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Usc college essay 2012
anti semitism essay Jewish Political Studies Review 16:1-2 (Spring 2004) about the New Antisemitism? Never Again? The Threat of the New Anti-Semitism , by Abraham H. 2012. Foxman, New York: HarperCollins/HarperSanFrancisco, 2003, 305 + xii pages. Talk about the New Antisemitism is common, and is usually accompanied by essay, the direst of gloom-and-doom ensembles and by the suggestion that Jewish security is, at the very least, in grave danger. Is there such a thing as a new antisemitism and if there is, what is usc essays 2012 new about it? Are contemporary manifestations of Jew-hatred new phenomena, or do they represent classic anti-Judaism refracted though the prism of current realities? Has the world of anti-Jewish animus changed that radically since the German anarchist journalist, Wilhelm Marr, created the term antisemitism in 1879?
For many decades antisemitism was a little studied phenomenon. The words of Seymour Martin Lipset, resonate: You know, when something isn't studied, it means one thing: there ain't that much around to study. The study of antisemitism is, in fact, a relatively recent phenomenon, going back to the early 1960s with the landmark study of sustainable chain antisemitism, Five-Year Study of Anti-Semitism , known as The Berkeley Studies commissioned by the Anti-Defamation League (ADL). 1 The Berkeley Studies , which consisted of several books on various aspects of intergroup relations, developed the protocols still used for the academic study of antisemitism, and usc essays 2012, that was it. Antisemitism was not looked at again by social scientists until the 1980s and essay, 1990s, when two American defense agencies, the usc essays 2012 American Jewish Committee (AJC) and the ADL, bid to outdo each other with a series of studies on American antisemitism. Two very different approaches were used: the AJC studies made an effort to position attitudes toward Jews within a context of intergroup conflict in general, while the ADL studies were about attitudes toward Jews specifically; in effect, what do you think about writing good thesis, Jews?
The cumulative findings from both sets of surveys documented - no great surprise - a steady decline in the level of conventional antisemitic attitudes held by usc essays 2012, Americans, a decline that continues unto the present day. This decline is clearly generational, and reflects a correlation long-known by social scientists and community-relations professionals: improve the social and economic conditions of a group - any group - in society, and there will be a diminution of intergroup bias and prejudice. Now there is a gaggle of chain books on the new antisemitism, fueled in 2012 large measure by nature, the explosion in 2002 of antisemitic activity in 2012 Europe resulting from Israelophobia. These works, taken collectively, paint a grim picture of the state of Jewish security in Europe and dream, America, which at first runs counter to the findings of both sets of studies over the past two decades. Indeed, the recent works serve to reinforce the perception gap: the growing chasm between the reality of usc essays 2012 antisemitism and the strength of Jewish security, especially in the United States, and the grassroots perception (as documented by data from many surveys conducted since 1981) that increasing percentages of American Jews believe that antisemitism is a serious and indeed increasing problem in the United States even as the aqa gcse coursework overwhelming majority of American Jews assert that they are comfortable in America. This is a conundrum for which there are many explanations, none of which is really satisfactory. None of the books under study addresses this dilemma; several of them say, in effect, there is no gap; it is really happening out 2012 there! This dilemma points to the true value of these works: they explore what is wrong with the arena of study. Two books with the new antisemitism in the title appeared recently within months of each other. (A third, A New Antisemitism: Debating Judeophobia in 21st Century Britain , a collection of excellent essays edited by Paul Iganski and Barry Kosmin, is specific to the U.K. and is not discussed in this essay.
2 ) Phyllis Chesler, psychologist, scholar of women's issues, and an author best known for her Women and Madness and Women of the Wall , has written an energetic book, The New Anti-Semitism: The Current Crisis and What We Must Do About It . 3 Chesler's good spirit bursts through on every page, and there is much of value in aqa gcse french this well-written book, especially her telescoped rendering of the history of anti-Zionism. However, The New Anti-Semitism , which appears to have been written in 2012 haste, ultimately suffers from a lack of sustainable nuance, as does the book by Abraham Foxman. The title of Abraham H. Foxman's Never Again? The Threat of the New Anti-Semitism tells much of what is usc essays 2012 necessary to know about the author's thesis. 4 In appropriating the slogan of the late Jewish Defense League (JDL) activist and university of puget essay, Kach leader, Rabbi Meir Kahane, Foxman, the long-time director of the Anti-Defamation League, a man of considerable vision, and one of the usc essays most highly-visible and effective professionals in American Jewish life, sets an activist agenda for his book. Never again! is a direct descendant of Rak Kach! - Only thus! (and I leave it to statement contrast the reader to figure out the thus!) - that was the battle-cry of the Zionist-Revisionist Irgun during its struggle with the British.
Even with Foxman's question-mark, Never again? is highly suggestive of a particular approach to Jewish security that borders on an extremism that the author may not have intended. Abe Foxman follows a formula developed by usc essays 2012, Arnold Forster and Ben Epstein, the professional leaders of the ADL in coursework french the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s, who produced a series of rather lurid books - Danger on the Right , 5 The New Anti-Semitism , 6 and 2012, Cross-Currents 7 - that were basically collections of ADL memoranda on antisemitic thugs and acts, focusing on the right, rather than sober analyses of antisemitism. 8 (By the 1980s, of course, the Forster and Epstein parade of villains had been replaced by essay on information, the left and by Arab lobbyists. Anti-Fascism was as outdated as the twist.) The Forster and Epstein formula was just right for usc essays, that era, an era of the french Cold-War consensus historians. Forster and Epstein were writing in the hard-hitting journalistic style of a Walter Winchell, but does Foxman's book, written in the excessive style of Forster and Epstein, work for 2004? There is much that is commendable in Abraham Foxman's book, and usc essays 2012, the data, scrupulously gleaned from the files of the sustainable thesis ADL, are comprehensive, accurate, and informative. But the value of the usc essays data is somewhat diminished by good contrast, the self-serving manner in which they are presented: Foxman rarely misses an opportunity to attribute various Jewish achievements to the Anti-Defamation League; he seems to have forgotten that other, never-mentioned, Jewish groups have been active in the struggle for Jewish security. (Were the usc essays Israelis involved in aqa gcse coursework french the struggle for Ethiopian Jewry? Not according to usc essays 2012 Never Again? !) But it is Foxman's Never again theme and thesis, not his institutional imperatives, which may be troubling to analysts of contemporary antisemitism.
Foxman has adopted a worst-case-scenario strategy in crafting his book. The tone is often strident, indeed alarmist, which the author himself acknowledges. In Foxman's defense, no Jewish leader wants to be in a position in which he minimizes the supply threats of antisemitism; events in Europe during the second intifada provide plenty of cause for concern. However, Foxman seems to have forgotten the contemporary agenda of his own agency. There is an instructive section toward the end of Never Again? entitled What can be Done? that is exclusively about the specific counteraction of antisemitism by usc essays 2012, legal remedies such as hate-crimes legislation. But the sample essay ADL itself correctly discerned the true underpinnings of Jewish security when, in 1981, it made an institutional decision to usc essays make civil liberties (primarily church-state separation, the prime guarantor of Jewish security in the United States) a top priority of the League.
It is true that balancing the security needs of a society with civil-liberties protection has become increasingly difficult, especially in post-September 11 America, but this crucial and highly-nuanced question does not appear in the book. The true relationship of antisemitism and of puget supplemental essay, Jewish security - which is the ability of Jews to participate in the workings of a society at any level - is not explored in Never Again? Less troubling, but indicative of some measure of usc essays sloppiness, are Foxman's misrepresentations of fact, especially when he moves from antisemitism, about which he knows quite a lot, to arenas in essay on information which he or his researchers are fuzzy. An unfortunate example for readers who may not be entirely au courant on the nuances of Hasidic groups is when the author lumps all Hasidim together in one movement, and usc essays 2012, characterizes Hasidim as regard[ing] the founding of Israel as symbolic of the statement essay beginning of the redemption of the world. The existence of Israel is not only acceptable in their eyes, but a positive sign that the coming of the 2012 Messiah is on the horizon. Foxman has somehow confused and conflated two worlds: the Religious-Zionist movement, which was primarily non-Hasidic and which was (and is) somewhat messianic in its approach to political Zionism; and most Hasidim, who were non-Zionist and in some cases anti-Zionist. Furthermore, in the chapter Jews in a Hostile World, Foxman presents a comprehensive and useful conspectus of the history of antisemitism.
This is only useful up to sustainable management a point, because the author fails to distinguish clearly between the usc essays 2012 various forms that anti-Jewish expression took throughout history (cultural, religious, racial), which makes all the university supplemental essay difference in understanding the ancient hatred. 2012. Is all of the anti-Jewish activity in the ancient world to be characterized as antisemitism? (No.) Was racism or religion at the root of Inquisitorial excesses in fifteenth-century Spain? (Probably both.) These nuances are lost in aqa gcse french the jumble of deicide charges, blood libels, and inquisitions. Usc Essays 2012. These examples are suggestive of flaws of analysis that diminish a book that had potential value. More effective and thoughtful, albeit flawed in its conception and conclusions, is Gabriel Schoenfeld's The Return of Anti-Semitism . 9 Schoenfeld, one of the more canny public-affairs journalists on sample essay nature, the scene, suggests - indeed in the book's very title - that there is something old and something new going on. 2012. There is precious little doubt in university essay his mind where antisemitism is usc essays 2012 going: up, up, up. Essay On Information. In The Return of Anti-Semitism it all comes together: Islamic fundamentalism, the muscle exercised by terrorist groups, and Jew-hatred; the export of antisemitism from the Muslim world into Europe and from there into the United States; and - the core of the author's thesis - the rebirth of usc essays 2012 older antisemitic traditions in the West that were thought to have ended along with Nazism. This is fine up to a point. Good Thesis Statement Compare. The problem with The Return of Anti-Semitism is that Gabriel Schoenfeld attempts to telescope an immense amount of information into a relatively short book, and this is both the strength and usc essays 2012, the weakness of the work. Schoenfeld is a polymath, but polymathy does not work in a 150-page book. He tries to do too much, and the analysis suffers. Schoenfeld presents intelligent reviews of European and Islamic antisemitism, and a less satisfactory but nonetheless sharp rundown of the American situation.
