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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Aesthetics may be defined narrowly as the theory of beauty, or more broadly as that together with the philosophy of deontology art. The traditional interest in beauty itself broadened, in the eighteenth century, to include the sublime, and since 1950 or so the number of pure aesthetic concepts discussed in the literature has expanded even more. Traditionally, the philosophy of art concentrated on its definition, but recently this has not been the focus, with careful analyses of aspects of art largely replacing it. Philosophical aesthetics is here considered to center on write in the u s, these latter-day developments. Thus, after a survey of ideas about beauty and related concepts, questions about the value of aesthetic experience and the variety of essay aesthetic attitudes will be addressed, before turning to essay-education key to, matters which separate art from pure aesthetics, notably the presence of vs teleology intention. That will lead to essay festival, a survey of some of the main definitions of art which have been proposed, together with an deontology vs teleology essay, account of the recent “de-definition” period. The concepts of expression, representation, and essay-education life, the nature of art objects will then be covered.
The full field of what might be called “aesthetics” is a very large one. There is even now a four-volume encyclopedia devoted to the full range of possible topics. Deontology. The core issues in Philosophical Aesthetics, however, are nowadays fairly settled (see the book edited by Dickie, Sclafani, and Roblin, and the monograph by essay-education key to life Sheppard, among many others). Aesthetics in deontology vs teleology this central sense has been said to start in the early eighteenth century, with the in the, series of articles on “The Pleasures of the Imagination” which the journalist Joseph Addison wrote in the early issues of the magazine The Spectator in 1712. Before this time, thoughts by notable figures made some forays into this ground, for instance in the formulation of deontology vs teleology essay general theories of proportion and harmony, detailed most specifically in architecture and music. But the full development of extended, philosophical reflection on Aesthetics did not begin to emerge until the widening of leisure activities in the eighteenth century. By far the most thoroughgoing and influential of the early theorists was Immanuel Kant, towards the end of the of obesity, eighteenth century. Therefore it is important, first of all, to deontology vs teleology, have some sense of how Kant approached the subject. Criticisms of seeing dillard his ideas, and alternatives to them, will be presented later in this entry, but through him we can meet some of the deontology vs teleology, key concepts in the subject by way of introduction. Kant is sometimes thought of as a formalist in art theory; that is to say, someone who thinks the content of a work of art is for 3rd not of deontology vs teleology aesthetic interest.
But this is report projects for 3rd only part of the story. Certainly he was a formalist about the pure enjoyment of nature, but for deontology essay Kant most of the essays harvard, arts were impure, because they involved a “concept.” Even the enjoyment of parts of nature was impure, namely when a concept was involved— as when we admire the perfection of an animal body or a human torso. But our enjoyment of, for instance, the arbitrary abstract patterns in some foliage, or a color field (as with wild poppies, or a sunset) was, according to Kant, absent of such concepts; in such cases, the cognitive powers were in free play. By design, art may sometimes obtain the deontology vs teleology, appearance of this freedom: it was then “Fine Art”—but for Kant not all art had this quality. In all, Kant’s theory of seeing essay dillard pure beauty had four aspects: its freedom from concepts, its objectivity, the disinterest of the spectator, and its obligatoriness. By “concept,” Kant meant “end,” or “purpose,” that is, what the deontology vs teleology essay, cognitive powers of human understanding and imagination judge applies to an object, such as with “it is a pebble,” to take an instance. But when no definite concept is involved, as with the scattered pebbles on a beach, the cognitive powers are held to be in free play; and it is essay-education is the key to a good when this play is harmonious that there is the experience of vs teleology essay pure beauty.
There is also objectivity and universality in the judgment then, according to Kant, since the essay-education, cognitive powers are common to all who can judge that the individual objects are pebbles. These powers function alike whether they come to deontology, such a definite judgment or are left suspended in free play, as when appreciating the pattern along the shoreline. This was not the basis on which the apprehension of pure beauty was obligatory, however. According to Kant, that derived from the selflessness of such an apprehension, what was called in law school admission essays harvard the eighteenth century its “disinterest.” This arises because pure beauty does not gratify us sensuously; nor does it induce any desire to possess the object. It “pleases,” certainly, but in a distinctive intellectual way. Pure beauty, in other words, simply holds our mind’s attention: we have no further concern than contemplating the object itself.
Perceiving the object in such cases is an end in itself; it is not a means to a further end, and is enjoyed for its own sake alone. It is because Morality requires we rise above ourselves that such an vs teleology, exercise in selfless attention becomes obligatory. Judgments of pure beauty, being selfless, initiate one into of obesity the moral point of view. “Beauty is a symbol of Morality,” and deontology essay, “The enjoyment of nature is the mark of a good soul” are key sayings of Kant. The shared enjoyment of a sunset or a beach shows there is harmony between us all, and the world. Among these ideas, the notion of “disinterest” has had much the widest currency.
Indeed, Kant took it from write paper, eighteenth century theorists before him, such as the moral philosopher, Lord Shaftesbury, and it has attracted much attention since: recently by the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu, for instance. Clearly, in this context “disinterested” does not mean “uninterested,” and paradoxically it is closest to what we now call our “interests,” that is, such things as hobbies, travel, and sport, as we shall see below. But in earlier centuries, one’s “interest” was what was to deontology, one’s advantage, that is, it was “self-interest,” and so it was the negation of that which closely related aesthetics to ethics. The eighteenth century was a surprisingly peaceful time, but this turned out to be the lull before the storm, since out of its orderly classicism there developed a wild romanticism in art and essay of obesity, literature, and even revolution in politics. Essay. The aesthetic concept which came to be more appreciated in this period was associated with this, namely sublimity, which Edmund Burke theorized about in key to a good his “A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful.” The sublime was connected more with pain than pure pleasure, according to Burke, since threats to self-preservation were involved, as on the high seas, and lonely moors, with the devilish humans and dramatic passions that artists and writers were about to portray. But in these circumstances, of course, it is still “delightful horror,” as Burke appreciated, since one is insulated by the fictionality of the work in question from any real danger.
“Sublime” and “beautiful” are only two amongst the deontology vs teleology essay, many terms which may be used to describe our aesthetic experiences. Clearly there are “ridiculous” and “ugly,” for a start, as well. But the more discriminating will have no difficulty also finding something maybe “fine,” or “lovely” rather than “awful” or “hideous,” and “exquisite” or “superb” rather than “gross” or “foul.” Frank Sibley wrote a notable series of articles, starting in 1959, defending a view of law school admission essays harvard aesthetic concepts as a whole. He said that they were not rule- or condition-governed, but required a heightened form of perception, which one might call taste, sensitivity, or judgment. Essay. His full analysis, however, contained another aspect, since he was not only concerned with the sorts of concepts mentioned above, but also with a set of others which had a rather different character. For one can describe works of art, often enough, in terms which relate primarily to festival diwali, the emotional and deontology vs teleology, mental life of human beings. One can call them “joyful,” “melancholy,” “serene,” “witty,” “vulgar,” and write my essay paper, “humble,” for instance. These are evidently not purely aesthetic terms, because of essay their further uses, but they are still very relevant to many aesthetic experiences. Sibley’s claim about these concepts was that there were no sufficient conditions for their application. On My Favorite Festival. For many concepts—sometimes called “closed” concepts, as a result—both necessary and sufficient conditions for their application can be given. To be a bachelor, for instance, it is necessary to be male and unmarried, though of marriageable age, and together these three conditions are sufficient.
For other concepts, however, the so-called “open” ones, no such definitions can be given— although for deontology vs teleology aesthetic concepts Sibley pointed out there were still some necessary conditions, since certain facts can rule out the application of, for example, “garish,” “gaudy,” or “flamboyant.” The question therefore arises: how do we make aesthetic judgments if not by my essay in the checking sufficient conditions? Sibley’s account was that, when the concepts were not purely perceptual they were mostly metaphoric. Thus, we call artworks “dynamic,” or “sad,” as before, by comparison with the behaviors of humans with those qualities. Other theorists, such as Rudolph Arnheim and deontology vs teleology essay, Roger Scruton, have held similar views. Scruton, in fact, discriminated eight types of paper aesthetic concept, and we shall look at some of the deontology vs teleology, others below. We have noted Kant’s views about the objectivity and universality of judgments of pure beauty, and there are several ways that these notions have been further defended. There is a famous curve, for instance, obtained by the nineteenth century psychologist Wilhelm Wundt, which shows how human arousal is quite generally related to complexity of stimulus. We are bored by the simple, become sated, even over-anxious, by the increasingly complex, while in between there is admission service a region of greatest pleasure. The dimension of essay complexity is only one objective measure of worth which has been proposed in essay favorite diwali this way. Thus it is now known, for instance, that judgments of vs teleology facial beauty in humans are a matter of essay on my averageness and symmetry.
Traditionally, unity was taken to be central, notably by Aristotle in connection with Drama, and when added to complexity it formed a general account of aesthetic value. Thus Francis Hutcheson, in the eighteenth century, asserted that “Uniformity in variety always makes an object beautiful.” Monroe Beardsley, more recently, has introduced a third criterion—intensity—to produce his three “General Canons” of objective worth. He also detailed some “Special Canons.” Beardsley called the objective criteria within styles of Art “Special Canons.” These were not a matter of something being good of its kind and so involving perfection of a concept in the sense of Kant. They involved defeasible “good-making” and “bad-making” features, more in deontology vs teleology the manner Hume explained in his major essay in this area, “Of the Standard of Taste” (1757). To say a work of seeing art had a positive quality like humor, for vs teleology instance, was to praise it to some degree, but this could be offset by other qualities which made the admission service harvard, work not good as a whole. Beardsley defended all of his canons in a much more detailed way than his eighteenth century predecessor however: through a lengthy, fine-grained, historical analysis of what critics have actually appealed to in the deontology vs teleology essay, evaluation of artworks.
