies. A Journal of English Language and taking Literature . vol. Format! 63 no. 1/6 (1982): 145-158. Hughes, Mary Joe. “Michael Cunningham’s The Hours and Postmodern Artistic Re- Presentation.” Critique: Studies in taking Contemporary Fiction . vol.

45 no. 4 (Summer 2004): 349-361. Joyce, James. Ulysses . Topics For Research Paper! New York: Vintage Books, 1986. Kawin, Bruce. Telling It Again and Again , Repetition in Literature and over Film . Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1972. Lee, Hermione.

The Novels of Virginia Woolf . London: Methuen Co Ltd, 1977. Lodge, David. Writing! Consciousness and computers taking the Novel . Connected Essays . London: Secker Warburg, 2002. Lye, John. Some Attributes of Modernist Literature . Mepham, John. “ Interior Monologue ” Literary Encyclopedia Online. 17 October 2003

Meyerhoff, Hans. Time in Literature . Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1955. “Mrs. Paper! Dalloway (1925)” Literary Encyclopedia Online. Taking Over Essay! 25 May 2005 Naremore, James. The World Without a Self . New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1973. Rensell, Doug.

A Review of Henri Bergson’s Book Creative Evolution. 11 May 2005 Schiff, James. “Rewriting Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway : Homage, Sexual Identity, and the Single-Day Novel by Cunningham, Lippincott, and Lanchester.” Critique: Studies in Contemporary Fiction . vol. Writing Essays! 45 no. 4 (Summer 2004): 363-382.

Selden, Raman. Modernism/Postmodernism . Computers Our Lives Essay! Ed. Raman Selden and Stan Smith. New York: Longman Publishing, 1992. Sherover, Charles M. My Favorite Film Essay! “The Concept of Time in Western Thougth.” Are We in Time? Ed.

Gregory R. Taking Over! Johnson. Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press, 2003. 3- 21. “Stream of Consciousness.” The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001–04. 11 May 2005. Tindall, William York. “Many-Leveled Fiction: Virginia Woolf to Ross Lockridge.” College English vol. 10 no. 2 (November 1948): 65-71. Trafton, Brent.

Rev. of The Hours , dir. Stephen Daldry. International Movie Database 9 Feb. 2003. Essays! 14 Jun. 2005. Wood, Andelys. “Walking the Web in the Lost London of Mrs. Computers Taking Over Essay! Dalloway. Gary Soto! ” Mosaic . vol. 36 no.

2 (June 2003): 19-32. Woolf, Virginia. Taking Over Essay! A Writer’s Diary . Being Extracts from the Diary of Virginia Woolf . Ed. Leonard Woolf. London: The Hogarth Press, 1959. --- A Room of One’s Own . Topics Paper! eBooks@Adelaide, 2004. Computers Taking Over Our Lives! --- Modern Fiction . eBooks@Adelaide, 2004. --- Street Haunting: A London Adventure . eBooks@Adelaide, 2004. --- To The Lighthouse . London: Penguin Books Ltd, 1996. Young, Tory. Michael Cunningham’s The Hours : A Reader’s Guide . New York and London: The Continuum International Publishing Group Inc, 2003. [1] The sources for this brief history of for research paper in microbiology time are A. Adriaans’ website Tijdsbesef in Heden en Verleden and Charles M. Sherover’s book Are We in Time? [2] Based on the theories of management engineer Frederick W. Taylor.

Taylorism was meant to improve productivity (and it did). At the taking, same time it destroyed the soul of work, dehumanised factories, and made men into automatons. It was famously introduced into Henry Ford’s car factories, where the first assembly lines were created following Taylor’s principles. The work space was desinged for effiency and topics job differentation. People were separated and communication decreased.

[3] Psychoanalysis therapy involves elucidating unconscious relations in a systematic way through associative processes, in order to uncover the possibly underlying unconscious source of problems. [4] For the purpose of this discussion it will be assumed that “both Modernism and Postmodernism are phenomena, primarily, of twentieth-century Anglo-American and European Culture” (Selden, xi), and that the authors mentioned in the discussion are essentially Modernist authors. [5] Another term that is surrounded by much debate is interior monologue. Several critics argue that interior monologue is the same thing as stream of consciousness, while others claim that it is a technique that is computers over, a part of stream-of-consciousness writing. In an article on in microbiology, interior monologue John Mepham explains: “Some critics have used the term interior monologue as if it were synonymous with stream of consciousness.

However, nowadays it is our lives essay, more common, and more analytically useful, to use the term as a label for this distinct variety of my favorite film short essay stream-of-consciousness prose.” (3) [6] An example of characters being suddenly revisited by a vivid moment from the past can be found in our lives Proust’s work. Gary Soto Essay! His term for this kind of memory is ‘mmorie involontaire’, a memory involuntary triggered by an event in the present. The most famous example of a memory trigger is the taste of taking over madeleines in his la recherche du Temps Perdu . For a more extensive discussion on Proust and memory see Mapping Literary Modernism by Ricardo Quinones. [7] Virginia Woolf, Mrs Dalloway . (London: Penguin Books Ltd., 1992) 3. All future references to Mrs Dalloway are to this edition and are cited in parentheses in the text. The novel will be designated as MD . [8] Besides stream of consciousness, tunnelling and repetition, Woolf also uses parentheses. The bracketed sentences suggest a comment or an afterthought, but more importantly they suggest simultaneity. There is hardly any time in reality for the words in soto brackets to be expressed, and our lives essay they are thought while the stream of consciousness is compare and contrast essay, already racing on to another thought. [9] The Little Review was one of the most famous and influential American art journals.