The problem with The Return of Anti-Semitism lies in the author's research - or lack thereof. It is difficult to take a serious book seriously in which the research consists of Leon Poliakov's lively but dated The History of Anti-Semitism 10 or quotes from sound supplemental essay The New York Times and The Jewish Week . There is much to say about the threats to Jewish security from radical Islam, the conditions in America, and 2012, the evangelical political community - and Schoenfeld does say it, but in a way that is frustrating to the serious reader. Schoenfeld's book - like Foxman's - is sustainable supply chain full of data presented in a well-written manner, and journalists and public-affairs professionals will find it most useful. But ultimately The Return of Anti-Semitism suffers from the same malady as the works of Foxman and Chesler works: a woeful lack of 2012 nuance. Gabriel Schoenfeld is, after all, a scholar, and a good one, and more is expected from him. In a chapter entitled Descent into Delusion, the essay technology author asks, Are we approaching a 1933 or a 1939? He develops a formidable array of data (all from the Islamic world) in support of a thesis that it could happen again, and that the only thing that will prevent it from happening is a sufficient show of [Jewish] aggressiveness and determination. Perhaps so, but comparisons between the 2012 Europe of 1933, where antisemitism was embedded in the institutions of power (often over many centuries in formal institutions), and the world of 2003 - especially America - are wrong-headed. Lumping America and Europe together when discussing the virulent outbreak of antisemitism ignores the recent history of the essay two regions and the profound differences between them.
It is on the question of antisemitism in America that the analyses of Schoenfeld (and the other authors) are most flawed. Indeed, Gabriel Schoenfeld entitles his chapter on the USA: The End of American Exceptionalism? Qualifying the title with a question-mark does not negate the fact that the answer to the questions with which the author begins this chapter - Can the disease spread here? Has it already? - is an implicit Yes. Schoenfeld, in five exceptionally concentrated paragraphs, gives the reader a superb outline of the history of 2012 American antisemitism. However, his proposition that America is beginning to resemble Europe - in sample essay large measure because of a growing number of Muslims - is both wrong and wrong-headed. For one thing, Gabriel Schoenfeld clearly does not feel the cold air issuing from the open demographic trap-door behind him.
Demographics is the secret killer of historians; as a predictor of social trends the use of demographics is perilous at best. Furthermore, his Islamic catalogue of horrors (in this respect The Return of Anti-Semitism resembles Foxman's Never Again? ) offers little in the way of usc essays cogent analysis of the American situation. More to the point, however, is that Schoenfeld ignores the relationship between antisemitism and in schools, Jewish security, which may be related in America of 2004 (not America of 1954 or Europe of 2004). However, they are clearly distinct because of the singular and peculiar nature of usc essays American pluralism, which is shaped by the church-state separation which lifted pluralism from being a conceptual or philosophical ideal and made it a legal obligation. America does not have the European pre-Enlightenment baggage - the i have dream bulk of American Jewish history begins after the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution were drafted - with the result that Jews, no less than any others, were entitled to equal status in the body politic. So the issue in America is not antisemitism, it is Jewish security.
There is the need for analysts to distinguish, in the United States, between antisemitism , which does exist at some level - it ebbs and flows and usc essays, must be monitored, repudiated, and counteracted - and Jewish security , which is strong. Jewish security is the ability of Jews, individually and collectively, to participate in society at any level without the fear of anti-Jewish animus. There may be antisemitism in this country, but it is not a threat to the security of Jews, which is unparalleled. Conversely, the threats to Jewish security in the United States come from sources that probably have little if anything to do with anti-Jewish animus. As Leon Wieseltier puts it, the university of puget sound supplemental destiny of the usc essays Jews has at last left Europe for the sovereignty of of puget sound essay Israel and the pluralism of the United States. 11 The U.S. is not just another address for Jews on the run; America is structurally hospitable to Jews. Whatever the nature and extent of the usc essays threat from militant Islam, a contextual analysis is essay on information necessary when addressing questions of antisemitism anywhere, especially in the United States. Most serious is Gabriel Schoenfeld's penchant for demonizing those with whom he is in disagreement.
Rhetoric of this nature diminishes the usc essays value, indeed the very credibility, of an otherwise useful work. Consider the following: Just as there is an intellectual disease called Holocaust denial [an 'intellectual disease'? It's antisemitism! - JC], there is a related pathology that might be called antisemitism denial. Gabriel Schoenfeld adds to i have essay the cast of antisemitic characters who do deny that they themselves express antisemitism (Louis Farrakhan, Pat Buchanan, etc.), such Jewish thinkers as Leon Wieseltier, who commits the grievous sin of suggesting that Jews are getting carried away with their many assessments of an antisemitism that is out of hand (to use Wieseltier's words: the village is not burning). In effect, if you do not agree that antisemitism is not on the rise, you are part of a gruesome tale of Jewish antisemitism. Agree or disagree with Wieseltier, who raises important questions in a literate manner, that is what the discussion is 2012 all about.
However, to put legitimate discussion of the nature and extent of sustainable management thesis antisemitism in the same category as the crackpot and usc essays 2012, vicious antisemitism of Holocaust denial or in the same class as the Farrakhans - as Schoenfeld does - is to engage in nothing less than scholarly anarchy. Gabriel Schoenfeld, who is a legitimate scholar, does himself a disservice. Very different in aqa gcse coursework style and content, although not in tone, from Never Again? and The Return of Anti-Semitism - although much more effective than the works of Foxman, Schoenfeld, and usc essays, Chesler - is Alan Dershowitz's The Case for Israel . 12 The ubiquitous Dershowitz - he is a Harvard law professor and is frequently at the bar in civil-liberties and criminal cases - has presented us with a well-researched and snappily-written manual for the counteraction of writing thesis statement anti-Israel argument and rhetoric; indeed, many will recognize in usc essays 2012 the book the effective style of AIPAC's Myths and Facts series. 13 In book form, The Case for Israel works well. The value of Dershowitz's hard-hitting book, aside from the very clear presentation of the historical realities inherent in on information in schools the Arab-Israeli conflict, is the fact that The Case for 2012, Israel implicates in a coherent manner the larger question of the relationship between anti-Israel rhetoric, anti-Zionism, and antisemitism, which is at the core of the question of the new antisemitism. Finally, there is Alexander Cockburn. What has not already been said about Cockburn, a fine wordsmith, a sharp polemicist - and, frankly, an intractable foe of Jewish interests?
The tropes of the Israel lobby resonate throughout The Politics of Anti-Semitism , a collection of essays (co-edited by Jeffrey St. Clair), 14 that culminate in coursework a self-serving complaint by 2012, Cockburn himself (My life as an 'Anti-Semite') in which he offers his definition of antisemitism: to have written an item that pisses off someone at The New Republic . University Of Puget Sound. In fact, Cockburn and St. Clair's book does serve a larger purpose (which justifies addressing it), in that it illuminates, as does Dershowitz's book, the nuanced and highly-permeable borders between criticism of the policies of the government of usc essays Israel and Israelophobia or anti-Israelism. In a word, the new antisemitism. The books under review here collectively urge the question of essay on information whether there is, indeed, a new antisemitism. To put the question more specifically, is the new expression of Israelophobia (to use Hillel Halkin's clunky but effective locution 15 ) antisemitism in its classic sense or is it something new, or perhaps, as some have suggested, is it not antisemitism at all?
What is antisemitism and how do we classify antisemitism? Historically, there appears to usc essays be a jumble: the cultural and political anti-Judaism of the ancient world (was this antisemitism?); the religious anti-Judaism of Christianity, extending from the first centuries of the Common Era to contemporary times; the anti-Judaism of sustainable supply thesis Enlightenment and post-Enlightenment Europe, which achieved its full expression in the racialist antisemitism of the nineteenth century; the antisemitism of classical Islam (again, is it antisemitism, or something more nuanced?); and the contemporary manifestation of Israelophobia - hatred of the State of 2012 Israel. French. This catalogue is 2012 cumbersome and therefore it is preferable to telescope these categories into three and to sustainable supply thesis say that if there is indeed such a thing as a new antisemitism, it is new in usc essays 2012 the sense that it does not fit the pattern of ancient antisemitism which was primarily ethnic in nature, Christian antisemitism that was religious , or the racial antisemitism of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Essay In Schools. First, there is the question that goes to the core of our definitional dilemma: At what point does anti-Israel rhetoric become antisemitism - if ever? This is clearly a threshold question, and usc essays 2012, is therefore subjective. What is a reasonable threshold? Criticism of the policies of the supplemental essay government of the State of Israel - even harsh criticism - is entirely legitimate. The Israeli polity itself is deeply divided over the peace process and beyond that, over usc essays its relations today and tomorrow with the Palestinians. The point at which such attacks become antisemitism is the point at dream speech, which the legitimacy of the Zionist enterprise or the State of Israel is questioned, because it is at that point that the legitimacy of Jewish peoplehood is usc essays 2012 questioned. This, tautologically, is antisemitism. However, what about writing good thesis compare contrast essay, anti-Jewish animus that may result from legitimate causes?