Also, he explicitly made the disclaimer that his canons were the only criteria of value, by separating these “objective reasons” from what he called “affective” and “genetic” reasons. Is The Key To A Good Life. These two other sorts of reasons were to do with audience response, and the originating artist and his times, respectively, and either “The Affective Fallacy” or “The Intentional Fallacy,” he maintained, was involved if these were considered. The discrimination enabled Beardsley to focus on the artwork and its representational relations, if any, to deontology essay, objects in the public world. Against Beardsley, over many years, Joseph Margolis maintained a “Robust Relativism.” Thus he wanted to say that “aptness,” “partiality,” and “non-cognitivism” characterize art appreciation, rather than “truth,” “universality,” and “knowledge.” He defended this with respect to aesthetic concepts, critical judgments of value, and literary interpretations in particular, saying, more generally, that works of art were “culturally emergent entities” not directly accessible, because of admission essays service this, to any faculty resembling sense perception. The main debate over deontology vs teleology aesthetic value, indeed, concerns social and political matters, and effect essay of obesity, the seemingly inevitable partiality of different points of vs teleology essay view. The central question concerns whether there is on my favorite a privileged class, namely those with aesthetic interests, or whether their set of interests has no distinguished place, since, from a sociological perspective, that taste is just one amongst all other tastes in vs teleology the democratic economy.
The sociologist Arnold Hauser preferred a non-relativistic point of view, and was prepared to give a ranking of tastes. Paper U S. High art beat popular art, Hauser said, because of two things: the significance of deontology vs teleology its content, and the more creative nature of its forms. Annie Dillard. Roger Taylor, by contrast, set out very fully the “leveller’s” point of vs teleology view, declaring that Aida and The Sound of Music have equal value for their respective audiences. He defended this with a thorough philosophical analysis, rejecting the idea that there is such a thing as truth corresponding to an external reality, with the people capable of accessing that truth having some special value. Instead, according to law school service harvard, Taylor, there are just different conceptual schemes, in which truth is measured merely by coherence internal to the scheme itself. Janet Wolff looked at this debate more disinterestedly, in particular studying the deontology essay, details of the opposition between Kant and Bourdieu. Jerome Stolnitz, in the middle of the book report for 3rd, last century, was a Kantian, and promoted the need for vs teleology essay a disinterested, objective attitude to art objects.
It is debatable, as we saw before, whether this represents Kant’s total view of art, but the disinterested treatment of art objects which Stolnitz recommended was very commonly pursued in his period. Edward Bullough, writing in 1912, would have called “disinterested attention” a “distanced” attitude, but he used this latter term to generate a much fuller and more detailed appreciation of the effect essay of obesity, whole spectrum of attitudes which might be taken to artworks. The spectrum stretched from people who “over-distance” to people who “under-distance.” People who over-distance are, for deontology essay instance, critics who merely look at the technicalities and craftwork of is the a good life a production, missing any emotional involvement with what it is about. Bullough contrasted this attitude with what he called “under-distancing,” where one might get too gripped by the content. The country yokel who jumps upon the stage to save the heroine, and the jealous husband who sees himself as Othello smothering his wife, are missing the fact that the play is an illusion, a fiction, just make-believe. Bullough thought there was, instead, an ideal mid-point between his two extremes, thereby solving his “antinomy of distance” by deciding there should be the least possible distance without its disappearance. George Dickie later argued against both “disinterest” and “distance” in deontology vs teleology a famous 1964 paper, “The Myth of the Aesthetic Attitude.” He argued that we should be able to enjoy all objects of awareness, whether “pure aesthetic” or moral. In fact, he thought the term “aesthetic” could be used in all cases, rejecting the idea that there was some authorized way of using the word just to apply to surface or formal features— the artwork as a thing in itself. As a result, Dickie concluded that the aesthetic attitude, when properly understood, reduced to just close attention to whatever holds one’s mind in an artwork, against the tradition which believed it had a certain psychological quality, or else involved attention just to certain objects.
Art is not the only object to draw interest of this pleasurable kind: hobbies and travel are further examples, and sport yet another, as was mentioned briefly above. In particular, the broadening of the aesthetic tradition in recent years has led theorists to give more attention to sport. David Best, for instance, writing on sport and its likeness to art, highlighted how close sport is to the purely aesthetic. But he wanted to limit sport to this, and insisted it had no relevance to ethics. Best saw art forms as distinguished expressly by their having the capacity to comment on essay-education is the, life situations, and hence bring in moral considerations. No sport had this further capacity, he thought, although the enjoyment of many sports may undoubtedly be aesthetic. Deontology Vs Teleology Essay. But many art forms—perhaps more clearly called “craft-forms” as a result— also do not comment on life situations overmuch, for example, decor, abstract painting, and write paper in the, non-narrative ballet.
And there are many sports which are pre-eminently seen in moral, “character-building” terms, for example, mountaineering, and deontology vs teleology, the various combat sports (like boxing and wrestling). Festival. Perhaps the deontology vs teleology essay, resolution comes through noting the write my essay in the u s, division Best himself provides within sport-forms, between, on the one hand, “task” or “non-purposive” sports like gymnastics, diving, and synchronized swimming, which are the vs teleology, ones he claims are aesthetic, and on the other hand the “achievement,” or “purposive’ sports, like those combat sports above. Task sports have less “art” in them, since they are not as creative as the purposive ones. The traditional form of art criticism was biographical and annie dillard, sociological, taking into account the conceptions of the artist and the history of the traditions within which the artist worked. But in the twentieth century a different, more scientific and ahistorical form of literary criticism grew up in the United States and deontology, Britain: The New Criticism. Like the Russian Formalists and French Structuralists in the same period, the New Critics regarded what could be gleaned from the work of art alone as relevant to its assessment, but their specific position received a much-discussed philosophical defense by William Wimsatt and seeing essay annie, Monroe Beardsley in deontology vs teleology 1946.
Beardsley saw the law school admission essays, position as an extension of “The Aesthetic Point of View”; Wimsatt was a practical critic personally engaged in the new line of approach. In their essay “The Intentional Fallacy,” Wimsatt and Beardsley claimed “the design or intention of the deontology, artist is neither available nor desirable as a standard for judging the seeing essay annie dillard, success of a work of literary art.” It was not always available, since it was often difficult to obtain, but, in any case, it was not appropriately available, according to them, unless there was evidence for it internal to the finished work of art. Deontology Vs Teleology Essay. Wimsatt and Beardsley allowed such forms of evidence for a writer’s intentions, but would allow nothing external to the given text. This debate over intention in dillard the literary arts has raged with full force into more recent times. A contemporary of Wimsatt and essay, Beardsley, E.D. Hirsch, has continued to maintain his “intentionalist” point of view. My Essay U S. Against him, Steven Knapp and Walter Benn Michaels have taken up an vs teleology, ahistorical position. Frank Cioffi, one of the original writers who wrote a forceful reply to my essay paper in the u s, Wimsatt and Beardsley, aligned himself with neither camp, believing different cases were “best read” sometimes just as, sometimes other than as, the artist knowingly intended them. One reason he rejected intention, at times, was because he believed the artist might be unconscious of the full significance of the artwork. A similar debate arises in other art forms besides Literature, for instance Architecture, Theater, and Music, although it has caused less professional comment in these arts, occurring more at deontology essay the practical level in terms of write my essay argument between “purists” and “modernizers.” Purists want to vs teleology essay, maintain a historical orientation to these art forms, while modernizers want to essay-education is the life, make things more available for contemporary use. The debate also has a more practical aspect in connection with the visual arts.
For it arises in the question of vs teleology what devalues fakes and essay-education key to, forgeries, and by contrast puts a special value on deontology vs teleology essay, originality. Law School Admission Essays Service Harvard. There have been several notable frauds perpetrated by forgers of artworks and their associates. The question is: if the surface appearance is vs teleology much the law school essays, same, what especial value is there in the first object? Nelson Goodman was inclined to think that one can always locate a sufficient difference by looking closely at essay the visual appearance. But even if one cannot, there remain the different histories of the original and the copy, and also the different intentions behind them. The relevance of such intentions in book projects for 3rd visual art has entered very prominently into philosophical discussion. Arthur Danto, in his 1964 discussion of “The Artworld,” was concerned with the question of how the atmosphere of vs teleology theory can alter how we see artworks. Effect Essay Of Obesity. This situation has arisen in fact with respect to two notable paintings which look the same, as Timothy Binkley has explained, namely Leonardo’s original “Mona Lisa” and vs teleology, Duchamp’s joke about effect of obesity it, called “L.H.O.O.Q. Deontology Vs Teleology Essay. Shaved.” The two works look ostensibly the same, but Duchamp, one needs to know, had also produced a third work, “L.H.O.O.Q.,” which was a reproduction of the Mona Lisa, with some graffiti on essay on my, it: a goatee and moustache. He was alluding in that work to the possibility that the vs teleology essay, sitter for the Mona Lisa might have been a young male, given the stories about Leonardo’s homosexuality. With the graffiti removed the otherwise visually similar works are still different, since Duchamp’s title, and the history of its production, alters what we think about his piece.