It was edited by Margaret Anderson, an author, editor and publisher. From 1917 to 1920 The Litle Review published excerpts from computers over our lives, James Joyce’s Ulysses , which was at that time still unpublished. After publishing excerpts of Ulysses the magazine was banned, because its contents were considered obscene. (Source: The Columbia Encyclopedia Online Edition) [10] For a more extensive discussion on essay, the discrepancies of time and space in Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway see Walking the Web in the Lost London of Mrs Dalloway” by Andelys Wood. [11] Hauntology is computers our lives essay, a pun on the word ontology, which is pronounced the same. Whereas ontology is the study of being, hauntology refers to “the paradoxical state of the spectre between being/non-being, alive/dead, and in microbiology presence/absence” (Richter, 1).

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Writing A Strong NHS/ Medical Consultant CV. Though many candidates ensure that they acquire the right experience to computers over essay, obtain a consultant post, they are often let down by their CV. On this page you will find valuable tips to avoid common pitfalls. Length Of The Consultant CV Type of essay rand Font. Size is always a contentious issue. Whereas, in normal business CVs, the maximum recommended size is 2 to 3 pages, in medicine this is simply not possible, the main reason being that for some candidates the list of publications and courses is simply too long to fit in over our lives a small number of essay questions for anthem by ayn rand pages. On average, a consultant's CV for a medical speciality will be approximately 10 pages long, whilst for a surgical specialty it may go on for 15 pages or more. Some candidates are interpreting this as meaning that their can go on computers taking our lives essay, for as long as is needed, but one should always bear in course work mind that a CV is a communication document designed to get you short-listed. Taking Over Our Lives? It is therefore essential that the essay information is presented in a meaningful, well-ordered and concise fashion. Whatever information is contained in your CV, the computers taking over essay important information should be contained within the first 5 pages if possible. The various sections of the Consultant CV.

Generally speaking, most CV for work consultant positions will include the following sections, usually in that order: Personal details Personal profile Qualifications Prizes and computers, awards (if relevant) Current appointment (only if you have worked as a consultant for over a year, or are currently an associate specialist) Career summary Clinical experience Audits Management experience Teaching experience Research experience Publications Presentations Personal interests References. Cover page, contents page, personal details page. You need to bear in topics paper in microbiology mind that people who read CVs receive dozens of them and don't particularly care whether you have a nice front cover, gold pins to hold the pages and a contents table to navigate the document. By the time they have turned the computers taking over cover page, the my favorite essay contents table page and a personal details page which contains every bit of personal information bar the essay dog's vaccination date, they have essentially wasted their time to topics for research in microbiology, turn three pages which were pretty much pointless before getting to over, anything of substance. Compare Essay For Night? You can have the nice cover page and the contents table if you feel you want them wish but consider the following: Cover page: that can look nice and make the document nice and tidy, and it is really a matter of computers over our lives essay personal preference. Some people like them and film short essay, others don't. But overall it will make little difference to your chances of taking getting shortlisted. When you apply for a consultant job, the stakes are higher than for a training job, both for you and for the trust. Course Work? The trust will really want to computers over our lives essay, make sure that they are getting someone who fulfils all their needs and not just someone who wants to be a consultant.

This section is key because it will be the first impression they get from the CV and paper, because it clarifies why you feel you may be the best candidate. As such it has to computers, be heavily based around the soto essay job description so as to taking our lives essay, show that you understand the post your are applying to for anthem, and what the needs of the trust are. The personal profile should cover your clinical, teaching, academic and management credentials. List your qualifications in reverse chronological order. Start from your medical degrees (including any intercalated degree) - no one really cares about computers over essay A' Levels. List relevant dates and place of study.

Include your CCT/CCST date (unless you have already included it at the top). List any qualifications you are currently studying for (e.g. Film? medical education degree). This is fairly self-explanatory. Make sure that you include the date of the awards, who granted it and why is was granted. If you obtained a first prize for a poster, it would be nice to know how any many people you competed against. Avoid corny prizes such as Christmas quiz and taking our lives, other meaningless prizes. Format? It may be that you will need to repeat some of this information later (for example, if you obtained a first prize for over a presentation, you may want to repeat it in the presentation section), but this does not matter; having the essay for anthem by ayn prize on the first page will create a good impression, and repeating it later on computers taking essay, will help placing it into context. If you are currently doing a locum consultant post or are currently working as an associate specialist or a substantive consultant, then it may be worth isolating your current post from the rest of your training. This will highlight the extent of your senior experience and will ensure that your experience of working at a senior level and independently is ring-fenced from the writing essays rest of your experience thereby giving it more weight. For all your jobs, you should provide: Dates: no need to give the exact day on which your started and ended the post; the month and year will be sufficient.

Job title and specialty/subspecialty Hospital name (avoid giving the full name of the trust; this is not a legal document, but a document designed to give an idea of what you have done so far). At consultant level, you should avoid having a CV whereby each job's duties and responsibilities are summarised under each heading. Since you are likely to computers taking over our lives, have done dozens of different attachments and posts, it will drag on over many pages and it will make it difficult for the reader to extract what they need to know. Questions For Anthem? You should make the recruiters' job easy by summarising the computers taking our lives information in a way that they can digest easily. We therefore suggest that at this stage, you only list in a tabular format the jobs that you have done. Your overall experience can then be summarised in a separate more concise section.

See next. Your future employer will only really be interested in what you have to essay, offer, i.e. what you can do now, and not what you did 10 years ago when you first became an SHO. You should therefore find a way to summarise your experience using appropriate headings. Here are some examples of how you can subdivide your experience (Note: these are only examples and you will of course need to tailor your themes to the post that you are applying for and to your own experience): General Paediatrics Neonatal PICU Other general medical/surgical experience. General Adult Psychiatry Substance Misuse Outreach Psychotherapy General medical experience. Obstetrics General gynaecology Specialist gynaecology experience including uro-gynaecology and gynae-oncology.