Some have argued for the necessity of distinguishing between Israelophobia and antisemitism. Hatred of Israel - whatever motivates such hatred - is a concerted prejudice against Israel, that was birthed in large measure by leftist anti-globalist politics, but without a discernable hatred of 2012 Jews. In Schools. Oppression and liberation, oppressors and oppressed - it is another riff on the political rivalries that characterized much of ancient anti-Judaism. Is there a specifically anti-Jewish bias here? Perhaps what motivates the Israelophobes is antisemitism, perhaps it is not. However, to usc essays tar all critics of Israel with the brush of antisemitism is unfair, so the argument goes, and may be counterproductive in that it is the of puget sound first principle of community relations that counteraction of an activity should be premised on 2012, the motivating factor of that activity. This argument over whether Israelophobia is antisemitism is writing thesis statement contrast essay played out in the numbers: ADL's important polls of usc essays 2012 European attitudes show a sharp fault-line between attitudinal antisemitism, where the aqa gcse coursework numbers are down, and anti-Zionism, which are up.
How do we interpret these data? The ADL analysts aver that these data tell us that Europeans are basically antisemitic; the counter-argument suggests that it is more nuanced and that many Europeans do make a distinction between anti-Zionism and antisemitism. These data call for further exploration. This question, of course, is at the heart of the new antisemitism discussed by the authors under review. An analysis of the new antisemitism deserves more than the blanket assertion: It comes from radical Islam and haters of usc essays Israel.
Indeed, the position that anti-Israelism needs to dream essay be distinguished from usc essays antisemitism, whatever the antisemitic motivation of some Israelophobes, derives from of puget essay a geo-political analysis of the contemporary phenomenon that goes beyond reiterating the Muslims-hate-us palaver. In a construct borrowed from the world of political science, France is used as a paradigm of Europe. The question, crudely put, is: Why do the usc essays French hate us? The answer lies in the fact that antisemitism is historically linked to the political contours of each era, and of each country during a given era. The physiognomy of European antisemitism in any given era is a function of the primary political challenge facing Europeans in that time and place: nationalism in the nineteenth century, racialist antisemitism, Augustine's anti-Aristotelian Christianity, religious antisemitism, and sample essay nature, so on. (This, by the way, is Hannah Arendt's unique insight in usc essays 2012 Volume I of i have speech The Origins of Totalitarianism . 16 ) Zionism, the darling of the left seventy years ago, became successful (i.e., created a nation-state) precisely at a time when the nation-state fell out of fashion.
As the usc essays primary political challenge for Europe today is moving beyond the nation-state (i.e., the problem of European integration), a problem that is framed in the clash between nationalism and post-nationalism (with progressive, intellectual, or good opinion very much on the side of the latter), it comes as no surprise that Israel (and America) are reviled for acting like the nation-states they are. Israel, as the product of nineteenth century European nationalism (so goes the analysis), acts as the ideology of nationalism suggests sovereign states do and should act: it is ready to essay employ force of arms to defend the nation's interest. This behavior is what drives the Europeans crazy. It strikes their post-nationalist sensibilities as retrograde and racist (and it is important to note that the word post in its political and historical usage always means contra). Israel squares off against the Arabs in the same benighted manner as the French used to do against the Germans, and so on. Hence, European antisemitism, and - a fortiori - anti-Americanism as well. Hence, the French hate us.
What follows is what is held to be the new international/political antisemitism. There are three things new about it. First, the collective expression of antisemitism, with Israel as a focal point, rather than the individual animus of the past. This leads, of course, to usc essays the claim of distinguishing between anti-Israelism and antisemitism, and the concomitant question of: Well, maybe there is a good reason for it, so it is not antisemitism? Second, the center of of puget sound essay gravity of antisemitism is now in the Islamic world.
Finally, what is new is also very old: the double-standard, the assertion that Jews may not defend themselves like any other people or person. If this is the case, then - by extension - the usc essays 2012 legitimacy of a Jewish historical particularism is challenged. Deriving from this, of sustainable supply chain thesis course, is the isolation of the State of Israel and usc essays 2012, the relegation of Israel to sustainable supply chain thesis the status of pariah state. So what is usc essays 2012 new? Nothing and essay nature, everything.
The standard evaluative criteria for usc essays 2012, determining what is antisemitism and what is not are still operative. The important new caution is for analysts to think about the speech essay no legitimate cause provision. Any geo-political analysis leads us either (1) to the same old hatreds; or (2) to a set of political animosities expressed by usc essays 2012, the leftist intelligentsia in sample essay nature Europe that may not be antisemitism. It all comes back to the definition of antisemitism. The definitional point was made very well by one of the usc essays 2012 leading historians of coursework french antisemitism, Gavin Langmuir. Langmuir, a professor at Stanford, in his landmark books Toward a Definition of Antisemitism 17 and History, Religion, and Antisemitism , 18 is most careful to usc essays distinguish between the rational and the irrational in speech essay Jew-hatred. Langmuir elaborates on a fundamental definitional distinction: hatred of Jews without a concrete basis ought be treated differently than antipathy towards Jews that has a reason. The classic one-liner - What is the definition of an antisemite?
One who dislikes Jews more than is necessary - comes to mind in reading Langmuir's penetrating analyses, and there is a solid foundation for this tired old joke. In Langmuir's view, antisemitism as we know it is irrational antisemitism - the groundless hatred of Jews - and it developed only in the High Middle Ages. Langmuir argues that it was only then that growing doubts about the truth of Christianity amongst its adherents led to 2012 a more aggressive and vicious persecution of Jews (and of other heretics as well). Inquisitorial excesses, the spread of the thesis compare contrast essay blood libel and the libel of the usc essays desecration of the Host, and other militant expressions signaled the replacement of competition between the two monotheistic faiths. Anti-Judaism - necessary to be sure for the shaping of the contours of early Christian theology - descended into good contrast, the totally demonic and irrational, especially in ritual-murder and other libels. Langmuir's construct of the move from rational to irrational antisemitism describes the movement from a theologically-based anti-Judaism - the charge of deicide, the usc essays 2012 Wandering Jew, biblical prefiguring, and supersessionism - to technology in schools the utterly base, demonic, cannibalistic Jew-hatred of the High Middle Ages.
The question with respect to the new antisemitism is refined by Gavin Langmuir's approach. As noted above, a number of 2012 scholars have suggested that rational antisemitism (for example, Israelophobia) is not antisemitism at all, but is motivated by a political analysis - crude, yes; distorted, yes; simplistic, yes - that is not rooted in Jew-hatred. It is easy to take pot-shots at Langmuir's construct. After all, antisemitism - perhaps all group prejudice - is all about the interplay of the aqa gcse french rational and irrational, and an analysis such as Langmuir's that draws sharp historical distinctions is usc essays 2012 a flawed analysis; there was an irrational reaction even in ancient times when much anti-Jewish activity resulted from geo-political tensions and not from antisemitism. Writing Good Thesis Statement Compare Essay. However, whatever flaws there are in Gavin Langmuir's historical and sociological analysis, he is reminding us, once again, of 2012 fundamental distinctions between rational anti-Judaism coming out of geo-political and religious conflict; and the irrational hatred of Jews more than is necessary. Perhaps this is the best definition of all, explaining all that is i have dream speech old and new in this most ancient of hatreds.
1. University of usc essays 2012 California Five-Year Study of Anti-Semitism in the United States , conducted by the Survey Research Center, a seven-volume series (New York: Harper and Row, 1966-1970). The opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect those of the Board of Fellows of the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. The above book review appears in the Spring 2004 issue of the Jewish Political Studies Review , the first and only journal dedicated to the study of Jewish political institutions and behavior, Jewish political thought, and Jewish public affairs.
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Career changers can emphasize transferrable skills. Uncommon and usc essays, not as familiar to recruiters. Of Puget! Not suggested for usc essays 2012 entry-level job seekers. Entry-level job seekers can emphasize skills instead of experience. Recruiters may think you're hiding something. Still not sure which professional resume format is best for you? Need to see examples of resumes with different layouts? Read our guide: 3 Resume Formats: How To Choose The Best One [Examples] Contact Information Is Not as Basic as It Seems. Despite the technology in schools, professional resume format you choose, your contact information goes at the top. Here is usc essays 2012 how to write a resume contact section:
Adding your address is optional. It is no longer necessary to add it to a modern resume. Plus, it might be better to exclude it if you are applying for a job that isn’t local. Your email address should be professional which means: Choosing a sophisticated email provider. Not using your current work email. Instead, create a professional, private email address.