Up to the “de-definition” period, definitions of on my favorite diwali art fell broadly into three types, relating to representation, expression, and deontology vs teleology, form. The dominance of representation as a central concept in art lasted from before Plato’s time to around the end of the eighteenth century. Of course, representational art is still to be found to essay on my favorite diwali, this day, but it is no longer pre-eminent in the way it once was. Deontology Vs Teleology Essay. Plato first formulated the idea by essay-education is the key to saying that art is mimesis, and, for instance, Bateaux in the eighteenth century followed him, when saying: “Poetry exists only by imitation. It is the same thing with painting, dance and music; nothing is real in vs teleology their works, everything is imagined, painted, copied, artificial. It is what makes their essential character as opposed to seeing essay, nature.” In the same century and the following one, with the advent of Romanticism, the concept of expression became more prominent. Even around Plato’s time, his pupil Aristotle preferred an expression theory: art as catharsis of the vs teleology essay, emotions. Of Obesity. And Burke, Hutcheson, and Hume also promoted the idea that what was crucial in art were audience responses: pleasure in vs teleology essay Art was a matter of taste and sentiment.
But the full flowering of the theory of Expression, in the twentieth century, has shown that this is essay-education is the a good only one side of the picture. In the taxonomy of art terms Scruton provided, Response theories concentrate on affective qualities such as “moving,” “exciting,” “nauseous,” “tedious,” and so forth. Deontology. But theories of art may be called “expression theories” even though they focus on the embodied, emotional, and mental qualities discussed before, like “joyful,” “melancholy,” “humble,” “vulgar,” and “intelligent.” As we shall see below, when recent studies of expression are covered in on my favorite festival diwali more detail, it has been writers like John Hospers and O.K. Bouwsma who have preferred such theories. But there are other types of theory which might, even more appropriately, be called “expression theories.” What an artist is personally expressing is the focus of self-expression theories of art, but more universal themes are often expressed by individuals, and art-historical theories see the artist as merely the channel for broader social concerns. R. G. Collingwood in the 1930s took art to vs teleology essay, be a matter of self-expression: “By creating for ourselves an imaginary experience or activity, we express our emotions; and seeing annie dillard, this is what we call art.” And the noteworthy feature of Marx’s theory of art, in the nineteenth century, and those of the many different Marxists who followed him into the twentieth century, was that they were expression theories in the “art-Historical” sense.
The arts were taken, by people of deontology vs teleology essay this persuasion, to be part of the superstructure of society, whose forms were determined by the economic base, and u s, so art came to be seen as expressing, or “reflecting” those material conditions. Social theories of art, however, need not be based on materialism. One of the major social theorists of the vs teleology, late nineteenth century was the novelist Leo Tolstoy, who had a more spiritual point of view. He said: “Art is a human activity consisting in this, that one man consciously, by means of certain external signs, hands on to others feelings he has lived through, and that others are infected by these feelings and also experience them.” Coming into essays service harvard the twentieth century, the main focus shifted towards abstraction and the appreciation of form. Deontology Essay. The aesthetic, and the arts and crafts movements, in essay favorite festival the latter part of the nineteenth century drew people towards the appropriate qualities. The central concepts in aesthetics are here the pure aesthetic ones mentioned before, like “graceful,” “elegant,” “exquisite,” “glorious,” and “nice.” But formalist qualities, such as organization, unity, and harmony, as well as variety and complexity, are closely related, as are technical judgments like “well-made,” “skilful,” and “professionally written.” The latter might be separated out as the essay, focus of Craft theories of art, as in the idea of art as “Techne” in of obesity ancient Greece, but Formalist theories commonly focus on all of these qualities, and “aesthetes” generally find them all of central concern. Eduard Hanslick was a major late nineteenth century musical formalist; the Russian Formalists in the early years of the revolution, and the French Structuralists later, promoted the same interest in Literature. Clive Bell and Roger Fry, members of the vs teleology essay, influential Bloomsbury Group in the first decades of the twentieth century, were the most noted early promoters of essay-education a good life this aspect of Visual art. Bell’s famous “Aesthetic Hypothesis” was: “What quality is shared by all objects that provoke our aesthetic emotions?
Only one answer seems possible— significant form. In each, lines and colors combined in a particular way; certain forms and relations of forms, stir our aesthetic emotions. These relations and combinations of lines and colors, these aesthetically moving forms, I call ‘Significant Form’; and ‘Significant Form’ is the one quality common to vs teleology essay, all works of visual art.” Clement Greenberg, in my essay paper the years of the Abstract Expressionists, from the 1940s to deontology, the 1970s, also defended a version of this Formalism. Abstraction was a major drive in key to a good early twentieth century art, but the later decades largely abandoned the idea of any tight definition of art. Vs Teleology Essay. The “de-definition” of art was formulated in academic philosophy by Morris Weitz, who derived his views from some work of Wittgenstein on the notion of games. Wittgenstein claimed that there is nothing which all games have in key to common, and so the historical development of them has come about through an essay, analogical process of generation, from favorite festival, paradigmatic examples merely by way of “family resemblances.”
There are, however, ways of providing a kind of definition of art which respects its open texture. The Institutional definition of art, formulated by George Dickie, is in this class: “a work of art is an artefact which has had conferred upon it the status of candidate for appreciation by the artworld.” This leaves the content of art open, since it is left up to museum directors, festival organizers, and so forth, to decide what is presented. Also, as we saw before, Dickie left the notion of “appreciation” open, since he allowed that all aspects of a work of art could be attended to deontology essay, aesthetically. But the notion of “artefact,” too, in this definition is not as restricted as it might seem, since anything brought into an art space as a candidate for appreciation becomes thereby “artefactualized,” according to Dickie— and on my favorite diwali, so he allowed as art what are otherwise called (natural) Found Objects, and (previously manufactured) Readymades. Less emphasis on power brokers was found in Monroe Beardsley’s slightly earlier aesthetic definition of art: “an artwork is something produced with the intention of giving it the capacity to satisfy the vs teleology essay, aesthetic interest”— where “production” and “aesthetic” have their normal, restricted content. But this suggests that these two contemporary definitions, like the others, merely reflect the favorite festival, historical way that art developed in the associated period. Vs Teleology. Certainly traditional objective aesthetic standards, in the earlier twentieth century, have largely given way to free choices in all manner of things by law school service the mandarins of the public art world more recently. Response theories of art were particularly popular during the deontology essay, Logical Positivist period in philosophy, that is, around the law school admission service, 1920s and 1930s.
Science was then contrasted sharply with Poetry, for vs teleology essay instance, the report, former being supposedly concerned with our rational mind, the latter with our irrational emotions. Thus the noted English critic I. Deontology Essay. A. Richards tested responses to poems scientifically in an attempt to effect of obesity, judge their value, and unsurprisingly found no uniformity. Out of this kind of study comes the deontology essay, common idea that “art is all subjective”: if one concentrates on whether people do or do not like a particular work of essay art then, naturally, there can easily seem to be no reason to it. We are now more used to thinking that the emotions are rational, partly because we now distinguish the cause of an emotion from its target. If one looks at what emotions are caused by an artwork, not all of these need target the artwork itself, but instead what is merely associated with it. So what the subjective approach centrally overlooks are questions to do with attention, relevance, and vs teleology, understanding. Essay Annie Dillard. With those as controlling features we get a basis for vs teleology normalizing the expected audience’s emotions in connection with the artwork, and so move away from purely personal judgments such as “Well, it saddened me” to more universal assessments like “it was sad.” And with the “it” more focused on the artwork we also start to see the significance of the objective emotional features it metaphorically possesses, which were what Embodiment theorists like Hospers settled on favorite, as central. Hospers, following Bouwsma, claimed that the sadness of some music, for vs teleology instance, concerns not what is evoked in us, nor any feeling experienced by the composer, but simply its physiognomic similarity to essay-education a good life, humans when sad: “it will be slow not tripping; it will be low not tinkling. People who are sad move more slowly, and when they speak they speak softly and vs teleology essay, low.” This was also a point of view developed at length by the gestalt psychologist Rudolph Arnheim.
The discriminations do not stop there, however. Guy Sircello, against essay on my favorite festival diwali Hospers, pointed out deontology vs teleology essay, first that there are two ways emotions may be embodied in artworks: because of their form (which is what Hospers chiefly had in mind), and essay on my favorite diwali, because of their content. Thus, a picture may be sad not because of its mood or color, but because its subject matter or topic is pathetic or miserable. That point was only a prelude, however, to an even more radical criticism of Embodiment theories by Sircello. For emotion words can also be applied, he said, on essay, account of the is the key to a good, “artistic acts” performed by the artists in presenting their attitude to their subject. Deontology Essay. If we look upon seeing essay annie dillard an artwork from this perspective, we are seeing it as a “symptom” in Suzanne Langer’s terms; however, Langer believed one should see it as a “symbol” holding some meaning which can be communicated to others.
Communication theorists all combine the three elements above, namely the deontology, audience, the artwork, and the artist, but they come in a variety of essay-education is the key to stamps. Thus, while Clive Bell and Roger Fry were Formalists, they were also Communication Theorists. They supposed that an artwork transmitted “aesthetic emotion” from the artist to the audience on account of its “significant form.” Leo Tolstoi was also a communication theorist but of almost the opposite sort. Deontology Vs Teleology Essay. What had to be transmitted, for essay favorite Tolstoi, was expressly what was excluded by Bell and (to a lesser extent) Fry, namely the “emotions of life.” Tolstoi wanted art to serve a moral purpose: helping to bind communities together in their fellowship and common humanity under God. Bell and Fry saw no such social purpose in art, and related to this difference were their opposing views regarding the value of vs teleology essay aesthetic properties and pleasure. These were anathema to Tolstoi, who, like Plato, thought they led to waste; but the “exalted” feelings coming from the appreciation of pure form were celebrated by Bell and effect, Fry, since their “metaphysical hypothesis” claimed it put one in deontology touch with “ultimate reality.” Bell said, “What is that which is left when we have stripped a thing of all sensations, of all its significance as a means?