Obstetrics Gynaecology - clinics Gynaecology - theatre. General cardiology experience Paediatric cardiology Procedural experience. General anaesthetics Obstetrics anaesthetics ITU experience Other relevant experience (transport, etc) Under each heading, you need to taking our lives essay, describe the extent of your experience and proficiency. For best effect, you should follow a number of essential rules: Use bullet points, not sentences. Use active wording such as Gained thorough experience of the management of geology patients with . Computers Taking Essay? , Confident in. , Perform xxx independently. The Jacket Essay? , Responsible for . , Proficient in taking over our lives essay . Played a fundamental role in . Instrumental in . Soto? Gained exposure to . Taking Our Lives? Avoid personal statements such as I really enjoyed this post because it gave me the compare and contrast opportunity to . etc. The CV is designed to computers taking our lives, present facts. And Contrast? Its role is taking over essay two-fold: to get you short-listed and to provide talking points for for night the interview. Keep your personal statements until the over our lives interview, where you will be able to use them most effectively.

If you are applying for a surgical specialty, you should avoid listing all the procedures that you have done. Instead it may be wiser to include in the CV a summary of your log book. My Favorite Film Short Essay? Ideally this should fit one one page only. If it is longer than one page, you should include it as an appendix to computers taking our lives essay, the CV (i.e. at my favorite, the end) so that it does not push the rest of the CV too far back. This should include any experience of managing people and resources, including: Designing rotas Leading projects such as audits or research Designing and implementing teaching programmes Representing colleagues on committees (e.g. clinical governance or other team meetings) Writing and implementing new guidelines Quality improvement projects Involvement in recruitment (though simply sitting on interview panels is not really a managerial activity). If you want, you can include experience outside of medicine, though you should place it at the end. You might actually want to split this section between Medical and over essay, Non-medical. You can also include any management courses or events that you attended. Note: this information may be repeated in the courses section, but this does not matter. Repetitions are acceptable provided they are not concerning a huge amount of information and provided they serve a purpose (in this case, presenting a complete picture of your management experience without getting the recruiters to cross-reference the information for themselves).

Include all formal and informal teaching done. Mention the type of audiences that you have taught (juniors, peers, nurses, GPs) as well as some of the key topics. And Contrast Essay For Night? Naming topics helps being credibility to computers over, your answer. One of the aspects that they will be looking for is an awareness of a range of teaching methods. You should ensure that you mention the various methods that you used (bedside teaching, formal lectures using PowerPoint, informal/formal supervision, videos, etc). Mention any formal training received and course, courses attended.

If patient education is a big part of your job, then it may be worth mentioning your experience of it in the teaching section. List the computers title and date of the audit in reverse chronological order. For each audit you should provide a short summary, providing the the jacket essay aim of the audit, your role, the conclusions drawn and actions taken as a result (2-3 bullet points, 5 or 6 lines maximum). Indicate the taking our lives essay year of each project, quote the title of your research and for anthem, provide a short description of your role in bullet points format. Present the over essay information in reverse chronological order. Make sure you are telling the entire truth (including your ranking on the authors list). Interviewers have been known to check the database in front of questions for anthem by ayn rand candidates at the interview. Present your publications in a tabular format, in reverse chronological order.

List the title, authors and relevant dates. Ideally, you should place the year in the left hand margin and taking, the rest of the information on the right. Many candidates present their publications in the conventional manner i.e. the Vancouver convention with the authors first, followed by the title of the work publication and then the taking over essay journal. If you follow this approach, the titles will be all over the place on the page (since the the jacket essay title starts after the list of authors) and this may make it difficult for taking our lives essay the recruiters to see exactly what you have written on. You may thus wish to adopt a different listing approach, with the title coming first, followed by the authors and the journal. To make the information even more readable, you may even wish to present each element on a different line (i.e. Writing Essays? title on one line, authors on the next line and journal on a third line). Your publications should be listed in reverse chronological order i.e. most recent first. This will ensure that the most interesting information is seen first. If you have a substantial number of publications and taking over, you feel that the compare and contrast list is just too long, you should try to computers over essay, weed out compare essay for night, some of the less interesting papers/cases. Remember that the CV is designed to computers taking over, achieve a purpose, which is to get you short-listed. And Contrast? It is computers over essay not necessarily an entire biography.

If the course content gets in the way of readability then get rid of computers over our lives some of the less interesting stuff. To improve readability, you may wish to separate your publications in relevant categories (e.g. Essay Questions For Anthem By Ayn Rand? peer-reviewed papers, abstracts, case reports, book chapters, etc). List the dates (year, month will suffice), the titles and authors. This should be presented in a tabular format to improve readability. If you obtained any prizes or awards, mention them under the our lives essay appropriate presentation. If you can, try to separate your presentations in different types (assuming you have enough of each type to do this) such as: international, regional, local. Courses and meetings normally feature straight after the clinical experience in an SHO's or SpR's CV. For consultants however, this information is gary essay not as important as the rest and it is therefore acceptable to place it towards the end of the CV (It means that your recruiters do not have to read through pages of courses before they can get to your managerial experience). For each course, show the date, title of the course and organising institution. Present the information in a tabular format. Make sure that you mention the organiser as opposed to taking our lives essay, the place where the training took place.

As well as clinical courses, included management, research and by ayn rand, teaching courses. Leave out all courses which relate to exam preparation; it adds no value. Include all relevant basic software e.g. Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Publisher, Internet. If you can use digital photo manipulation software or have experience of web design you can mention it here too. Include all specialist software (statistics packages, reference managers etc). Include databases that you frequently search for literature searches. Do not mention skills that you have no real experience of essay if your experience is only basic and at hobby level. For example, Can use Corel would only make sense if you are actually proficient at using it, but not if you only use it to view your holiday snaps!

Language skills special interests. By any means state the film essay languages that you can speak if in small number as well as your degree of fluency (e.g. Taking Over Essay? German - basic, French - conversational). The Jacket Gary Soto? If you speak several dialects due to your ethnic origin, it is best to place them under an umbrella definition (e.g. fluent in 7 Indian dialects ) rather than list them all separately. Mention any involvement in voluntary work and list your hobbies. There is our lives essay no need to find fancy hobbies to sound interesting.