Avoiding email addresses from when you were in high school. It won’t amuse recruiters to see email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org . Okay, maybe it will amuse them a little bit, but they won’t call you for an interview. Adding URLs to your personal website or blog directs recruiters to your portfolio or extra work that you want to show without cluttering up your perfect resume. Pro Tip: Make sure you review your social media accounts to check for unprofessional content. When you add a link to your social media profiles, make sure they're optimized to give recruiters the nature, best impression. Usc Essays 2012! Not sure how to optimize your LinkedIn profile to attract employers? Read our guide: How to Optimize Your LinkedIn Profile To Get More Jobs Here’s How the Best Candidates Start Their Resumes. Again, what does a resume look like? Well, you know that contact information comes first. But what comes next?
Education? Experience? Does it matter where you put things when you're deciding how to make a resume? The short answer is yes, it does matter. Technology In Schools! That's because your best stuff should go in the top third of your resume. And the best way to 2012 start any killer resume is sample essay with an introduction to yourself. Think of it like this: The top of your resume is the penthouse - the usc essays 2012, most important piece of real estate on the document.
But why? The average recruiter spends six seconds scanning your resume in university sound, between reading Facebook messages from grandma, drinking coffee, and 2012, deciding what's for essay on information technology in schools lunch. She is looking for very specific information, and she is only going to usc essays look for it in the top third of your resume. If you do not grab her attention - game over. That's why a creative resume summary or objective can save the day. Here's a sample resume:
What is a resume summary statement? A resume summary is a short, snappy introduction that highlights your career progress and skill set. It should also demonstrate why you'll be a valuable hire. Boyfriend Material experienced at laying coats over mud puddles, opening doors, and pulling out of puget sound supplemental essay, chairs. Charming, funny, and usc essays 2012, a great conversationalist seeking to french leverage 10+ years of usc essays experience delivering anecdotes to entertain you through boring social events. Writing Good Thesis Statement Contrast Essay! Has an MA in usc essays, hand holding and a license to cook romantic dinners. What is a resume objective statement? A resume objective achieves the sample essay, same thing as a resume summary. The difference is how you write one and who should use it. Experienced Chef interested in becoming a Zoo Keeper.
Tons of experience with picky clients who need to be fed with the right food at usc essays 2012, the right time. Want to apply my patience and understanding of sustainable supply management thesis complicated clients to taking care of angry lions at the Zoo. This candidate chose an usc essays 2012, effective resume objective over essay in schools, a summary because he is changing his career from chef to zookeeper. Either way, the 2012, point is to focus on the employer's needs and dream essay, not your own. Who should use an objective for a resume?
Entry-level Applicants and Students Career Changers Professionals Targeting Specific Positions. You can also choose to write something called a professional profile . Usc Essays 2012! When considering how to write a resume profile, think of it as a hybrid that crosses elements of the objective and university, the summary. A good resume profile lists your qualifications, experience, and education regarding the company’s needs and values. It can be formatted as a paragraph or as a list with resume bullet points. Wouldn't it be nice to have some resume examples of summaries tailored specifically to your profession? Read our guide: A Resume Summary That Will Get You The Job [7 Secret Steps] How to usc essays 2012 Write a Resume Experience Section That's More Than a List. The first section that should appear in in schools, the body of an excellent resume is the section that will best show off your skills and usc essays 2012, accomplishments. For most of you, that will probably be the experience section. Let's say you're learning how to make a student resume, or have little or no work experience. In that case, lead with your education or skills section.
But do you know how to write a resume employment history? When you start writing a resume experience section you will want to sample essay nature keep a few things in mind: Write your job history in reverse-chronological order - start with your current position. Include around six bullet points describing the scope of your responsibilities. Tailor each of these bullets points to reflect the skills listed in 2012, the job description. Aqa Gcse Coursework! Follow the bullet point format (see below), and include facts and figures. 2012! You should try to include achievements that show your professional impact. Tell a career story that reinforces your professinal persona. Sample Resume Experience Entry: Spearhead a global brand strategy for our top performing product.
Analyze market trends and recommend solutions resulting in a 10% upswing in dream essay, sales annually. Prepare Portfolio Deployment Plans. Head up a team of 10+ marketing specialists. Organize marketing materials. Responsible for usc essays 2012 brand strategy. Responsible for analyzing market trends. Responsible for a team of marketing specialists.
Now, what if you have career gaps in coursework, your job history or a habit of job hopping? Let’s face it. Not all of us have a pristine job history. And it's difficult to know how to usc essays 2012 create a resume that addresses career gaps without cheating. One approach is to include a brief explanation next to each job. By briefly stating that your stay became short lived due to downsizing or relocation, you will reassure the recruiter that you're not a risky candidate. Chronic career hoppers may be tempted to tamper with dates, leaving only the years in their experience section: Excluding the months makes it look like you worked a year instead of university sound supplemental essay three months.
But it's a dirty trick that employers know well, which makes it a big no, no. Pro Tip: Feel free to list “non-traditional” work in usc essays 2012, your experience section - like volunteer jobs or freelance work. Is Your Education Section Underperforming? It Might Be. You should also write your education section of your resume in reverse-chronological order, with your most recent degree appearing first. Usually, you will want to management include the type of usc essays 2012 degree, your major, your university, and of puget sound, any honors or awards you received. You can skip your GPA. But if you're a recent college graduate who's making a student resume, it's okay to add your GPA if it's 3.5 or higher. You can also include a coursework narrative.
For professionals, the inclusion of a coursework narrative is another way to reinforce a professional persona. Do you know how to make a resume when you have a GED or didn't graduate? Not sure how to write a degree on a resume? We can help with that. 2012! Check out our article: How To Put Your Education On A Resume [Tips Examples] Why You Need to i have dream speech Focus on Your Skills Section. When you consider how to make a good resume that stands out , it has everything to do with sprinkling your skills throughout your resume. But, it also makes sense to have a big section labeled “ SKILLS .” Use the 2012, key skills listed in the job description. Technology In Schools! This will also help you create a modern resume for a job that will pass through Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software. More about usc essays 2012, that later. Recruiters should be able to see two things when they look at your skills for a resume:
You have the skill set they want and sustainable supply, requested in usc essays, the job post. Aqa Gcse Coursework French! You have extra skills that prove you are a valuable worker. Do you want to know how to make a great resume for a job that showcases the best resume skills? I thought so. Usc Essays 2012! Read our guide: What Skills To Put On a Resume [Examples + 6 Proven Tips] How to Add Other Resume Sections While Making an Effective Resume. Here are some additional resume sections you can consider adding if you don't feel the essay on information technology, traditional resume sections are doing it for you. Students and fresh graduates - you may want to usc essays consider adding a separate section for awards or honors, or a section for extracurricular activities. Dream Essay! If you've got a technical background - you might want to consider an usc essays 2012, extra section for certificates, licenses, or software.
Some professionals who have opted for making a resume for work over an academic CV might still want to add a section for publications or conferences. Others may want to add a section that shows off their command of languages or other achievements and projects. Whatever you decide to add, just make sure that your additions don't overwhelm your resume. You still want everything to fit onto one page if possible. No One Adds a Hobbies Section, But It Works So Well.
The hobbies section of a resume is optional. I Have! But, I recommend adding one if you have space. Adding your interests shows off extra skills for a resume, makes your resume stand out, and 2012, gives the good thesis statement compare, hiring manager a fuller image of you. Your interests are also a way to make yourself more attractive and usc essays, memorable to your potential employer. You can always cut this section later if your resume is too long.
Not convinced? Well, it's true. Adding a hobbies and interests section can boost a contemporary resume. Find out how: Best Examples Of Hobbies Interests To Put On A Resume (5 Tips) How to Write a Perfect Resume Tailored to the Job Description. Did you know that R2D2 might run a scan on your resume before a human does? On average, a corporate job offer attracts up to 250 resumes . Of those, 4 to 6 candidates will get invited for an interview. And only one person will get the job. With that many resumes to sift through, recruiters are using something called Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software. The software compares your resume to chain management thesis the job description based on usc essays 2012, keywords. How to prepare a resume that will make it through ATS?
You need to tailor your resume. Tailoring a resume to the job description is adding keywords and information from the job offer. For starters, you're going to coursework want to make a master resume. A master resume is an 2012, updated version of all your work experience, skills, and accomplishments. When you sit down to write a tailored version of your resume, you will pick and choose material from your master resume to match the specific job for which you are applying. To further tailor the content to writing good statement essay the job description, you're going to add keywords that you find in 2012, the offer.
Let's say you want to apply for coursework a job as a copywriter. The job description says: Able to work on several campaigns at once, sometimes under pressure and usc essays, often to tight deadlines. To tailor your basic resume, you will want to add some of the phrases verbatim to your experience section. For example: Work on supply thesis, several campaigns at once. To make it more powerful, you can add details such as the number of campaigns you can juggle at once. Here is an example of a resume job description with all of the keywords highlighted along with a resume sample that we've tailored to usc essays match. Need more in-depth information about how to make a resume that's tailored to the job description?
Need more resume samples? Read our guide: 6 Proven Tips On How To Tailor Your Resume To The Job Description How to Prepare a Resume That Will Attract ANY Recruiter. If you're struggling with how to make a good resume stand out, all you need to aqa gcse do is usc essays 2012 make things quantifiable. Aqa Gcse Coursework French! Wherever possible. Everywhere. Because using numbers gives the 2012, recruiter some tangible proof of an achievement. Here are some basic resume examples of supply chain thesis achievements: The hiring manager now sees quantifiable, specific proof of usc essays 2012 your achievements. Using numbers also improves the readability of the text, and draws the eye of the recruiter.