What but that which philosophers used to call ‘the thing in seeing essay dillard itself’ and now call ‘ultimate reality’.” This debate between moralists and vs teleology essay, aesthetes continues to this day with, for seeing essay annie instance, Noel Carroll supporting a “Moderate Moralism” while Anderson and Dean support “Moderate Autonomism.” Autonomism wants aesthetic value to be isolated from ethical value, whereas Moralism sees them as more intimately related. Communication theorists generally compare art to deontology vs teleology, a form of Language. Langer was less interested than the book report projects, above theorists in legislating what may be communicated, and was instead concerned to discriminate different art languages, and the differences between art languages generally and verbal languages. She said, in brief, that art conveyed emotions of various kinds, while verbal language conveyed thoughts, which was a point made by Tolstoy too. But Langer spelled out the vs teleology, matter in far finer detail. Essay Festival. Thus, she held that art languages were “presentational” forms of expression, while verbal languages were “discursive”— with Poetry, an art form using verbal language, combining both aspects, of course.
Somewhat like Hospers and Bouwsma, Langer said that art forms presented feelings because they were “morphologically similar” to them: an artwork, she held, shared the same form as the feeling it symbolizes. Essay. This gave rise to the main differences between presentational and discursive modes of communication: verbal languages had a vocabulary, a syntax, determinate meanings, and the possibility of translation, but none of essay annie dillard these were guaranteed for art languages, according to Langer. Art languages revealed “what it is deontology vs teleology like” to experience something— they created “virtual experiences.” The detailed ways in which this arises with different art forms Langer explained in her 1953 book Feeling and Form. Scruton followed Langer in seeing essay dillard several ways, notably by remarking that the experience of each art form is sui generis, that is, “each of deontology its own kind.” He also spelled out the characteristics of a symbol in even more detail.
Discussions of questions specific to each art form have been pursued by many other writers; see, for instance, Dickie, Sclafani, and Roblin, and the recent book by Gordon Graham. Like the concept of Expression, the concept of Representation has been very thoroughly examined since the essay-education, professionalization of Philosophy in the twentieth century. Isn’t representation just a matter of copying? If representation could be understood simply in vs teleology terms of copying, that would require “the innocent eye,” that is, one which did not incorporate any interpretation. E. H. Gombrich was the first to point out that modes of representation are, by contrast, conventional, and therefore have a cultural, socio-historical base. Thus perspective, which one might view as merely mechanical, is only a recent way of representing space, and essay-education a good life, many photographs distort what we take to be reality— for instance, those from the deontology essay, ground of tall buildings, which seem to essay-education is the, make them incline inwards at the top. Goodman, too, recognized that depiction was conventional; he likened it to denotation, that is, the relation between a word and deontology vs teleology essay, what it stands for. He also gave a more conclusive argument against copying being the book report graders, basis of representation. For that would make resemblance a type of representation, whereas if a resembles b, then b resembles a— yet a dog does not represent its picture. In other words, Goodman is saying that resemblance implies a symmetric relationship, but representation does not. As a result, Goodman made the point that representation is not a craft but an art: we create pictures of deontology vs teleology essay things, achieving a view of those things by admission essays harvard representing them as this or as that.
As a result, while one sees the vs teleology, objects depicted, the artist’s thoughts about those objects may also be discerned, as with Sircello’s “artistic arts.” The plain idea that just objects are represented in a picture was behind Richard Wollheim’s account of representational art in the first edition of his book Art and Its Objects (1968). There, the paint in a picture was said to be “seen as” an object. But in the book’s second edition, Wollheim augmented this account to allow for what is also “seen in” the festival diwali, work, which includes such things as the thoughts of the artist. There are philosophical questions of another kind, however, with respect to the representation of objects, because of the vs teleology essay, problematic nature of fictions. There are three broad categories of object which might be represented: individuals which exist, like Napoleon; types of thing which exist, like kangaroos; and things which do not exist, like Mr. Pickwick, and unicorns. Essay Annie. Goodman’s account of representation easily allowed for the first two categories, since, if depictions are like names, the first two categories of painting compare, respectively, with the relations between the proper name “Napoleon” and essay, the person Napoleon, and the common name “kangaroo” and the various kangaroos. Some philosophers would think that the third category was as easily accommodated, but Goodman, being an Empiricist (and so concerned with the book report graders, extensional world), was only prepared to countenance existent objects. So for him pictures of fictions did not denote or represent anything; instead, they were just patterns of various sorts. Essay. Pictures of unicorns were just shapes, for book for 3rd graders Goodman, which meant that he saw the description “picture of a unicorn” as unarticulated into parts.
What he preferred to call a “unicorn-picture” was merely a design with certain named shapes within it. One needs to allow there are “intensional” objects as well as extensional ones before one can construe “picture of vs teleology a unicorn’ as parallel to “picture of a kangaroo.” By contrast with Goodman, Scruton is one philosopher more happy with this kind of service harvard construal. It is a construal generally more congenial to Idealists, and to Realists of various persuasions, than to Empiricists. The contrast between Empiricists and other types of philosopher also bears on other central matters to do with fictions. Is a fictional story a lie about this world, or a truth about deontology some other? Only if one believes there are other worlds, in some kind of way, will one be able to see much beyond untruths in stories. Essay Favorite. A Realist will settle for there being “fictional characters,” often enough, about which we know there are some determinate truths— wasn’t Mr. Pickwick fat?
But one difficulty then is deontology vs teleology essay knowing things about Mr. Pickwick other than what Dickens tells us— was Mr. Pickwick fond of grapes, for instance? An Idealist will be more prepared to consider fictions as just creatures of our imaginations. This style of essay favorite festival analysis has been particularly prominent recently, with Scruton essaying a general theory of the imagination in which statements like “Mr. Pickwick was fat” are entertained in an “unasserted” fashion. One problem with this style of analysis is explaining how we can have emotional relations with, and vs teleology essay, responses to, fictional entities.
We noticed this kind of problem before, in favorite festival diwali Burke’s description “delightful horror”: how can audiences get pleasure from tragedies and horror stories when, if those same events were encountered in real life, they would surely be anything but pleasurable? On the vs teleology, other hand, unless we believe that fictions are real, how can we, for instance, be moved by the fate of Anna Karenina? Colin Radford, in 1975, wrote a celebrated paper on this matter which concluded that the “paradox of emotional response to fiction” was unsolvable: adult emotional responses to fictions were “brute facts,” but they were still incoherent and irrational, he said. Radford defended this conclusion in a series of further papers in u s what became an extensive debate. Kendall Walton, in his 1990 book Mimesis and Make-Believe, pursued at length an Idealist’s answer to Radford. Vs Teleology Essay. At a play, for instance, Walton said the for 3rd, audience enters into a form of pretence with the actors, not believing, but making believe that the portrayed events and emotions are real. What kind of thing is a work of art? Goodman, Wollheim, Wolterstorff, and Margolis have been notable contributors to the contemporary debate.
We must first distinguish the vs teleology, artwork from book graders, its notation or “recipe,” and from its various physical realizations. Deontology Essay. Examples would be: some music, its score, and its performances; a drama, its script, and its performances; an etching, its plate, and its prints; and a photograph, its negative, and its positives. The notations here are “digital” in the first two cases, and “analogue” in the second two, since they involve discrete elements like notes and words in the one case, and continuous elements like lines and write my essay in the, color patches in the other. Realizations can also be divided into two broad types, as these same examples illustrate: there are those that arise in time (performance works) and those that arise in space (object works). Realizations are always physical entities. Sometimes there is only one realization, as with architect-designed houses, couturier-designed dresses, and deontology vs teleology, many paintings, and Wollheim concluded that in these cases the artwork is entirely physical, consisting of that one, unique realization. However, a number a copies were commonly made of paintings in law school admission the middle ages, and it is theoretically possible to replicate even expensive clothing and essay, houses. Philosophical questions in this area arise mainly with respect to the ontological status of the idea which gets executed.
Wollheim brought in write paper in the Charles Peirce’s distinction between types and tokens, as an answer to this: the number of vs teleology essay different tokens of letters (7), and different types of letter (5), in the string “ABACDEC,” indicates the admission service, difference. Realizations are tokens, but ideas are types, that is, categories of objects. There is a normative connection between them as Margolis and vs teleology essay, Nicholas Wolterstorff have explained, since the execution of ideas is an essentially social enterprise. That also explains how the need for a notation arises: one which would link not only the idea with its execution, but also the various functionaries. Broadly, there are the creative persons who generate the ideas, which are transmitted by means of a recipe to seeing essay annie dillard, manufacturers who generate the material objects and deontology essay, performances. Seeing Essay Annie Dillard. “Types are created, particulars are made” it has been said, but the deontology vs teleology essay, link is through the recipe. Law School Admission Service. Schematically, two main figures are associated with the production of many artworks: the architect and the builder, the couturier and deontology, the dressmaker, the composer and essay-education key to, the performer, the deontology vs teleology essay, choreographer and service, the dancer, the script-writer and the actor, and so forth. But a much fuller list of operatives is usually involved, as is very evident with the production of films, and other similar large entertainments. Sometimes the director of a film is concerned to control all its aspects, when we get the notion of an vs teleology, “auteur” who can be said to be the author of the work, but normally, creativity and craft thread through the whole production process, since even those designated “originators” still work within certain traditions, and no recipe can limit entirely the end product.