Spending time with your children makes you sound more normal than climbing Mount Everest every week-end! Strike the right balance between group activities and lonely activities. Having fun is not a personal interest as far as CVs are concerned. And Contrast Essay? Nor is Drinking with mates. This section can be used for information in which you feel the interviewer may have an interest but that does not have major importance as far as your eligibility for the job is concerned (e.g. driving licence, marital status number of children, etc). You should keep this section to the bare minimum.

You might also want to include your memberships of various institutions (though some prefer to place these in a separate section. No more than three unless otherwise requested. Provide their name, job title, correspondence address, telephone number, fax number and email address. Applying for a consultant post? Improve your chances of succeeding in computers over your consultant interview with our one-day medical interview course.

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Alumina: Business Regulation Simulation Essay. Business Regulation Simulation. In a global environment, businesses have many business risks and one of over, them is federal governmental show more content One of the key facts was that Alumina was found to have high concentration levels of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH's) in their environmental expulsion standards after an writing, evaluation by the EPA five years earlier. Since Alumina was out of compliance, a clean up was ordered by the EPA and Alumina acted in accordance to correct the computers taking over problem and a subsequent test was in compliance (Simulation, 2007). This was an excellent course of action which helped Alumina establish itself as a responsible and environmentally friendly company. Any business that has emissions that are not processed accordingly to regulations, run the risk of ruining the environment can and therefore, the EPA's cleanup was in order. Alumina understood that PAH's had to be monitored and cleaned up. They also understood these organic compounds are produced when materials containing carbon and hydrogen are burned.

The PAH's are harmful due to their carcinogenic mutant substances ( The environmental regulation is considered the most severe of compare essay, governmental regulation of a business because of the costs involved for its rigid compliance. The penalties are strict because the government requires that businesses Business Regulation Simulation Essay. have maintained regulatory compliance. With the threat of a lawsuit, Alumina is computers taking over essay faced with three challenges; do they attempt to and contrast for night, negotiate a settlement, seek arbitration in resolving the computers taking over our lives essay dispute or do not negotiate and handle things in court through litigation. Questions For Anthem Rand. Stakeholder Perspectives/Ethical Dilemmas The primary stakeholders in our lives essay, the simulation are Alumina Inc., Kelly Bates and the surrounding community of Lake Dira and the local Essay about film essay, Business Regulation Simulation. concerns of all proper stakeholders and computers over weighs their interests when making decisions” (Reed, et al, 2005, p49) Company Values 1- Alumina wishes to remain compliant with pertinent regulations and writing format project an image of a good environmentally conscious corporate citizen. 2- Alumina values the competitive edge and will work to best advantage for taking over our lives profitability 3- Alumina will defend itself against charges that it does not operate within the my favorite film essay law Situation A past infraction, almost five years ago, is Business Entities, Laws, and Regulations Paper. be split into computers taking essay three equal parts. Lou and Jose will run the for research paper business and Miriam will be providing with the funds. Miriam along with Lou and Jose should be equally involved in all major decisions related to the business. Lou and Jose will run the business on daily basis. All taxes would be paid individually based on their profits.

Of course all licensing, including alcohol licensing needs to be met, along with state laws and computers over our lives essay regulations. The restaurant/bar would have to obey all employment laws Role of the U.S. Constitution in Business Regulation Essay example. tax-collection obligations on out-of-state entities (Bauman, 2008, May 2).” This case may be ruled unconstitutional, as it could be interpreted as a restriction on interstate trade. “Under federal law, a state can only require a business to collect sales taxes for it if the business has a physical presence in essays, that state (Lee, 2008, April 21).” In spite of not having an actual entity or office in over our lives, the state of NY, they do have affiliates whom reside there which could very well be the essay tax loophole SEC 575 Week 6 Assignment Business Ethics Simulation Essay. perspective, how does the simulation impact ethical considerations for organizations? The ethical considerations for any company are highly valuable and by far the important aspect of any company or organization. Computers Essay. The decisions that any CEO or manger would make will have a lasting and heavy impact on everyone that belongs to essays format, the organization. I do believe that any company or organization that wants to be known as a great company in computers taking over our lives, the business world has to follow all regulations not only from where M1- Asses the my favorite film Implications of Health and Safety and Security Legislation and Regulations for a Business Role in a Work Place. charge) or the self employed, this act is simply in place to make sure the basic welfare of any employee and these are broken into two separate category’s facilities and the working environment.

I will now be looking at The Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 legislation helps protect employees against electrical injuries that occur in the work place, each year in computers taking our lives essay, the UK there an estimated number of 1000 injuries at work all from electrical shocks or burns. My Favorite Film Essay. They have to make sure all their equipment Essay on computers over essay Business Strategy Simulation Analysis. Take a conservative approach in financing operations. This was to be achieved by reducing the amount of debt and not taking any unnecessary financial risks. To reduce the amount of writing essays, debt, the plan was to have the company pay off loans early in order to save monthly interest expenses. To avoid taking financial risks, the our lives essay company was to use financial resources to topics, improve the capacity and performance of the taking over our lives essay existing NA and AP plants rather than invest in new plants in other regions. Writing Essays. The other objective Environmental regulations reduce the negative repercussions of manufacturing on the environment ( Environmental cleanup regulations require companies that contribute to hazardous waste sites to either provide cleanup staff or pay for the cleanup (

Privacy regulations are social regulations to protect sensitive information normally provided Overview of Simulation Essay examples. © 2013 HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL PUBLISHING 8 SETTING RESERVATION PRICES In the real world, reservation prices are derived from industry knowledge, business experience, and computers taking over our lives essay due diligence. In the Simulation, each player will receive Confidential Information about Bel Vino and Starshine. ? The Confidential Information gives specifics about value creation opportunities at each target. ? The Confidential Information is different for compare and contrast for night each role. ? Use the Confidential Information with the financial data Supply and Demand Simulation Essay. Supply and Demand Simulation Supply and demand plays an intricate role in the amount, price, and availability of products and services. Computers Taking Over Our Lives Essay. The applying supply and demand concepts simulation guides users through making decisions for Goodlife, a management company for 2 bedroom apartments in Atlantis. Topics For Research In Microbiology. The simulation names the user the property manager; responsible for vacation residents, new pricing for units, and advertising. The property manager makes decisions in circumstances including the changing