No One Adds Achievements, But It Works So Well. Adding achievements to your resume is an extremely effective way of selling your skills and experience. All you have to do is in schools add your achievements as resume bullet points in your experience section. You will want to use the 2012, PAR ( Problem Action Result ) Approach to writing your achievements: Here're a few right and i have, wrong resume examples of usc essays how to write achievements:
Problem : My previous employer wanted to increase revenue. Action : I created a new marketing campaign on Facebook. Result : We saw an increase in sales by 15% and an increase in revenue by 10%. Not sure how to quantify your achievements? Want more examples of accomplishments to on information put on a contemporary resume? Read our guide: Examples of usc essays Professional Achievements To Put On A Resume [3 Tips] Turn Boring Words Into Action Words - Here’s How. How many times have you used the on information in schools, phrase responsible for in your experience section? More than once? You may want to consider mixing up your vocabulary. Overusing words and 2012, phrases like “responsible for” or “manage” is boring. Now, while you should avoid jargon and empty words, action verbs can spice up your resume and make it stand out.
Also, be sure to use the present tense when describing your current role. Here're a few before and after resume examples: Pro Tip: Don't overdo it. Essay! You don't want to usc essays 2012 sound like a freshman English major flexing a large vocabulary. And avoid resume buzzwords like synergy. Dream Speech Essay! Trust me.
The Best Candidates Know How to Show Their Career Progression. What makes a good resume? CEO, Director, Manager - all you need is a big, impressive title, right? At this point, you probably figured out usc essays 2012, that knowing how to build a resume goes far beyond listing fancy titles. What really matters, is whether those titles are backed up by a story of career progression. For example, describing yourself as a social media manager won’t be credible if all you did was the on information in schools, marketing for 2012 your parent’s pizza place. You have to i have dream essay show a steady progression into usc essays, a management position. Each former role should reinforce your place in the next one. Rather than repeating duties when you describe previous roles, write about the new tasks you took on when you advanced. Responsible for the creation of a global brand strategy for a major category. Prepare Category and Portfolio Deployment Plans.
Analyze market trends and recommend solutions. Team Management (10 marketing specialists). Marketing Specialist / Senior Marketing Specialist: Planned and implemented promotional campaigns. Cooperated with interactive agencies. Managed project budgets and timeline control. Researched information. Assisted during promotional campaigns. See how these responsibilities evolve? What if you're a student and need to supply chain management know how to usc essays 2012 make a resume with no experience.
Read our dedicated guide on how to coursework french write a resume for students: The Complete Guide To Writing A Student Resume [13 Tips, Examples] How to Create a Resume That Draws Attention to Promotions. Highlighting your promotions shows potential employers that your previous supervisors valued your work performance. Usc Essays! Even lateral moves suggest that you were able to handle diverse responsibilities. Here are a few ways to describe your promotions while writing a resume: Repeatedly recognized for top performance through fast-track promotions and selection for high-priority initiatives. Earned promotion following a superior performance, and on information in schools, demonstrated ability to quickly learn and master complex concepts. What if you moved up within the usc essays 2012, same organization? You don’t have to sound essay mention the name of the same company more than once. It will make even the best resume look messy. Here’s what to do instead:
COMPANY NAME City, State, 2001 to usc essays Present. Describe responsibilities and achievements. Describe responsibilities and achievements. Describe responsibilities and achievements. Here's a Quick Tip on How Make Your Resume Easy to Read. Need to on information technology in schools know how to make a resume easy for a recruiter to read? It's as simple as aligning your text to the left. To make your text even more skimmable use the 2012, same resume font and font size, and make strategic use of writing thesis compare bold, italics, and caps. The bulk of your resume will consist of bullet points.
Here's how to construct them: Spearheaded a targeted email campaign that resulted in usc essays, a 15% upswing in university sound supplemental essay, newsletter registration. You might also want to consider how to create a resume using templates. 2012! Professional resume templates can make your documents cleaner and university of puget supplemental, easier to read. They also save you time and energy. Usc Essays 2012! Let's face it. Aqa Gcse French! No one likes trying to control one-inch margins in Word. Is a Font Ruining Your Awesome Resume? While choosing a basic resume font may seem like a silly chore - it's not. A good font will ensure that your resume is readable.
What is the best font for a resume? The best font for a resume is one that a recruiter can read with no effort. Stick with fonts that sound like hipster baby names - Arial, Helvetica, Calibri, and Verdana. What is the best resume font size? The Goldilocks font size is 10-12 points - not too big and not too small. 2012! Keep it uniform. The bottom line is on information making sure you don't sacrifice resume margins, white space, or font size in 2012, an attempt to cram everything onto one page. Still not sure about what font to university supplemental essay choose while writing a resume? Read our guide about the best resume fonts: What Is The Best Font For A Resume (+10 Examples Tips) Here Is the Best Way to Save Your Resume.
When you're done writing your perfect resume, it's time to consider how to make a resume file. Usc Essays 2012! And that's not as obvious as it sounds. The best advice is to save your resume as a PDF and give it your name. When you save your resume as a PDF, there is no chance that the formatting will glitch and get messed up when a recruiter opens the file. Do keep in mind that if your resume has to pass ATS software, Cylons don't like special formatting or graphics.
Read the instructions explaining how to send your resume, because you may need to send something other than a PDF. How should you name your files? The recruiter won’t have to search for sample that crazy space smuggler’s resume when they want to usc essays 2012 refer to it. Not sold on sustainable supply chain thesis, saving your file as a PDF document? Need to see some pros and cons about different file formats? Read our guide: Word VS PDF Resume: What Is The Best Resume Format? Here Is an Easy Way to usc essays Keep a Resume Short. How long should an ideal resume be? One page or two? Most contemporary resume guidelines will tell you that while making a resume, you should do your best to keep it to one page.
But you don’t want to force it, and that isn't true for everyone. The best thing to essay do is to go through at the end and usc essays 2012, trim as much fat as possible without losing the value. Here are three tips on how to aqa gcse coursework make a resume for a job shorter: If you aren't sure how long your resume should be or need more advice on how to make a resume shorter, read our guide: How Long Should a Resume Be? Everything You Need To Know Little Known Tools That Will Proofread Your Resume for You. One of the worst things you can do is send out a basic resume that is usc essays full of grammar and spelling mistakes.
You need to proofread your resume. It doesn’t matter if you already know how to write a resume that stands out. Even the best resumes need to be proofread by a second person. Whoever you chose can also give you an coursework french, objective opinion about how you’ve presented yourself. Start by proofreading your resume with the help of 2012 apps like Grammarly, Language Tool, or other language tools. Next, ask your mom, your partner, your best friend, your neighbor - whoever - to read over your resume for you. How to Clean Up Your Online Image. Before sending your resume, you will want to check your online presence. That's because 59% of aqa gcse coursework recruiters research candidates online after reading their resumes. Let's say you're sure you know how to write a resume and you follow all of our advice. That won't matter if you skip this step.
Start by entering your name into Google to 2012 see what comes up in the results. Most of you will find links to your social media profiles. University Of Puget Essay! As long as you cleared your profiles of unprofessional content, you should be good to usc essays go. If you have a more common name like Jane Smith, for example, you may not find much about dream speech, yourself at usc essays, all. Some of you might be disturbed to find extremely personal content such as your bank account number, an image of your signature, or sexually explicit images that have been posted without your consent. If this happens, you can ask Google to sustainable chain management thesis remove the information from the Internet for 2012 you. If you find some embarrassing content on a web page, Google suggests that it is best to i have essay contact the webmaster (owner) to have the image or content removed. Here’s the usc essays 2012, Most Common Myth About Cover Letters. A cover letter is still needed when you send a resume to coursework a potential employer.
Up to 45% of recruiters will reject resumes without cover letters. So, even if you know how to usc essays 2012 write a resume, you can forget about i have dream essay, landing the usc essays, job if you don't send a cover letter. Your cover letter or application letter is where you can expand upon i have dream speech things that you need to usc essays 2012 keep brief on your resume. It also needs to be tailored to i have the job for which you are applying. As for resume references, they're the one thing you truly don't need anymore.
So, lose the usc essays, phrase references upon request. Okay, so you need a cover letter. But do you know how to write an application letter? And better yet, how do you write a convincing one? Read our guide: How To Write A Cover Letter [Complete Guide With Examples] Why Sending a Personal Message Can Be a Big Win. When you send your resume to a general email address like email@example.com , your resume is entering a swamp of identical messages from in schools other candidates. One thing you can do to differentiate your message is to try to find out the name of the person who will be reading your resume and usc essays, send them a personal email. This is not the best solution in every case.
You will need to aqa gcse french decide if a hiring manager will see the gesture as clever or creepy. Pro Tip : If you use our resume builder, ( create your resume here ) you have the usc essays, option to publish your resume and nature, send a link to usc essays employers. Sending a link will allow you to sound track views and downloads so that you know how well your resume is 2012 performing. Want to send a personal message but can't find the aqa gcse coursework, hiring manager's email address? Need to know how to write a resume email? We've got you covered: How To Email Your Resume To Get More Replies From Employers Once you've sent your resume, it's a good idea to usc essays 2012 track it. You can install a free sales tool like Mixmax or YesWare to sustainable chain management help you. Knowing if recruiters have opened and read your email will enable you to follow-up promptly or find different email addresses. Your resume is your passport to job interviews.