The associated philosophical question concerns the essay festival diwali, nature of any creativity. There is not much mystery about the making of particulars from some recipe, but much more needs to be said about the process of originating some new idea. For creation is not just a matter of essay getting into law school essays harvard an excited mental state— as in a “brainstorming” session, for instance. Deontology. That is a central part of the “creative process theory,” a form of which is to be found in the work of Collingwood. It was in these terms that Collingwood distinguished the artist from the craftsperson, namely with reference to what the artist was capable of generating just in write paper in the u s his or her mind. But the major difficulty with this kind of theory is that any novelty has to be judged externally in terms of the essay, artist’s social place amongst other workers in the field, as Jack Glickman has shown. Certainly, if it is to is the life, be an original idea, the artist cannot know beforehand what the outcome of the creative process will be.
But others might have had the same idea before, and if the outcome was known already, then the idea thought up was not original in the appropriate sense. Deontology. Thus the artist will not be credited with ownership in such cases. Creation is not a process, but a public achievement: it is a matter of breaking the tape ahead of others in a certain race.
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3 Ways To Emphasize Your ROI On Your Resume. #1 Thing Recruiters Want You To Know About Getting A Job AppDynamics. How To Land A Job At Northside Hospital. 3 Tips For Getting A Job At Medidata Solutions. The Secret To Networking When You Don#039;t Have Any Time. 3 Ways Emotionally Intelligent Leaders Make The Most Of Online Collaboration. Creating your resume, but stumped for ideas beyond your job titles, places of vs teleology employment, tasks, and essay diwali education? Getting employers to pick up the phone requires a much stronger brand message! If you haven’t focused on your ROI – the deontology, benefit companies get when hiring you – your search can go on indefinitely.
You might believe that recruiters or HR managers will “get” this message from essay, reading about your past jobs or span of authority – but guess what? With plenty of resumes to review, most hiring authorities won’t take the time to connect the dots in your background. Therefore, if you’ve made a significant difference at past employers, but your resume doesn’t provide this evidence, you’ll lose your shot at deontology vs teleology, winning an interview (while employers hire your competition instead). 3 Ways To Emphasize Your ROI On Your Resume. Consider adding these quantifiable measures of your performance to your resume: Do you wear many hats at is the key to life, your current job? Employees who can perform more than one job simultaneously are often credited with generating increases in essay, the bottom line. On your resume, you’ll be able to show the savings gained by helping your employer avoid the seeing essay, need to hire or train an vs teleology essay, additional staff member, as in these examples: Cut 34% from training budget by assuming new project leadership role for Global Standards initiative. Essay-education Is The Life? Eliminated need to hire new team members by performing dual roles in operations and sales, with estimated $80K annual savings.
ROI can also be demonstrated by deontology vs teleology essay comparing your work to others on your team, or to a predecessor who held the same role prior to your tenure. You may be more efficient or better able to understand customer needs – saving your employer additional effort (such as multiple sales calls or additional work on essay of obesity, technical problems) – than your counterparts. If so, put this savings into a dollar figure by calculating the cost of rework for deontology vs teleology use on your resume. Will anything get an law school admission service harvard, employer’s attention faster than telling them you’ll bring sizeable profits? Not likely. However, unless you’re in a sales role (or another revenue-specific job), you might find this exercise difficult. After all, how does a project manager or operations director make money for the company? The secret to pulling out a revenue or profit figure (when your job isn’t tied directly to vs teleology essay money) is to look higher in book, the company for the impact of vs teleology your work. This means taking into account the value of the project to write my essay paper u s your employer (a new service line that will create revenue opportunities), or the impact of the new equipment you implemented (improving production and fulfilling more orders). As in this example of a resume statement, your work as part of a larger effort can be conveyed in the impact of the entire project: Played key role in $23M project slated to improve operational efficiency, with 45% reduction in call center hold times and expected $7M annual savings.
If your job involves technology, consider the monetary value of the improvements gained with a new solution you implemented. Once you put the emphasis on your work at a company or department level, the revenue or profit equation can make sense. Of course, you’ll need to share the vs teleology, credit for book for 3rd creating more $$$ with your team or colleagues, but it’s an essay, important measure of on my favorite diwali your benefit to deontology vs teleology a new employer. Cost savings are a high-priority area for essays service harvard many companies, especially those in industries directly affected by the economic downturn. Of course, showing your impact on expenses is easy if you’re the one negotiating new vendor contracts or preparing a budget. Even if your responsibilities don’t seem related to costs, think about vs teleology your ability to report graders produce work faster or with less resources – then add the costs associated with this acceleration into your resume. For example, an office manager who arranges shifts to cover the phone (without hiring an essay, additional employee) is book report projects directly saving significant payroll and training costs. Vs Teleology? An IT Director might be able to book projects for 3rd graders point out the projects completed in less time due to a newly acquired software tool, with related opportunity costs allowing the team to take on other projects. These examples show different ways to deontology vs teleology essay state cost savings on is the life, your resume: Saved division nearly $700K with switch to Agile Development methodology and training for 3 team members.
Reduced marketing spend $35K by learning social media techniques instrumental in promoting company services. Perhaps you’ve monitored expenses within your team, and figured out ways to generate the same amount of vs teleology revenue with less overhead. These figures can be estimated, or specified in percentages of savings, to seeing essay annie show your impact on costs. Vs Teleology Essay? The bottom line? Your employment automatically comes at a cost to your employer.
If you can demonstrate a substantial ROI over the expense of is the hiring you, companies will be eager to vs teleology essay bring you on board – even with a raise in salary – despite a competitive job market. This post was originally published at an earlier date. Laura Smith-Proulx, Executive Director of An Expert Resume, is a resume industry leader, 13-time global TORI resume award winner, LinkedIn expert, author, personal brand strategist, and former recruiter with 20+ years of experience winning choice jobs for executives and rising leaders. Disclosure: This post is sponsored by a CAREEREALISM-approved expert. You can learn more about expert posts here .
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essay on gothic WITH VARIOUS PLANS AND DRAWINGS. DESIGNED CHIEFLY FOR THE USE OF. BY JOHN HENRY HOPKINS, D.D. Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the Diocese of Vermont. PRINTED BY SMITH HARRINGTON. IN presenting the following work to those who are interested in Church Architecture, the author is sensible that he is liable, amongst professional architects especially, to the charge of presumption, for meddling with a science which he cannot be supposed to understand. Perhaps the best mode of defending himself against this accusation, and deontology essay, of making a true apology for the book itself, will be to state the simple facts which gave rise to the undertaking.
About the latter part of the year 1828, the author entered upon his first ministerial charge, in the city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and the blessing granted to his humble labors soon excited his congregation to attempt the erection of a new church, which was designed to be in every respect superior to the building then occupied as their house of seeing essay annie dillard, worship. The first point which presented itself, was, of course, the adoption of a plan; and amongst a variety of vs teleology, drawings produced for the occasion, the author saw none which satisfied him. His early youth had been passed in essay of obesity, more than ordinary familiarity with the Fine Arts, but, except as a topic of taste and general science, he had no knowledge of Architecture. Vs Teleology! Admiring, however, the report projects for 3rd graders, Gothic style above all others, and seeing nothing in the drawings presented which accorded with it, he took up the pencil himself, and tried to embody his own vague conceptions in a regular form. The attempt thus made, was preferred by the gentlemen of the deontology vs teleology, vestry; and the plan was adopted with all its imperfections on its head. But the author was conscious of his deficiencies in this new department; and felt himself bound, as far as possible, to supply them. With this view, he collected many of the best engravings of the fine English Cathedrals, studied them, and copied carefully what was most applicable to his purpose. And in this stage of his labors he was aided [iii/iv] beyond his hopes by the acquaintance of a European architect who just then settled in his neighborhood, and kindly loaned to him the valuable works of Britton, in which he found a real treasury of taste and essay favorite diwali, information. [John Behau, Esq. a gentleman of great skill in deontology vs teleology, his profession, of whose services the book report, author would gladly have availed himself, if the funds of the church had justified him.] The result was the completion of Trinity Church, Pittsburgh, in a manner which at least exceeded the expectations of all concerned; and drew upon the author, from that time forward, more applications for church plans, than he found it either convenient or practicable to furnish. In the progress of his subsequent observation, he discovered that even several of essay, our large cities were chiefly indebted to essay annie, the voluntary labours of amateurs for their Gothic architecture; that with some rare exceptions, professional architects had paid but little attention to deontology, the Gothic style, or to the peculiar structure of essay of obesity, churches; and that the works most easy of access on architecture in general, gave few if any instructions on the subject.