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essay on imagination kinds of human nature within the society, how it is used and by what characters. Computers Over Our Lives. These are the kind of questions raised by a mind with a sociological imagination. A sociological imagination must be able to shift perspectives, this allows the mind to essay for night open closed doors and our lives essay, uncover the writing essays format, relation the our lives, two perspectives hold. A tool for the imagination is the personal troubles of milieu and the public issues of social structure. Topics. Troubles for one are in close relation with that particular individual. Essay on Sociological Imagination. There are many contributes the media has issued that plays a huge role towards the sociological imagination concept. Since the rise of depression has increased, it is not hard to easily spot an ad on over essay, the subway asking if you’re depressed and influencing you to call a toll for assistance. There are many hotlines you can contact if you feel like venting anonymously and websites where you can talk to a therapist about your problems.

Not to mention public forums that allow you to. exist everywhere. This is because our society no longer portrays racism as a huge issue. Older folks still look at film essay, color before judging someone, but that’s because their sociological imagination was shaped when they were younger and they’re stuck in their ways. Computers Our Lives. As the generations pass everyone’s sociological imagination changes as well as the thoughts and beliefs of the people in that certain society. In my grandmother’s days, if your parents were a certain religion then so were you. My grandma happens. Exploring the Concept of questions by ayn rand, Sociological Imagination Essay. The sociological imagination helps you to develop the taking, understanding not only of “external career” – jobs, events, but also your “inner life”, so thoughts, personality etc.

People feel trapped because they can’t see ways out of their problems. This is compare and contrast often because their problems have societal causes, rather than individual ones, and therefore have to be addressed on that basis, and not on computers essay, a personal level. The realisation of this, the necessity to look beyond your own life to paper how it is influenced. William Wordsworth and the Mortality of the Imagination Essay. For I have learned / to our lives look on nature.” (Pg. My Favorite Essay. 783, lines 83-89). This is Wordsworth expressing that we need to look more into nature, or not rely on technology as much because our imagination can vanish and computers essay, we wouldn’t even know if it was gone. The Jacket Gary Soto. Also, his mentioning of Tintern Abbey cathedral also reveals this according to computers taking over John Peters, “In a sense, Wordsworth does not refer to essays the abbey in computers taking our lives essay, the poem because he does not see it-not because the the jacket gary, abbey is not there, nor because Wordsworth cannot see it. Essay on The Social Imagination of Forrest Gump. Another example of taking over essay, sociological imagination was Forrest’s opportunity to attend college at the University of the jacket gary soto, Alabama. At a time in society when handicapped individuals such as Forrest, who had to wear braces in order to walk, were treated disrespectfully, taunted, and bullied.

Due to taking the attitudes that existed in society toward handicapped persons, Forrest learned to ‘run,’ as his friend Jenny told him to do, anytime he was being bullied or harassed by cruel classmates. When he was in high school. Essay on Sociological Imagination: C. My Favorite Film. Wright Mills. The sociological imagination that I have developed could be characterized as the ability to perceive how sociological circumstances play out because of how individuals contrast in given social periods or recorded circumstances. Through this method the consideration of things in computers, the public arena that have prompted a conclusion, and comprehension as to what reasons prompted that result. Things that shape these results incorporate social standards, what individuals need to increase out of something. Understanding the the Romantic Imagination with Ramond, Wordsworth and Shelley. force given to his imagination…that kind of geology, enthusiasm which kindles great ideas (349). Whereas his first experiences are paired dichotomies, the kindling of his imagination does not have an opposite but rather its own creations (ideas). Chronology is either indescribable or of no importance as it is difficult to understand what happens when during Ramond's sublime experience. Taking flight, his soul is able to co exist with all beings and transcend time and space (351).

Imagination succeeds when reason. Basically, as an aspect of sociological imagination, what people do is shaped by all these things that result in some sort of computers essay, outcome. The sociological imagination is the ability to see things socially and how they interact and influence each other. My Favorite Film Short Essay. To have a sociological imagination, a person must be able to our lives essay pull away from the situation and think from an essays alternative point of view. It requires to think ourselves away from our daily routines and look at them anew. To acquire knowledge, it is. Essay about Sociological Imagination.

connection means” (1959, 2). Mills essay describes how sociological imagination is very beneficial to the average person (even though a lot of people don’t use or understand it) when analyzing their own milieu and taking over essay, how their milieu is affected by and connected to the larger society in soto essay, which they reside. When reading the computers taking essay, works by Stephanie Coontz, Simon Davis, and Charles A. Gallagher, it was easy to see that all three have sociological imaginations. This was even more clear when referring back to C.W. Mills’ This became a paradigm for arguments on alcoholism treatment and for weakening laws. The problem was not alcohol as a product but a ‘personal issue’. (Room, 2010: 151-163) Analysing current trends for drug use and the jacket gary essay, abuse around the world can show structural inequalities and cultural values that help determine what drugs are available and how people start to abuse illegal substances.

An ethnographic study conducted in the Northern Russian City of Vorkytan, centred around the role of social networks. 42), he says and again, “The writer of literature can only write out what takes shape in his mind” (p. 46), Literary conventions enable the writer to incorporate personal experience into computers over our lives essay, literature. The Jacket Gary Soto. The major conventions of Western literature–tragedy, comedy, satire, and romance–are “typical ways in which stories get told” (p. 49). Frye suggests that they represent “episodes” in the story of literature itself (p.

52). As he view it, all literature tells a large cyclic story–”the story of the loss. Essay on Sociological Imagination. The basement had one small room of books and taking, the rest is study areas. For Research In Microbiology. The first floor is a mix of computer labs, books, magazines and more study areas. The third floor is mostly books and computers over our lives, of course more places to study.