And knowing how to usc essays make a resume for a job is the first step on any career path. So, take the time and dream essay, energy to think about how to write a resume well and how to 2012 tailor it to the job description. If you can do that, you're well on your way to essay technology in schools the next level - the usc essays, interview. Bonus: Check out our ultimate checklist of essay 56 things you need to do before you send your resume. How many have you missed? Download: “Resume 101 Checklist.” Are there any great resume writing tips we need to include in usc essays, the article?
Do you have any questions about essay, how to make a resume for your position? Add a comment. Usc Essays! I’ll be happy to answer. Natalie is a writer at Uptowork. Thesis Contrast! She loves writing about 2012, resumes and eating tacos more than life itself.
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Usc Essay Questions 2012
Cars Should Be Banned From City Centres. In this debate, we focus on facilitating the efficiency of commerce in city centre, mostly Central Business District, and on reducing the urban pollution from its root, by not harming the usc essays, basic necessity of the chain management thesis, people, who are working and living in the city centre, about transportation. Please cast your vote after you've read the usc essays, arguments. You can also add to the debate by leaving a comment at the end of the page. On avoiding the sample essay nature, inefficiency of 2012 commerce as the basic function of City Centre.
Before we proposition start our debate, we find it necessary to clear up some definition of words. Firstly, we only discuss private vehicle here. Secondly, the City Centre we are to essay, discuss means Central Business District, CBD. We believe that cars greatly damage the usc essays, efficiency of commerce which is the essay on information technology in schools, basic function of usc essays CBD, because it creates traffic jams. We ban cars to force people use great public transportation provided there and to on information technology in schools, reinsure the efficiency of commerce. The use of cars is the reason why traffic jams happen everyday in CBD. Those who works there mostly car afford to live there, so cars is unnecessary for them. For those who are not living in there, they can go there with buses and metros, because once authority set up a CBD, they already provide CBD most lines of buses and metros. However, people rather use cars since they believe that using a car is 2012, a symbol of wealth, even if it's unnecessary like we proved. Sample Nature. And the widespread of this psychology bring more and more cars in the street, so traffic jam occurs. Traffic jam harms the basic function of CBD, which is to facilitate the efficiency of commerce.
The nature of CBD is an area where people could have business more conveniently as all the usc essays 2012, big companies and i have speech essay, financial organs can be found there. So they can enjoy efficiency of trading, which businessman can gain profits with lower cost of time. However, when there are traffic jams, people take more times on the road rather than in the company. The efficiency of trade is greatly harmed. That's why we need to ban cars to reinsure that CBD can be functional.
Our action against traffic jam is usc essays, justified since the function of CBD is university of puget essay, of the 2012, benefits of the french, city as a whole. In this case, people cannot fulfill full liberty to use their property because the city is providing them with great facilities to gain profits, so they shall maintain CBD to function. That's the justification of our action. With a clear justification, we are proud to propose. Propositon advocates for commerce, yet they want to affect a major mean of transportation, how is that logical? We will prove it is counter-productive. The main objective for usc essays the PROP side is dream speech essay, just to avoid traffic jams, with the reason for that being that, somehow (we still didn't understand the logic behind that how, though), the fact that people lose time while in traffic makes them inefficient.
Even if that was logical, the usc essays 2012, truth is that people that work in those commercial and financial districts obviously take the fact that there is certain traffic into consideration when working in those centers however the important fact is that in order to continue to be employed they have to work all of their hours and do their job effectively, otherwise they would be fired from the company, for as simplistic this is, it is logical and coursework, real unlike an assumption of inefficiency. Secondly, the fact that there is traffic in those centers actually doesn't affect commerce or transportation significantly because the objective of those CBDs are built that way is usc essays, so that major financial institutions and corporations are all close together to sustainable supply chain thesis, facilitate commerce and so in that way it takes minutes to go from any place of that CBD to another one walking or even by car with traffic. For example, Frankfurt's Innenstadt is just .6 square miles while the World's largest CBD (in New York) is usc essays, 7.82 and Chicago's is the only other CBD in USA that passes the 3 square miles[[demographia.com/db-cbd2000.pdf]]. What does that mean? That traffic is french, not a real obstacle at usc essays 2012 CBDs. Prop says that they believe on not giving people full liberty to use their property in order to maintain a CBD functioning yet as we have said, its function is not affected at all and we will explain in one of our arguments below how it is wrong to deny someone to use their well-earned car as a means of transport. We will also talk about how we don't oppose public transportation however cars are needed in this system.
Car uses at CBD is a quintessential example of rational irrationality that takes a toll on aqa gcse coursework the entire society. Using cars at CBD demonstrates the 2012, rational irrationality that ultimately undermines the interests of every rational individual. Driving cars could be fast, and aqa gcse coursework, therefore I should drive a car. This is the rationale for an individual. Usc Essays 2012. And it surely makes sense. But when millions of people in town all think the same and consequently acting the same, we get problems. Cars are everywhere, making driving a short distance take a long long time: people get stuck in cars, wasting fuels, polluting the i have, environment (for just for waiting!). Usc Essays 2012. No body can travel around at sustainable supply thesis all. Yes, we love to usc essays, realize people's full liberty's to drive cars and listen to car radios, but that liberty comes with a cost, a cost too big for the society to coursework french, function, a cost that severely undermines everybody's liberty in this regard.
Because when people adheres perfect rationally to their preference, sometime they also act without regard to the irrationality of the decisions cost-benefit analysis in the bigger picture. And the usc essays 2012, total traffic turmoil is the bigger picture that people forget to take into account. As a result, no one wins. Essay. No one get to effectively move at 2012 all. Sometimes we need to limit some freedom in order to people to enjoy more freedom in the same way we ban hate speech, we ban racially discriminatory contents. Of Puget Sound Supplemental Essay. In order for every one to be able to MOVE in CBD, we ban cars here. PROP has taken a line of upholding certain liberties in order to avoid certain harm, in this case traffic. We say that apparent harm is not really a harm but something natural of the cities but that even if it was a harm, it is not enough to withhold a liberty, and even if it was, in practical terms they will do more harm by creating a heart attack on a city whose main artery will be blocked. First it was claimed that the 2012, reason why people use cars to show wealth, and after our rebuttal now it is that people may think it is quicker but it's not. Sample Essay Nature. Well, in reality we cannot know what are the routes or thoughts of the people but we cannot generalize for either way, because sometimes the distances can be covered quicker by usc essays, using a car (specially through roads that aren't as packed or at certain hours where there is essay nature, less traffic) and usc essays 2012, those people will be affected with such a bad policy like this one.
Yet, in the cases where actually public transportation could be quicker than car (because of the aqa gcse coursework french, places where they live, routes they should take or whatever), we don't believe the reason for people using cars is not stupidity but it may be for more factors such as comfort or security and for usc essays 2012 that they are willing to maybe take an extra hour at the traffic creating a traffic that affects someone else that also has the choice of public transportation but still prefers their cars (for whatever reason) and so, it is technology, just plain bad to try to reduce an apparent harm that the people are actually willing to take and prefer to have! If they didn't they could use public transportation (as PROP has assumed it is quicker)! The other problem that PROP addresses is pollution but then that can be said about almost everything we do (eating meat and using computers are terrible for usc essays global warming, for example) yet the solution is university of puget essay, not prohibiting everything but try to mitigate the damage, such as the 2012, policies of coursework french some cars not circulating certain days or using alternative energy sources. The policy will help the 2012, transformation of coursework CBD. The ideal CBD is a place that makes people enjoy the combination of work and life, therefore making the atmosphere more conducive for increasing productivity and employee satisfaction. 2012. Yet the status quo is quite the opposite: people are trapped in their cars--agitated by university essay, the non-moving traffic; blocked by the window to actually strike a nice conversation like passengers do in the public transportation system; in the mean time your car is pumping into air toxic gases and wastes simply for the waiting. It creates a hostile environment from the start of the usc essays, day! It reinforces the already thin humanly communication that a healthy employee needs; It turns all of of puget us into the robot-like lives that reside in machines. Sufficient scientific data has shown the lack of communication is more likely to lead to usc essays 2012, mental illness. Writing Thesis Statement Contrast Essay. The cold facade of CBD may not start from usc essays 2012, using cars, but it needs to coursework french, be broken, starting from banning cars. By banning cars at CBD, we are not only providing people to have more access to usc essays 2012, talk to each other (which is more likely to happen in the proposed scenario than, say a iron-clad isolated vehicle), we are contributing to sound essay, the human interaction, the self-actualization, and 2012, the satisfaction that eventually comes with socializing in people: we can be heartened by a conversation with a stranger on the bus; or we can breath the writing good essay, crispy air and finally feel alive.
All of these can barely happen if we are trapped in a over-air-coned car and complaining about the traffic! In the mean time, by usc essays 2012, having the ban, we become more environmental frjendly by both saving the energy and cutting cost. Last but not the least, less cars, and less demand for funding roads. Then there will be more money for improving public utilities. By removing cars from the CBD streets, we create opportunities for people to interact; we save more spaces for public utility; and we save the environment; And we get a more habitable CBD.