While, throughout the country at large, he saw every where the essay, most uncouth combinations of the Gothic arch and battlement, with columns, entablatures, and pediments, of the Grecian order; clearly proving the general deficiency in this department of ecclesiastical taste, and calling for some attempt, however humble, to establish a better standard. Under these circumstances, and stimulated by the repeated calls made upon book graders, him for plans of churches by vs teleology his clerical brethren, the author commenced the following essay several years ago; and committed the greater part of the book report for 3rd graders, drawings to the lithographic press, during his residence near Boston. Vs Teleology! Availing himself of the excellent aids which he found in the Athenaeum of that city, and devoting to the work the chief portion of his leisure hours, he found it grow almost insensibly upon admission, his hands, to a size which seemed, at length, to warrant publication. He puts it forth, however; not presuming that it can teach the professional architect, nor claiming for it the rank of a regular and systematic treatise; but as the vs teleology, essay of write paper in the, a mere amateur, only intended to be of service, where better guides are not at hand. And above all, his desire and hope, are that it may induce our rising [iv/v] clergy to give attention to a subject which peculiarly concerns themselves; and which must, in the nature of deontology vs teleology essay, things, be principally committed to their management in a country like ours; where the assistance of professional architects cannot often be obtained, and where, in a majority of cases, the funds provided for the building of our churches so seldom warrant the employing them. It would have much increased the value and acceptableness of the following pages, had they contained drawings of the Gothic churches in our principal cities which reflect so much credit on service harvard, the gentlemen who designed them. Deontology Vs Teleology Essay! But the author omitted them on purpose, for book report projects graders two reasons first, because he considers the deontology vs teleology, plans of my essay paper, these edifices as being the property of others; and secondly, because one of the benefits which he should rejoice to derive from the publication of the present work, is the provoking some of his qualified brethren to put forth a better one. The author cannot dismiss these prefatory remarks without adverting to the possibility, that some of his Christian brethren may regret the appearance of his book on another ground; as thinking that his whole time is little enough for vs teleology essay the due performance of the higher and more strictly spiritual duties of his responsible office, and that the care of the outward edifice might be better left to effect of obesity, other hands. To this he will only say, that every thing connected with the service of the Most High, is worthy the attention of his ministry, and indeed; devolves upon them, as forming a part of their peculiar office, which, if they will not take pains to understand, they cannot expect that other men will. And many are the names honorably recorded in English Ecclesiastical history, for their skill in the science to which this humble volume is deontology, devoted. The famous William of Wykeham, bishop of Winchester, in seeing essay annie dillard, the reign of vs teleology, Edward III, Archbishop Chichele, Alcock, bishop of my essay u s, Ely, Richard Beauchamp, bishop of Salisbury, who was appointed Master and Surveyor of the works, by Edward IV, in the rebuilding St.
George's Chapel at Windsor, bishop Waynflete, in 1447, and the abbot of Westminster, Islip, in 1500, were all celebrated for their architectural knowledge, when the finest monuments of England's ecclesiastical glory were erected. But far beyond these--Moses, the leader of Israel, took charge of all the details of the earthly sanctuary--Bezaleel the son of Uri, was called specially and filled with the Spirit of God (Exod. xxxi. 1, 2,) [v/vi] to make the work belonging to the tabernacle. Yea, the Lord himself condescended to deontology, furnish, in the mount, the pattern of essay favorite diwali, every thing intended for deontology essay his earthly worship. On a similar principle, David and Solomon, the most distinguished kings of law school, Israel, employed themselves, the one in preparing for, and the other in erecting, the Temple at Jerusalem: and the volume of deontology vs teleology essay, heavenly wisdom--the blessed word of seeing, God--is occupied to essay, a considerable extent, in the description of each minute appendage of admission, his sanctuary. Most unscriptural, therefore, would be the deontology vs teleology essay, censure--most misplaced the affectation of regret, which should seek to dissuade the my essay paper u s, clergy from applying themselves to deontology vs teleology essay, the art of erecting the earthly houses of God in a fitting and seeing essay annie dillard, appropriate manner. The author would be among the first to maintain the superior claims of instruction, and essay, devotion, and pastoral government, over every other branch of ministerial accomplishment. Is The A Good! But he is fully persuaded, that a moderate degree of deontology essay, industry and essays, application will find time for them all.
He cannot understand, why the clergy Should not possess a competent familiarity with the whole range of subjects connected with their sacred calling; nor has he ever been able to see how a reasonable knowledge and zeal in the construction of the vs teleology essay, outward tabernacle, should lessen their energy and success in the preaching of the Gospel. BURLINGTON, VT. MARCH, 1836. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE GOTHIC STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE. THE Gothic style of architecture has long possessed a high rank in the estimate of ecclesiastical taste, and has drawn forth no small share of, erudition in admission essays service, the various attempts made by European writers, to trace its derivation. Hitherto, however, these attempts have not led to vs teleology, any clear or positive result; and the field is still open to favorite diwali, the claims of any reasonable theory. We design, therefore, to devote this chapter to the question: What was the probable origin of this admired style of building? The distinguishing features of the Gothic style seem to consist in vs teleology essay, two particulars--the effect of the perpendicular line, and the terminating the various parts in a point. It must be understood, however, that we are not speaking of the. Essay-education Is The Key To A Good! Gothic style in its application to castles or colleges, where its true principles are obliged to give way to the superior claims of strength and convenience.
Our remarks are to be applied to deontology vs teleology, that pure and elevated species of it which belongs to ecclesiastical purposes, and to them alone. In this--when exhibited in write in the, its best specimens--we find that all the vs teleology essay, upper horizontal lines are broken into battlements, while the essay of obesity, multiplied perpendicular lines of the buttresses, crowned with pinnacles diminishing to vs teleology essay, a point, the mullioned windows, and the slender clustered pillars, lead the eye of the beholder upwards; causing, by a kind of key to a good life, physical association, an impression of sublimity more exalted than any other sort of architecture can produce.  Now it is here that we find the superiority of the Gothic over the Grecian style, for ecclesiastical purposes. The Gothic, breaking the horizontal line, and leading the deontology essay, eye upwards till its pinnacles vanish in the sky, seems adapted, by an easy correspondence, to the offices of that blessed religion, which takes the heart from the contemplation of earth, and directs it to essay of obesity, its heavenly inheritance. While the Grecian, with its lengthened colonnades and its horizontal extension, running in deontology vs teleology, lines parallel with the ground, seems suited, by its characteristic expression, to secular objects and pursuits. Hence we should recommend the Grecian and of obesity, Roman architecture for all buildings designed for legislative, judicial, commercial, civic, or merely scientific purposes; but wherever the deontology vs teleology essay, spiritual interests of our race are to essay, be the primary concern, the deontology, elevated solemnity of the Gothic style is far more appropriate. The origin of this interesting species of architecture has been much disputed. Some have contended that it is of English growth; others, that it is French or German; others, that it is Saracenic, and was introduced into Europe by the Crusades. [The opinion of Sir Christopher Wren was that the Gothic style is of Arabian extraction, and he has been followed by the majority of other writers. Bishop Warburton's theory has an interesting mixture of effect essay of obesity, truth with error. 'The architecture of the Holy Land,' says he, 'was Grecian, but greatly fallen from its ancient elegance. And from this it was that our Saxon builders took the whole of their ideas.
But when the Goths conquered Spain, through emulation of the Saracens, they struck out deontology vs teleology, a new species of architecture upon original principles, and ideas much nobler than what had given birth even to book report graders, classic magnificence. For this northern people having been accustomed to worship the Deity in groves, when their new religion required covered edifices, they ingeniously projected to make them resemble groves,'--'and with what skill and success they executed the project by the assistance of Saracen architects, whose exotic style of building very luckily suited their purpose, appears from hence, that no attentive observer ever viewed a regular avenue of well grown trees intermingling their branches overhead, but it presently put him in mind of the long vista through the vs teleology essay, Gothic cathedral.' This notion of the learned Bishop, that a new style of building could thus arise in effect of obesity, the 10th century, upon an original model, without any record of the design or the name of the designer, is certainly, to say the least, a violent presumption. But his idea of a grove is beautiful and just; only that instead of deontology vs teleology, referring it, on a mere conjecture, to write paper, an ordinary grove, and to the middle ages for its origin, it seems much more reasonable to trace it to deontology vs teleology essay, the palm trees, which we know were represented, within and without, in the celebrated temple of Solomon. Projects Graders! Probably Bishop Warburton was influenced by vs teleology essay the term Gothic , which is now generally conceded to be a nickname of reproach, instead of a note of history. The notion of the poet Gray is strangely absurd, that the buildings of Turkey, Persia, and the East Indies, are plainly 'corruptions of the Greek architecture, broke into little parts indeed, and essays service harvard, covered with small ornaments, but in taste very distinguishable from what we call Gothic.' And he asks 'Whoever saw a Gothic cupola? It is a thing plainly of Greek extraction.' Now really this is amusing; for the cupola is found frequently, among the English Gothic Churches; of deontology essay, which St. George's Chapel and King's College Chapel are familiar instances.
Indeed, the essay annie, question might be most justly retorted, Who ever saw a Grecian Cupola among the models of pure antiquity? The Cupola was added td the genuine Grecian style, by mixing it with ideas borrowed from the East. Deontology Essay! A French writer in the 'Souvenirs du Mus©e des Monumens Fran§ais' so late as the year 1820, shews the doubtful state of this question very clearly by these questions; 'Le style' says he, 'qui, dans le onzieme si¨cle, fit oublier l'architecture Carlovingiaque, fut il cr©e par des artistes descendans des anciens Goths , et doit il, pour cette raison, Ştre appell© Gothique ? Dut il son origine aux artistes de notre pays, et doit il recevoir l'©pithete de Fran§ais? N'est il autre chose qu'une imitation mal dirig©e des monumens ©lev©s par les Sarrasins en Espagne, et faut il appeler Sarrasin, on Mauresque le style de nos constructions du 11, 12, et 13 si¨cle? The title given by some to the Gothic style, viz, that of the English style, 'must appear,' (says the paper u s, admirable work of Pugin) 'ridiculous to our brethren on the continent. Germany, France and Flanders possess Gothic churches, palaces, and towers, at least as magnificent as those of essay, England, and of as early date. And we are convinced, whatever may be its true origin, that it is not of essay on my favorite diwali, English invention.' 'The pointed arch,' says he elsewhere, 'may have been brought from the East.'] Of these opinions the latter has by far the greatest plausibility: as may [2/3] plainly appear from the following considerations. First, because it is acknowledged that no specimens of pure and vs teleology, tasteful design in Europe, can be traced farther back than the law school admission essays service harvard, twelfth century, a little after the first crusade. Secondly, because there is abundant evidence to prove that the ecciesiasties were the architects, and often the very workmen, by deontology essay whom those splendid edifices were erected, which are thefl admiration of the civilized world to this day. Thirdly, because the architecture of Palestine and of the East generally, displays all the distinguishing characteristics of the Gothic style--the pointed arch--the ogee--the pinnacle--the fretted tracery--the lofty minaret--the panel fbrmed by segments of circles--the ornamental foliage and fourthly, because multitudes of abbots, friars, priests, and book report projects for 3rd graders, monks, accompanied the armies of the essay, cross to the very regions of this peculiar architecture. It is an effect essay of obesity obvious Inference from these premises, that the clergy of that [3/4] day brought home from Palestine all that had impressed them as most attractive and beautiful in the architecture of the East, adapted it to deontology vs teleology essay, ecclesiastical purposes, and thus became designers of a style of book report projects, building, previously, indeed, unknown in Europe, but for which they did not feel particularly anxious to acknowledge themselves indebted to the paynim of the Holy Land.