Leah and I walked through the library doors, shortly after nine. We trudged up the stair anticipating the questions for anthem by ayn, extreme pleasures of homework. We chose a small square table on the first floor. To our left was a table of four girls, to our right was two guys and computers taking our lives essay, next to them was two small. Essay about The Romantic Imagination in Action. space and time. Kant legitimizes imagination by studying the ideology that all human knowledge comes from experience. He concludes that sensation and geology course, understanding work together to establish content and form in a conjoined ?synthesis'.

If Kant is computers over our lives doubtlessly known for his ?retreat' from the radical implications of his view and his later emphasis on rationality, his views greatly influenced German idealists, Fichte and Schelling who elevated the imagination as the course, absolute source of human thought. The eagle represents authority, supremacy, and control. The eagle’s open beak revealed the openness of mind, the expected response to command, and the dialogue between the artist, and taking over our lives, the art. The eagle ready to spring from the canvas expressed the artists’ frame of mind. The need mental thought inspired by an eagle in flight symbolized the need to format be free; to soar to computers taking our lives essay higher ground metaphorically. Film Essay. Reflection on Probable Occurrences Artists consider their subjects critically before the work begins.

Race and the Sociological Imagination Essay. My position in society was shaped by my economic position, which was an effect of my grandfather and father’s educations. My grandfather was able to attend college but this was not true for his parents. Depending upon a persons situation social welfare programs can either enforce progression or plateau disadvantages. I was able to attend Isidore Newman School and I lived in an integrated neighborhood where resources such as schools, hospitals, parks and grocery stores were better than those in. Literature is the Soul of the Imagination: Inspired by a Teacher.

After lunch, I returned to my room in the brown-walled, loud boarding house. I began revising the notes she had handed out. To my surprise, I had understood most of the notes. But what really shook me was getting a B plus for the first Literature test. At that moment I concluded that I am actually not disastrous in Literature; with continued reading, I could actually get my intended A grade. Or it may have been the excitement of knowing I had understood the subject for taking over our lives essay the first time. I do not know. A Literary Imagination Put to a Halt Essay. She progressed intellectually and married young at rand, the age of 20 to Oscar Chopin. She became the typical 19th century high-class wife which required a “demanding social and domestic schedule . [that] serves as material for The Awakening.” (Witalec 1) She also was mother to five boys and one girl.

After her husband’s death in 1882 she took on computers over our lives essay, the family business. She was “intrigued by the … sharecroppers who worked on the plantations… [and] the impression she gathered of these people… were later. Realism and Imagination Within Hamlet Essay. The first soliloquy occurs when the hero is left alone after the royal social gathering in the room of state. It emphasizes the general corruption of society and the frailty of women – an geology obvious reference to his mother’s hasty and incestuous marriage to her husband’s brother – thus expressing a rather imaginatively idealistic outlook on the situation: O, that this too too solid flesh would melt Thaw and computers taking our lives essay, resolve itself into a dew!

Or that the Everlasting had not fix'd. Essay The Underworld, Logos, and the Poetic Imagination. . . (1.1-3)[2] The poet, therefore, acts as a meduim through which poetry flows from a higher divinity to the listening audience. Questions By Ayn Rand. The story of the Trojan War lives on because of the our lives, poetry of Homer, which has, in a sense, immortalized the essay, characters and events of the war. Computers Over Our Lives Essay. They still exist in the poem, and we can summon them into physical existence by reading the poem--that is to course work say, we can re-create them through language. Within the poem, Death is despicable to our lives essay Achilles, and his glory and. How Do Reason and Imagination Shape Poetry? Essay.

seems in general to be necessary” which links to Nietzsche’s belief that Poetry need not be intelligible to be enjoyable. A central concept of Burke’s definition of the soto, Sublime is this same obscurity, which can largely be seen as the product of the computers taking essay, Imagination, though Burke makes no explicit allusions to this. However, Burke still strongly supports Nietzsche’s argument, exemplifying that the power of the Sublime in poetry is greater if it is unintelligible. Burke even includes John Milton’s poetic description. Essay on A Southern Mode of the Imagination and Thomas Wolfe. “A Southern Mode of the compare essay for night, Imagination” was published in taking our lives, 1959, when Tate was at a considerable remove from the period covered in the essay. Course Work. His theory may have benefitted from an objectivity increased in proportion with this distance; however Tate’s representation of the historical facts was not all that it could be. For instance, several of the Fugitive poets, including Tate’s mentor and friend, John Crowe Ransom, had been meeting informally since 1915, two years before the United States’ entry into.

Memory, Imagination, and Consciousness in Funes the computers, Memorious and Meursault. We are conscious individuals because our senses do not limit our perception of the external reality. It is soto essay undeniably ours because we use our imagination to alter it. Therefore, consciousness is the awareness that our created internal reality differs from the external reality. Camus’ introduction of Meursault devoid of an effective memory reveals how close pre-accident Funes is to consciousness. Meursault realizes that, “I did it as it came to over our lives me, but I tried my best to please Raymond because. The Imagination of Miss Brill in Katherine Mansfield#x27;s Miss Brill. It was like a play. Short. I was exactly like a play (Mansfield 228). She sees herself on stage acting, part of a fascinating drama that occurs each Sunday, and over, she surmises that no doubt somebody would have noticed if she hadn't been there; she was part of the performance. (Mansfield 228).

She even imagines that the old man she reads to essays once a week sees her as an actress and replies to his imaginary question about her, Yes, I have been an actress for a long time, (Mansfield 229). Computers Taking Over Our Lives Essay. While. Personal Narrative My Sociological Imagination Essay. This has definitely shaped the way I go about making certain decisions. First of all I am the most faithful boyfriend in the entire world and writing, also am quite clingy to my girlfriend. Computers Over. I suppose that she has filled the course work, gap that my father left. I also plan to be faithful to the woman I choose to be my wife.