Really? Meeting people is the supply, problem? Prop is basing this argument in 2012 2 assumptions: 1st, that all people are extremely socially active as to have the necessity of writing good statement compare contrast talking to strangers in the streets. 2nd, that workers do not interact with others at all. Into the first one: A clarification of prop’s priorities is needed, if they pretend to defend efficiency then why should workers be meeting new friends in the streets of Polanco instead of heading straight to work (remember that now they take longer, as they have to travel by public transport), I thought that was what Fridays and parties were for. The other thing is usc essays, that fortunately most of them have it clear that they’ve got a responsibility with their jobs and thanks to this and to chain, the typical behavior of people they don’t tend to be searching conversations anywhere, it could also be dangerous. Second assumption. Actually CBD workers do not have their job stations at bunkers, they have colleagues and partners to whom they can talk to and relax during lunch or other moments. Also companies are conscious about the usc essays 2012, rhythm of life in essay nature cities and this is why they implement activities like picnics and balls for 2012 they employees, meaning that they don’t really have a necessity nor an incentive for increasing their friends in Facebook. If Prop is so worried about the traffic, then the real transformation should involve something that deals with this problem without affecting others.
And as evidence supports public transportation is losing devotes [[http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2003/02/public-transit-a-bad-product-at-a-bad-price]], the real change comes along with the improvement of the coursework, existing vehicle infrastructure, taking the best out of what we have. Ideas like the development of superstreets by the NCSU [[http://news.ncsu.edu/releases/wmshummersuperstreets/]] may prove to be the answer to what this debate is looking for. Obviously, the first step towards transformation is opposing to this motio. The World's most important Chief Executive Officers pushing their ways in the subway! People should not be denied to use the means of transportation that they want, and less if it is one of their property, such as a well-earned car, or at 2012 least not for the reasons provided by university sound supplemental, the proposition. PROP mentioned that the usc essays 2012, reason why people use cars is just to university of puget, show their wealth.
We don't just say that is false (for example, in Caracas almost every car has blackened windows so the other people cannot see who is in the car) but we also say that there are many powerful reasons why anyone, and specially those that work in CBDs, would decide to use their cars as best option for transportation (yet again, not opposing public transportation). A good reason for that is security. Usc Essays. Someone like a CEO of a big transnational or the director of a financial institution becomes a vulnerable target when going on public transportation. Nature. It is just an absurd idea to think that those men (who may well be some of the most powerful men in the World) would decide to go in an overcrowded metro or bus instead of going with their cars, which are probably surrounded by other 4 with bodyguards. We believe these people need to go to usc essays 2012, their work in private cars because in any other case they would be an easy target for kidnappings or heavy assaults. If that's not the case then picture them with ten bodyguards around pushing everyone to get into the metro wagon, which right now is already overcrowded in any city you can tell me, and now adding in basically almost everyone that works in CBDs.
Yeah, picture the CEO of the biggest transnational you can think about getting into the bus. Now imagine the reporters and general people stalking them. Management Thesis. OPP can't. People have that right over their own cars and they should use them if they want to avoid pushing and being targets for robberies and go comfortable in their cars as well. Whoever doesn't want to have traffic should use public transportation, however if you are willing to usc essays 2012, wake up an hour earlier but listening your car's music, go for it. The Opp's entire case is based on one assumption: the traffic at CBD is fine, and therefore no need to coursework, change. However, they miss the central point of this debate which is CBDs are indeed crammed as hell. Otherwise we won't be having this at all. If they are truly as logical as they claimed, they should at usc essays 2012 least tell us how the all jammed-up CBD where everyone can't effectively transport is better than our proposed transportation which asks everyone especially the supply chain management, sedentary ones to move their chubby buttocks. Opp talks about 2012 efficiency and how cars are efficient.
Yes, cars are pretty efficient, but not at good thesis compare contrast essay CBD! What a real picture is hundreds of 2012 thousands of cars all swarm in sustainable supply the business center roads, car honking, people complaining yet no one is actually moving! There is a joke about the CBD of Beijing: with the usc essays 2012, majority of 750'000 registered cars pouring in, the CBD roads are now called the giant car parking lot. How is that efficient? How does businesses' profit not hurt when you virtually spend the better part of your day stuck in aqa gcse french your car; when the 2012, mail delivery vehicles get jammed and consequently delay delivery? When it actually takes longer time to drive than to walk?
And it is not just in Beijing, in Mexican city too, with more than 3 million registered vehicles, Mexico City is dream essay, difficult to navigate. Major roads are nearly always congested..And the CBD which the Opp recognizes as the Axis of Transportation is going to take the hardest blow since all cars go to CBD, and traffic jam there will amount to the degree of usc essays unbearable. Increased traffic as a result of the prohibition of cars. One of the predominant characteristics among CBDs is nature, their privileged geographical location within the cities in which they are located. Usc Essays 2012. It is a general norm that this prominent zones must be accessible for thesis contrast essay the entire city and that they need to be greatly connected in terms of its proximity with transportation centrals and usc essays 2012, governmental institutions. This is the reason why much of the urban growth has its epicenter in Financial Districts, meaning that at the they will be the axis of the city or at least one of most transited areas of it (that’s why they are built for, isn’t it?); it is the case of Polanco in essay in schools Mexico, Innenstadt in Germany, the Yuzhong District in China and of many other CBDs in the world being connected with important avenues and districts. Because of this particular feature banning the presence of cars does not only 2012 directly impact City Centres, people who would usually transit through this channels while heading to management, their destinations in the terminus of the city or that were simply encouraged to cross this areas would find their most convenient route closed. As if digging an enormous hole in usc essays 2012 the middle of the city, people would now need to muddle through the peripheries of the city in order to get to where they need. It would also result into fewer highways and the concomitant traffic jams generated. In the end this won’t only impact the schedules of all of the essay nature, citizens, but it would also be reflected in the economy as the usc essays 2012, routes of the cities’ industrial transportation become slower and companies invest more time in moving their products.
Contrary to what the of puget, proposition established, there is no economic incentive here and a greater affection for the lesser good. The Opp also tells us that because many CBDs are small and 2012, they provide us with many statistics, therefore cars don't hurt the traffic. Again, their evidence just further undercut their case. If CBD is generally quite small, with millions of cars wouldn't it be crammed to i have dream essay, the point of explosion (like it is 2012, now!) and that helps facilitate traffic? The answer is NO. More importantly If they are small, then businesses are just within walking distance, several subway or bus stops away, would that be easier for people to run between meeting than get stuck in the car. Also on security issues, taking a subway or bus makes you more likely to face security issues such as robbery, and theft.
In order to make this point at least stand, the sample nature, Opp should tell us how driving a car makes you less likely to usc essays, be robbed and i have dream speech essay, stole from. And the usc essays, evidence can point to the other direction: you can have your car stolen while you are at work; you can have the robber hiding in your car and attack you or just smashing your window which is more likely to make you hurt. And in aqa gcse coursework french the subway or bus, at least you can get help from other passengers! On personal safety of the privileged people, the Opp's argument goes, they are likely to be stalked on public transport system. Well please heed the definition, if these people are privileged to hire body guards, then the vehicle they are using is not a private car because there are organizations who have vested interested in 2012 sending their car for the privileged ones to good compare, use in order to make them better protected. A second problem derived from the policy concerns the labor force of the CBDs. While it is true that a “car free zone” may actually help to usc essays, reduce traffic within the area, it wouldn't ease the transportation requirements of its population. As noted by speech essay, the affirmative team residents of CBDs could take advantage of usc essays 2012 this policy, but Business Districts are not intended to serve as residential zones. Of Puget Supplemental. In his book Commercial Structure and 2012, Commercial Blight, Brian Berry explains why land value is higher in CBDs than in any other place , and given the high cost of the sample nature, land the population of this areas is reduced and living there is affordable exclusively for executives and top directors.
But we most keep an eye in usc essays the rest of the labor force of the big companies, the majority, as all of university of puget sound essay these other employees come from other zones in the cities or even from different cities just for the labor journey. Forcing all of these persons to travel by public transportation from usc essays, their far away residences to the Financial Districts would take a really efficient system -fast, cheap, secure, clean, and always accessible- for making the university of puget sound essay, measure successful. Truth is usc essays, that there are not too many countries that can claim to have one of those. In the everyday experiences people face with crowded buses, dirty installations and a lot of i have dream speech essay irregularities that make it much more easier for them to travel by car, this with the normal amount of passengers, now if we add all of the people that are going to change their means of transportation then those anemic systems would collapse. In order for the policy to succeed then we need to restructure not only the CBDs transport, but the whole city’s transportation system!
It is of course a titanic effort that takes lots of investment and resources which would make the usc essays 2012, situation difficult to come true, the initiative would just turn into a daily headache for workers. Sedentary! The Opp talks about sedentary: business people who are sedentary need to move fast. Two responses: First, they can move faster by public transportation; Second. isn't it that being sedentary gives them all the sample essay, more reason to move their chubby buttocks? More often than not, people take cars just because they are too LAZY to use their foot. 2012. And more importantly, this creeping mentality that all the privileged people get to use cars make the essay, CBD snobs all the more willing to cram up in the cars, the millions of which are destroying the functioning transportation in the CBD! But at usc essays some point we have the courtesy to concede, public transportation is not perfect. It asks you to i have dream speech, walk a few steps; sometimes it gets too crowded, too stingy, too noisy.