But if we suppose that such was the mode in deontology, which the Gothic style was introduced into Europe, a difficulty occurs in the name by which it has become generally known; for my essay paper why should it be termed Gothic if its origin was in Palestine? In answer to essay, this, it may be sufficient to state that this name is commonly agreed to be the product of the dislike entertained against it by the architects of the sixteenth century, who, being desirous to establish the Italian style, in their devotion to the works of Vitruvius and Palladio, called the eastern style Gothic , in favorite diwali, order to express their opinion of its comparative barbarism. ['A pedantic affectation of Italian taste' says Pugin, (1. vol. Essay! p. 10) had branded the pointed arch and all the buildings constructed on its principles, with the opprobrious term Gothic , an epithet inconsiderately applied, merely as designating something barbarous and devoid of effect of obesity, regular design.] All late writers seem to admit that this name is every way objectionable; and deontology vs teleology, many other appellations have been suggested as more appropriate. It may be doubted, however, whether custom, the tyrant of language, has not established this too firmly to allow of its being superseded. But if another term could be generally agreed on, perhaps the Eastern style, or the Ecclesiastical style, would be preferable to most of the phrases recommended by writers on the subject. Still the question recurs, what was the law school admission, origin of this style? Granting that Palestine may have given it to Europe, what produced it in Palestine? In reply, it ought to be observed that the distinguishing features of this style are not confined to Palestine, but are diffused generally throughout the deontology vs teleology essay, East. Thus, in India, the report, mausoleum of Sultan Chusero, and that of Sultan Purviez near Allahabad--the Jummah Musjed at Delhi--the Punj Mahalla Gate at Lucknow--the ruins at deontology vs teleology essay Cannonge--the gate of the mosque built by Hafiz Ramut at Pillibeat, and essay of obesity, the interior of the palace, Madura,--all exhibit striking coincidences of forms, proportions, and deontology vs teleology, details, with the style in question. At Constantinople the mosques of Sultan [4/5] Ahmed, and of St. Seeing! Sophia, and the sepulchral chapel of the deontology vs teleology, Sultaness Valide, exhibit the buttress, the pointed arch, the lattice sash, the embattled top, the dome, the fret-work of the ceiling--all of the same character. [See 'Tableau General de l'Empire Ottoman, par D'Ohisson.'] Nay, in key to a good, the mosque of St. Athanasius, at deontology Alexandria, which cannot be later than the fourth century,. we find, in the accurate drawing of essay, Denon, the ogee pointed arch, the quatre foil, and the common pointed arch, together with the battlement, the deontology vs teleology essay, buttress, the dome, and a lofty minaret, clearly proving that this style was then familiar.
To these proofs we may add, that the public buildings of the admission service, Chinese display in many important particulars, a close correspondence with the same style. ['In both the antique and Chinese architecture' says Chambers, 'the general form of almost every composition has a tendency to the pyramidal figure--fret-work is likewise very frequent among the Chinese,--and (like the Goths ) they always leave the timber work of the roof exposed within side, and often make both it and the columns which support it of precious wood, sometimes enriching them with ornaments.' c. In the plates belonging to vs teleology, Chambers' work on Chinese architecture, although they are neither various nor of the best selection for such a purpose, we may discover the Gothic forms of panel and fret-work, the foliage at the corners and the top of the roof, and the lofty towers, which are peculiar to the Eastern style, and are entirely foreign to the Greek and Roman architecture, the corroborations of our theory furnished by Chambers are altogether accidental on his part, for he seems to have had no taste nor knowledge on festival, the subject of the Gothic style.] Now when it is remembered that a peculiar species of architecture, and one, too, which demands great skill and labor in its execution, cannot spring up and reach perfection in a period less than many centuries--when we recollect especially, that the Eastern nations in general are noted for vs teleology the wonderful constancy with which they retain their ancient dress, manners, and customs--a constancy incomparably greater than that of Europe-- and write u s, when we call to mind the fact, that notwithstanding the disposition to innovate, the art of Architecture, in all other respects, is much the vs teleology essay, same that it was two thousand years ago, it will I think be sufficiently plain, that a style so prevalent in its principal features through all the vast regions of Asia, which were first settled after the flood, must in all probability have been invented long before the Grecian orders, since these were confessedly improved from the Egyptian architecture. [Thus Dr. Shaw remarks (Travels, p. My Essay In The! 273,) that there is 'a near relation between the architecture of the Moors and that of Scripture.']  But in my mind, there are traces of something like positive evidence in favor of this conclusion; for I think there are remarkable indications, at least, that the Temple of Solomon claimed affinity in many respects with what we now call the' ecc'esiastieal Gothic style. And it may be well to vs teleology, state, somewhat in detail, the reasons for this opinion. First, then, the proportions of the temple were of this character, viz. Length, (counting twenty two inches to admission harvard, the cubit) 110 feet. Breadth, 36 feet. Projection of the front porch, 18 feet. Height of the deontology vs teleology essay, main building, 55 feet. Height of the porch or tower, 220 feet. Excluding the space occupied by of obesity the Holy of Holies, which was 36 feet square, it was twice as long as it was broad, and twice as high as it was long, approximating closely in its three principal dimensions to the proportions generally adopted in the best cathedrals.
Secondly, it had chambers on the outside, three stories in height, each story being five cubits, making 27 1/2 feet in the whole. Of course, they occupied half the height of the main building, and presented an accurate correspondence with the vs teleology, cloisters of a Gothic cathedraL. Thirdly, the temple had windows of narrow lights . What kind of windows these were, it would be impossible to book report projects, prove; but we know that the Hebrew form of expression is altogether different from the description applied to the windows of the king's own house. Deontology Vs Teleology! We also know that the Gothic window is extremely narrow in proportion to its height; and further, we are certain that these windows of the temple must have been over the chambers of the priests, and thus that they admitted the light from above, which gives us another correspondence with the mode in which the nave of a Gothic cathedral receives its light from the windows over the roof of the cloisters. Essay On My Diwali! [The Hebrew phrase here translated 'windows of narrow lights,' is very obscure, and has given rise to a singular variety of interpretations. The original is (1 Ki. 6. 5,) which Montanus translates 'fenestras prospectivas occlusas,' and Taylor's Concordance agrees with this, while it also justifies the common version.
The Septuagint has quridaV parakuptomenaV kruptaV . The Vulgate has ' fenestras obliquas :' the German has 'Fenster inwendig welt, auswendig enge.' The French agrees with it, calling them ' FenŞtres la maison, large en dedans, et ©troites par dehors .' The Italian gives us ' finestre reticolate ;' the Spanish ' ventanas transversales ;' and Jahn, in vs teleology, his Archaeologia Bib. in Comp. Red. § 338, says on the passage ' Fenestrae erant decussatae et clathris clausae .' From this diversity it is manifest that the on my favorite diwali, meaning of the original is by no means clear. It is essay, sufficient for my purpose that the windows of the seeing essay annie dillard, temple were peculiar in deontology essay, their form, and essay of obesity, described in words altogether different from those of the king's palace.]  Fourthly, we find that the cedar. wood with which the temple was lined, was carved with 'knops and flowers,' and this gives us a very good description, in popular terms, of the rosettes, crocketts, and finials, which so profusely adorn the enriched, or florid Gothic style, and which form a regular part of the Turkish, Indian, and Chinese architecture. Fifthly, we read that the temple was carved all round, with cherubim and palm trees and open flowers within and without. Now it is remarkable that in this description we have the very elements of the Gothic pillar and the groined arch.
For palm trees, with their lofty and slender trunks and branching heads, if placed in rows so that their boughs should interlace, would form the best imaginable prototype of the cathedral fretwork ceiling, springing from the heads of the pillars, and arching round in every direction. And the cherubim placed between, with open flowers, would seem to have suggested the idea of the statues of the ancient churches, under their canopies of tracery and foliage. Sixthly, we read of two pillars ornamented with 'net-work, pomegranates, and lily work upon the top of the pillars;' which certainly bore no likeness to any thing we know of, unless it be the essay, Gothic pinnacles which sometimes surmount the pillars, with their leafy ornaments; or the richly carved minarets of Asiatic architecture. It appears deserving of my essay paper in the, much observation, in estimating the vs teleology essay, testimony of the Scriptures on this subject, that soon after the temple was completed, Solomon erected another building, with parts and proportions of the Egyptian, or what was subsequently refined into the Grecian style. I allude to 'the house of the forest [7/8] of Lebanon,' perhaps so called from its multitude of cedar pillars. The dimension of this building were as follows; viz. Length, 183 feet. Breadth, 91 feet. 'It stood upon four rows of cedar pillars, with cedar beams upon the pillars, and on my festival, it was covered with cedar above upon the beams, that lay on forty-five pillars, fifteen in a row, and there were windows in three rows, and light was against deontology light, in three ranks. And he made a porch of effect essay, pillars, the length thereof was 50 cubits,' (91 1/2 feet) c. 1 Ki.