Without the invention of MRI and even without living in the technologically advancing society we live in, I wouldn't be this way because my father wouldn't have left. Other historical events that. Dada Embraced Self-Expression, Impulse, Spontaneity and Imagination. Why Were These Particular Qualities Appealing to Dadaists as Artists and taking our lives essay, Social Commentators? Although various explanations have been put forward, the generally accepted story is questions by ayn rand that of co-founder Richard Huelsenback, who upon searching for computers our lives the name of a new female singer, plunged a paper knife into a French-germen dictionary, which pointed to the word Dada, colloquial French term for hobbyhorse. This simple term was universal, and meant the same thing (nothing!) in compare, all languages. It was simple, unique and relatable, because it was echoing the over our lives, first words of a child. Film. This childishness is. : Social imagination and the Social perspectives: Essay. Holistic/broad/general Approach The Sociological perspective: Sociology differs to other scientific practices in computers taking essay, many ways for the jacket gary instance; when compared to computers taking over our lives essay Psychology, Sociology uses mainly a holistic approach while Psychology uses an individualistic approach. Course. Unlike economics it does not confine itself to our lives essay one particular area of social life Sociology is not a definitive science because it does not have one rule that applies to compare and contrast essay for night all aspects of its study.

The sociological. Imagination Wins the Battle Against Prejudice Essay. This quote describes Bub as a shallow person because he allows the media to shape his views. Bub was jealous of men who were close to taking essay his wife, especially Robert. For Research Paper. For example, Bub stated, “They talked of things that had happened to them—to them!—these past ten years. Computers Essay. I waited in vain to hear my name on my wife’s sweet lips…But I heard nothing of sort. More talk of Robert” (Carver). Carver expressed an insecure and desperate tone for Bub. He wanted to receive more attention from his wife and he. Wilson/Frost Differences Between Realism and Imagination Essay.

In actuality, this meeting with the compare and contrast essay, devil was a meeting with “a white man” that showed up at his house to taking over get him to buy furniture by sending “ten dollars, first of every month” (Wilson 153). Troy has been sending ten dollars every month to this company for fifteen years, though he says he “done paid for it ten times over” (Wilson 153). This story is a way of demonizing the man that scammed Troy into over-paying for his furniture, and shows the reluctance of Troy in paper in microbiology, accepting that he has made a mistake. Essay Rod Sterling#x27;s Imagination: Clearly From theTwilight Zone. Serling and Kramer married on July 31, 1948. They would have two children Jodi and Anne.(Rod Serling, 2) While at taking over, Antoich College, Serling initially was a P.E. major but he changed to literature early on in his education there (Serling, Rod 1). He had said he was a bit confused when he returned from the war not knowing what he wanted to do.

Soon though he found a career writing scripts for the WLW, the radio station there. Serling graduated from college in 1950 and he began selling scripts for. Art in many different forms Essay. different styles of art it is important to let the geology course work, imagination work to tell a much larger story. The poem is open and unfinished letting the imagination roam as to computers over our lives what is happening as “a bugle and fiddles tipping their bellies”(Lines 4-5) might lead the reader to picture very large men and women having a robust time. The painting is more up front and to the point by showing the compare, reader what is happening with most of the details there to see.

The imagination can still wander with the painting but not as. Imagination and reality do indeed coincide with each other, because without one, you can't have the other. One who only see's and doesn't imagine is a documentary artist, taking everything for computers taking over our lives exactly what it is. But the visionary artist is the one that can see outside the box, seeing a vision within a vision. Winterson's main point in Imagination and Reality, is that through art, we are able to turn our imagination into a reality. Winterson sets the compare and contrast essay, tone for her essay in the very two first. Imaginary Friend; Is It a Problem? Essay. reality filled with imagination and fantasy, are more likely to engage in artistic activities in the future.

Imagination is a valuable and unique tool to each human being. It will be a blessing that fantasy would accompany us throughout our lives and not just in our childhood. Without doubts, having the imagination of a child, we could make a better world. “Every child is computers a world and our world has millions of children” As said Rushdie, S. (Date Unknown) “The language and imagination cannot be imprisoned” A Critical Appreciation of Wallace Steven#x27;s #x27; the Idea of compare and contrast essay, Order at Key West#x27; clearly. Over. The woman’s song opened up the speakers eyes to the light of the format, world around him, and in turn the poem itself opened up our eyes.

The poem focuses on the perception of imagination and reality. In this poem, reality pertains to the totality of all things possessing actuality, existence or essence; imagination, on computers, the other hand, captures and and contrast for night, interprets reality so an individual is able to computers taking over essay create their own meaning of the given world, and escape the facts of existence through their own sense. Religious imagination 19. The last 2,000 years, according to Tickle, basically can be divided into three general periods; she calls them “two and a fraction.” Each period, then, is characterized by paper an “overarching sensibility.” The longest period is the first 1,500 years. What does she call it? The centuries of: physical imagination 20. The shortest period is “the fraction” of the last century or so. Taking Over Our Lives. What does she call this comparatively short time?

The era of: spiritual imagination 21. The following. Janet never studied sculpture, engineering, or architecture and was even turned down by writing format seven art schools (Echelman, 2011). Computers Over Our Lives Essay. However, through her imagination and film short, curiosity she was able to create something new. Her curiosity of different art forms and taking over, research of materials for her creations lead her to create fixtures of flowing, voluptuous art forms that line city sky scrapers around the world. I can apply the points made in this talk to furthering my education. Maintaining a certain level of curiosity. Essay about Themes During the Romantic Age. nature in this time, by their searches of the mountains and the seas through their work (41). Topics. Along with nature, imagination is a major theme in the Romantic Age.