But that is not public transportation is inherently about. It is 2012, not that all pleasant at the present is that it is so underfunded! In the case of D.C. Aqa Gcse French. metro system, About $50 billion in backlog repairs is needed for 2012 rail transit systems, but just $5.6 billion was spent in 2006. The governments are so obsessive with building more roads to accommodate cars (which doesn't quite solve the problem because it extends to size of the city, making people travel more distance and takes away the public space which otherwise could be a park to sample essay nature, rest in, a museum to immerse in; or a library to contemplate in), thereby making the funding available for public system barely meet the needs. If we ban cars in the CBD, the funding need for more roads will be reduced, and more money will be available for usc essays 2012 a comfortable and writing compare essay, spacious subway and bus system. What commerce in CBDs is really like. In times of usc essays a massively interconnected economy, with sales rising or falling for unimaginable events in distant parts of the world, the speech, importance of this districts relays not in heavy industrial processes but in the service sector. The similarity among the firms located in CBDs reside in that almost all of the establishments there are dedicated to administrative and financial labors, not mattering if the enterprise sells cars or if it is an important telecommunication firm. We will find executives, managing directors, officers and employees which jobs are far from being the sedentary tasks of staying in an office 8 hours a day. No, this class of workers requires jumping from meeting to meeting, they may need to travel themselves to supervise the correct fulfillment of usc essays 2012 a project in university sound essay one of the enterprise’s facilities, or they’ll need to take care from an international client who has come to close a deal.
Given the usc essays, conditions of dream speech essay their jobs they may also require to carry themselves valuable and ostentatious objects as cell phones or laptops, a change of clothes, documents and usc essays, things which are difficult to be controlled by just two hands in one same moment. Viewed from any of the perspectives it is clear that having a car is not a luxury for them, it is a requirement for their jobs and it is the reason why many companies take the initiative to provide their employees with a vehicle so that they can always be in time for their appointments, with the necessary equipment and without incidents. As simple as it sounds. Substituting their transportation means may mean a decrease in efficiency, because no matter how good a public transport is, it will always take more time than traveling by your own in your car. Coursework French. Even if the delay is minimum, let’s say 20 minutes more than a car journey per trip, a person who needs to attend to 4 different meetings in a single day will require more than an hour more than if he had travelled by car. Quite an elevated price to pay. Status Quo is way better for the problem they try to solve. If you block an artery of a human body the consequence of it will be a heart attack. Same applies with the main roads of a city, and usc essays 2012, that is of puget sound supplemental essay, what the usc essays 2012, Proposition tries to implement. As we have already said, through the CBDs transit many cars, not only those of the people that work there, but also people that live around and i have dream essay, want to go to usc essays 2012, any other place, or people that cross the city.
Actually there is i have essay, more people that transit those streets than those that actually go to CBDs that, as we have raised, are small. And yes, we stand on our point that the usc essays 2012, traffic is not bad within CBDs because people don't take cars to on information in schools, travel 200 meters (the majority of the World's CBDs are less than a kilometer long). Usc Essays. Does the proposition really think that people use cars when they can just arrive in management thesis one or two minutes walking? That's not the case, the traffic is caused by everyone that transits around the city and needs to go through the center (from east to west, north to south. ). Now picture all the 2012, people that want to move within the city blocked! The only result will be total chaos of a city! The people will need to look for alternative routes (that will be even more jam packed, since they are not built to receive traffic, unlike those that pass in CBDs) and if there are none, then the essay, government will need to build other roads (which is almost impossible) just to avoid those 600 meters that are the main artery of the city. It will just be a ridiculous policy.
Now, on the point of security, we don't say cars are perfectly safe (so of course the Proposition can raise hundredths of 2012 hypothetical crimes committed against car drivers) however in public transportation you are exposed and vulnerable, unlike cars, where you can go unnoticed and less of a target (specially in those traffic roads without traffic lights), and in cases of high profile people, they may need bodyguard cars that ARE NOT public as the Proposition tries to nature, say, since those services are not provided by the state. We say banning private cars in CBD instead of usc essays letting those cars stuck in the traffic jams is really important. Because it severely damage the efficiency of CBD, for example CBD of Beijing. Besides the choice of public transportation, you can walk if the distance is not too far, and this how financial elites working in Wall Street do. Also, it is not difficult to see city mayer go to his office by public transportation. Sustainable. The concern of being a target of terrorist in this case is far less harmful than living in a fixed habitation and working in a fixed location. It is much easier to know someones living place or working place, which makes them so easy to be targeted. Having a car is usc essays 2012, not a luxury. So that’s why so many people can buy it.
However, overuse of cars in CBD have CBD fail to aqa gcse coursework, function or function less. The traffic jams caused by heavy traffic burdens requires a solution. OPP should not just talk about the benefit of owning a car without facing the situation we have. The solution of removing heavy traffic burdens is usc essays, not about broad avenues or more highways, as we witness a lot of cities in China with super broad and super complicated transportation systems still cannot find a way to ease the burden of overuse of private cars, especially in the CBD areas where most of the cars are heading in or out. An example from sustainable, CBD of Seoul, Korea, a high way constructed in the super busy CBD, removed and replaced by an artificial river. 2012. Consequently, the former traffic burden in that region has been removed and make the place nicer and much more efficient in university essay transportation. But problem here today is the over use of cars in CBD region, which makes the usc essays, region not as efficient as it is expected. Then we need to change, to essay, perfect it with banning private cars used here. Otherwise, situation will just become worse and usc essays 2012, as a CBD can no longer act as a CBD.
Finally companies will look for other suitable places to move to and such an inefficient CBD would be abandoned. Why banning cars isn’t a smart decision. I dare you dear proposition to take a look into one of the streets of sample essay nature Raffles Place or of any other ironical CBD around the world. Places conceived for maximizing efficiency. How? By using cars! That is the reason why you’ll find yourselves surrounded by traffic lights, parking lots, big avenues and gas stations that were all built for supporting the smart and efficient drivers. By the way, all of these marvelous installments weren’t magically created. Governments had to make use of 2012 taxes to french, give maintenance to streets.
Entrepreneurs spent millions in building the parking slots in all of the skyscrapers. 2012. And most importantly, normal people like you and me bought cars in order to take advantage of this scenario! Because doing it would lead them to easier and supply management, more comfortable lives. The prohibition of usc essays 2012 cars will take away the soul-purpose of the investments of all of these groups. It’ll turn what was once a very rentable active into an obsolete and depressing passive. Appealing to the recycling of this resources, like the transformation of big avenues into of puget sound, quicker effective transportation and usc essays 2012, better investment is good thesis statement essay, false and wrong. Government may have the resources for usc essays doing it but it doesn’t justify the frittering of billions of contrast essay dollars that those roads cost to usc essays, all of the sample nature, citizens [[ftp://ftp.dot.state.fl.us/LTS/CO/Estimates/CPM/summary.pdf]]. Do you really think that entrepreneurs will look happily while their inversions drop to 0 because of usc essays a negligence?
Like constructing the parking slots and gas stations, remodeling them for making them again usable costs money, and a lot of it. What about the supply, civilians who will be forced to watch how their cars powder in their garages because they can only use them when they don’t have to work? That is usc essays, certainly not what they bought them for, hours of sample effort going to waste. It is actually an abuse! To protect the usc essays 2012, investments of the many people who rely on the effectiveness of the usage of car, we beg you to oppose th. There are three key questions: 1,-Will this measure prevent traffic? This was the most discussed issue since Prop defined that as the problem they tried to solve and we have clearly made the chain management, point that it won't be the case. Prop started off the usc essays 2012, debate by saying that, obviously, traffic jams are caused by cars, however there was not major analysis on that whilst we said that actually blocking the main artery of a city will give it a heart attack, since cars need to go through the centers in order to get to other places (or through) the city and here they would need to go around, something answered, whilst we also said a better investment is to improve roads. 2.-Will it affect commerce? Yes because traffic isn't much of a problem within the CBDs since, as we said, they're purposely built small so everything is close together and by walking distance so the people actually walk there, however the nature of the people working there requires them to thesis compare contrast, use their cars a lot (such as for supervising projects or transporting clients) since they are active and usc essays 2012, need to be moving from place to place carrying laptops, without necessarily the public transport system being able to carry them everywhere, so in the end their policy will be the university sound supplemental essay, one that affects commerce.
Prop's main reason on commercial harm is that somehow for 2012 being in the traffic, people stop being efficient however Opp said that those workers take their cautions and are obliged to work their hours, regardless of the hours they lose outside work. We also said that with slower routes, the industries will suffer losses, as will the government and on information, its road investments . Their point of meeting friends in the subway was just pointless; we said relationships are done at the office and parties. 3.-Should the right of using cars be denied? No, because Prop says that using cars is irrational, first by saying that people only use cars to show wealth and usc essays 2012, when we made our rebuttal saying that actually in some cities the majority of cars have darkened shields/windows they changed their minds saying that the reason was stupidity in on information technology the people thinking cars are quicker than the public transportation, and we said sometimes they are , and usc essays 2012, even in those cases where they aren't, the truth is that they prefer to use their well-earned investment of car where they can be more comfortable even if they are willing to take more time, this is a matter of being their own choice, which Prop tried to cut on the basis that people are irrational. Most people clearly prefer traffic than public transportation. Moreover there could be other reasons such as security, and good thesis statement compare, Prop answered that cars can still be targets for usc essays crime, but we said that they could be a less vulnerable target. Then our point of high profile people fully stands on our side since Prop only answered saying they could still use security companies since they are public, something that is obviously not true. They do a direct harm here. Opp made its point clear.
What do you think? Continue the Debate - Leave a Comment. 2 Comments on Cars Should Be Banned From City Centres why is there no talk about all the lives saved from car accidents? We would love to hear what you think – please leave a comment!