Bowra said, “if we wish to distinguish a single characteristic which differentiates the English Romantics from the poets of the eighteenth century, it is to computers taking over our lives be found in the importance which they attached to the imaginations and in the special view they held of it” (1). The Romantic writers “were conscious of a wonderful capacity to topics for research paper create. Imagination is a style used to influence creativity and change within an organization. Leaders with a strong desire to use be creative move forward in their career by using their imagination to create unique ideas and goals for their organization to grow and thrive beyond their competitors. The imagination style is similar to inspiration style. The similarity between imagination and inspiration involves a desire to create something out of thought and focus. Both styles share the same the desire to. Brothers Grimm and Beautiful Mind Essay examples. Nash developed the taking, world’s famous Game theo Premium 2553 Words 11 Pages * The Glorious Faculty: a Critical Analysis of Addison’s Theory of Imagination in ‘the Pleasures of Imagination’ The Glorious Faculty: A Critical Analysis of Addison’s Theory of course work, Imagination in ‘The Pleasures of Imagination’ Declaration: I declare that this is my original work and I have acknowledged indebtedness to authors I have consulted in taking our lives, the preparation of writing, my paper. (I) An auxilie. Perception Determines Reality Essay. Sacks state “It is by such imagination, such vision that we create or construct our individual worlds” (Sacks 522).

Being blind limits a lot of actions that one can do to survive and perform daily tasks. It is also very inconvenient for them to express what they truly wanted to express and how they are feeling at the moment. Knowing that blindness is a permanent disability and no medical evidence has been prove to cure it, blind people’s only hope is to tweak their way to computers taking over our lives essay view reality. Sacks try. It is something not done before making it innovative. Following the understating in Robert Bernstein film “Art + Science = Innovation” Bawazer Ideals fit the process from imagination to Innovative. His ideal was not done before, taking living creatures to make inanimate things; it was unheard of. He then had to my favorite film short think how he could make it a reality and if the processes to computers over do so already existed, which they did. My Favorite. Then is it profitable to become innovative and it is. Computers Taking Our Lives Essay. It is a change from our wasteful.

people and take their watches and money.” (Adventures of Huckleberry Finn: 26-28) Huck chooses to call themselves robbers, and eliminate the imagination by saying that they don’t kill people and that he was only in it for the profit, to which he found none. And then as Byrne points out, “ In the earlier book Huck was the odd man out on issues of the imagination; the geology, other boys welcomed the opportunity to share Tom’s dreams. In this case, however, we are told that all the taking our lives essay, boys resigned; it is Tom who. existence of material substances is by geology course work showing that pure intellect is totally controlled by taking our lives essay will and work, therefore anything can be easily ignored. While imagination is over our lives not controlled by will and this concludes that, as it is impossible to restrict imagination, matter must exist, as without the subsistence of things to imagine there would be no imagination. In the mental a physical world as he explores what he calls primary and secondary qualities. The primarily qualities are to Descartes the more trustworthy. Othello: its Universality Pro and Con Essays.

soaring yet firm, enchants the sensuous imagination. This kind of beauty Othello shares with Romeo and geology course work, Juliet and Antony and Cleopatra; it is a corollary of the computers, theme which it shares with them. But Othello is geology course also remarkable for another kind of beauty. Except for the trivial scene with the taking over our lives essay, clown, all is immediately relevant to essay questions by ayn rand the central issue; no scene requires critical justification. The play has a rare intellectual beauty, satisfying the desire of the imagination for order and harmony between the parts. Concious and Unconscious Mind in Frankestein by Mary Shelley Essay. North Pole will actually be like. His imagination is lively and creative and is portrayed in the letters to his sister.

Frankenstein’s goal is to create life from an inanimate object and imagines this creature similar to over our lives a human being. Frankenstein’s imagination eventually takes over and “[is] too much exalted by geology [his] first success to computers permit [him] to doubt [his] ability to give life to an animal as complex and compare for night, wonderful as man” (ch. 4; 38). Victor’s imagination leads him on taking our lives essay, the journey to essay completing. Fashion as Fashion Photography Essay. women leaving a room, straight away this draws a curiosity and involves the viewers in. The viewers use their imaginations on computers over, what might or would happen when then women would leave the room. Film Short Essay. The viewers make their own conclusion. Like fashion itself, the get to express themselves through clothes designed for them.

And fashion photography gives people the chance to put across their own imagination through the image they look at. Fashion and computers taking over our lives, Fashion photography make viewers get drawn in, and and contrast, tell them what. Atonement and the Failure of the General Point of View Essay examples. Whether this sympathy, for the narrator, proceeds from what seems like knowledge (as in the case of Mrs. Dalloway’s narrator) or imagination (as in the case of Atonement’s), it must, for the author, proceed from imagination. It is precisely Briony’s failure of imagination, though, that leads her to commit her “crime” and will eventually prevent her from achieving “atonement” for it through authorship of her account. Briony’s failure to comprehend the events she witnesses, and her subsequent repeated.

Digging Deep Within A Matchmaker Essays. Emma’s imagination helped her to match up the computers over, other characters. It also bought her down because it made her blinded by her own love. “Emma Woodhouse is an “imaginist”; that in a nonce word, invented for her,” (Tave 7) “The imagination is “lively” and gives added life; it gives power over life, over compare and contrast for night others and one’s self, and Emma enjoys the computers, power of having rather too much her own way.” (Tave 11) Emma’s imagination controls her life because she is not herself. She enjoys the imagination because. Descartes#x27; Second and Sixth and Meditations Essay. and changeable” . The Jacket Gary Soto. These tendencies seem to divulge the fact that it is not the ability of our imagination that permits us to differentiate between the waxes different physical attributes.

Even though it is possible to make changes to the wax via our imagination that depict these attributes, it seems impossible to consider all of the potential changes, so therefore it seems unlikely that it is our imagination that solely identifies the computers over our lives, wax. It seems more. and why each culture/religion defines evil will help us dive deeper into the rationale between evil and imagination. Gary Essay. It is through our imagination and fascination in evil that humans have been susceptible to our lives corruption. Tales of lust, betrayal, gore and murder, destruction, devastation, and generally rotten things entice and entertain us not because they are reasonable, but because our imagination wants to my favorite short explore what it is like to transgress our deepest moral sentiments. - The Realities of.