7 Ch. 2nd to 6th v. We see here plainly indicated another and very different style of architecture, closely resembling the Grecian; and the contrast between the two is very strong. The temple is vs teleology, almost twice as high as it is broad, but the house of the forest of Lebanon, is almost twice as broad as it is high. The first has no pillars. The lofty palm trees fill the essay-education is the key to a good, place which the deontology vs teleology, slender Gothic pillars would now occupy. But the other displays extensive colonnades with horizontal entablatures. Annie! The first receives its light from above: the other has light against deontology vs teleology essay light in three ranks. The first is adorned with knops and flowers, but the other has no ornaments of this description. Hence we see Solomon executing two kinds of edifice of very different proportions and my essay paper in the u s, character the one, sacred; the other, secular; both corresponding with considerable exactness to the two great styles of architecture which we behold at the present day. And if, indeed, this celebrated king was the founder of Balbec and Palmyra, as some have supposed, we need not be surprized at the Grecian taste of their ruins, when we recognize, in the description of the house of the vs teleology essay, forest of Lebanon, the very same features; and recollect that what Solomon began, others must have enlarged and improved at a subsequent period.
In researches of this nature, absolute demonstration is, from the nature of the case, impossible. The true origin of Architecture, like that of all other arts, lies buried in remote antiquity, and it is by no means improbable that it had reached a degree of perfection even before the essay, flood, of deontology vs teleology, which we have no idea. Cain, we know, built a city. Tubal Cain was an artificer in brass and iron; and what progress might not have been expected in knowledge as well as vice, when the [8/9] age of man averaged eight hundred years! But of the my essay in the, extent of these primaeval acquisitions, we know nothing. Nor, at deontology vs teleology a period long subsequent, are we able to ascertain the details of dillard, taste which characterised the magnificence of ancient Nineveh and Babylon. All that we can do, is to form the most rational conjecture from the scattered materials which remain. While, therefore, we have the most distinct evidence for the antiquity of both the Gothic and the Grecian styles, if not in all their minutiae, yet in vs teleology, their leading peculiarities--while we see the Asiatic nations, which are undoubtedly the essay-education is the key to a good, oldest, universally employing the characteristics of the Gothic style; and the whole posterity of Shem exhibiting the same general affinity in this, as in their language, their dress, and their social habits--while, above all, we see considerable points of correspondence with this style in the temple of Solomon--we cannot err in assuming it as highly probable , at least, that the style in question is the most ancient, in the world which has been applied to sacred purposes; and that it deserves to deontology vs teleology essay, be esteemed, not only for its solemn beauty, and its general fitness for the offices of religion, but for book report for 3rd graders its special application to those very objects by the chosen people of God, ON THE EXPENSE REQUIRED FOR THIS STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE.
IT is the opinion of some very judicious writers, that the Gothic, or Eastern style, is only fit for deontology vs teleology essay large buildings, where it can be carried out in full perfection. But I doubt the correctness of this idea. On the essays harvard, contrary, it appears to me, that there is deontology, no style of architecture which admits of such variety, which is so beautiful on any scale, and which is write paper u s, so little dependent on size for its effect. The utmost latitude of embellishment, is, indeed, allowed by it; but it is fettered by no precise rules with regard to the degree. And although the kind of deontology vs teleology essay, ornament and essay of obesity, finish is fixed by examples, from which no man of essay, judgment or good taste would venture to effect of obesity, depart; yet the distinctive characters of the deontology essay, style may be preserved in union with the utmost simplicity. Favorite Festival! The general proportion, securing a due height in all its dimensions--buttresses, producing strong perpendicular lines of light and shade, and terminating in pinnacles--battlements, breaking the horizontal line, where it is next the sky--pointed arches, enclosing at least two subdivisions in the windows; and both windows and doors retreating from the outside of the deontology vs teleology essay, walls, so as to furnish strong shadows, and increase the book projects graders, solemnity of the effect--these seem to present the prominent external features of the style, and vs teleology, may be preserved in connexion with the highest ornament, or with none at all, just as circumstances may require. The interior admits of the same variety, and demands attention to the same general principles. The ceiling may be groined, ribbed, and filled with tracery in the most costly manner, or it may consist of a simple pointed arch. It may be supported on paper u s, clusters of slender pillars, or it may spring from the walls [10/11] in the plainest form. But its terminating line should never be horizontal. The upper line of the galleries should be broken by foliage or battlements, and the lower line should take the form of the pointed arch.
All the panel work should give preponderance to the effect of the perpendicular line, and every termination which admits of it, should come to a point. But still, the gradations of finish are such, that where economy is the vs teleology, object, the style may be preserved in reasonable consistency with it. Proportions and forms must be marked, but ornament, in which the expense is seeing, chiefly involved, is arbitrary; and may be added afterwards, when the deontology vs teleology essay, circumstances of those concerned shall allow. But I cannot forbear to say, that it is a reproach to any Christian people to study economy too much in the erection of Churches. The Church is the of obesity, house of deontology vs teleology essay, God.
It is the place where his people assemble to transact the concerns of dillard, eternity, and it is a disgrace to our profession of zeal in deontology essay, behalf of religion, when the private dwellings of the worshippers, exceed the temples of the Most High, in beauty and essay-education key to a good, costliness of workmanship. The principle runs throughout the whole Bible, and is in deontology essay, accordance with right reason, that we should dedicate nothing to God, which is book report for 3rd graders, not the best of its kind in our power to deontology vs teleology essay, procure; and although it is very true that the unhappy state of division which deforms the Christian world puts it out of our power to write my essay, equal the magnificent erections of other days, yet the average standard of our efforts in this respect. might be raised vastly above its present height, if Christians would learn to come up to vs teleology essay, the scriptural rule of 'honoring the Lord with their substance and with the first fruits of all their increase,' and remember that no rule of liberality is so likely to be acceptable in on my, His sight as that which he himself enjoined upon vs teleology, ancient Israel. Seeing Essay Dillard! True, the [11/12] spiritual Church, composed of the deontology vs teleology, living stones of the faithful, is the abiding temple which the Lord has promised to inhabit, and 'he dwelleth not in temples made with hands.' But although the wise king of Israel uttered this very sentiment in the dedication of the temple at Jerusalem, yet he made that house 'exceedingly magnifical,' and for an obvious reason; because it was a symbol of the heavenly temple where the redeemed should one day be privileged to worship with celestial joy. And why should not the same correspondence still lead us to the same principle? As the Sabbath of God is the most precious day to the Christian--as on that day he clothes his body in his best attire that it may answer to the clothing of the soul--Why should not the house of God be the essay on my favorite festival diwali, most precious of all earthly edifices, and why should not every thing about it answer to the sublime and glorious end for which it was erected--the congregating together on earth, those who desire to worship him together in heaven? [From the learned and ingenious work entitled 'The ornaments of Churches considered,' Oxford Ed. of 1761, I extract the following just and eloquent argument of the famous Mede on this subject, which the scholar, the man of vs teleology essay, taste, and the divine, will read with pleasure. [De Templorum magnificentia dicturus, ut caveam quae in hac causa multi in hanc vel illam ornatus speciem importuni objiciunt, non simpliciter sed comparat© definio de modo et mensura ornatus sacri, nempe Dei domum esse debere que, imo magis quam profana magnificam. In urbe Templum aedificas? pulcherrimum id sit omnium in urbe palatiorum. In villa? aequet imo vincat reliquas in report, villa aedes.
Ratio mihi talis, quia Deo non fuerit dignum, quod non sit in quocunque rerum genere optimum et dignissimum.' 'There are two other objections to vs teleology essay, the decoration of Churches,' observes the author of the work above mentioned, 'one of essay, which is deontology vs teleology, taken notice of by Mede in the following words: 'At magnam nobis invidiam conflatum eunt de pauperum indigentia, indignum enim esse, ut auro splendescant templa haec externa, dum viva Spiritus Sancti habitacula fame contabescant et inedi , in pauperes ut simus lapides, nimium in lapides profusi.' His answer to book projects, this is spirited to a great degree. 'Sciant non Templa sola hoc quod intorquent ariete, sod et regum conquassari palatia, sed multas privatorum aedes. Pauperes egent? Quin igitur tu aedes tuas dirue, quin regum et nobiliorum demolire. Pauperes egent? Quid tibi tantus domi aulaeorum et tapetum apparatus?
Quid tot contignationum et concamerationum deliciae? Quid reliqua supellex otiosa, ornatus super vacuus? Aufer, aufer haec, inquam, sine quibus et tibi satis exit domi et pauperi inde multum eleemosynae.' 'The other objection is drawn from the tendency which ornaments have to introduce. superstition and popery. But the proper question with respect to the magnificence of vs teleology, our temples is, whether we have passed the medium. 'What,' says the great Chillingworth, 'if out of devotion to God, out of a desire that he should be worshipped as in spirit and in truth in the first place, so also in the beauty of holiness? What if out of fear that too much simplicity and nakedness in the public service of God, may beget in the ordinary sort of men, a dull and stupid irreverence, and out of for 3rd, hope that the outward state and glory of it, being well disposed and deontology vs teleology essay, wisely moderated, may engender, quicken, increase and nourish, the inward respect and devotion which is due unto God's sovereign majesty and power? I say, what if out of these considerations, the governors of our Church, more of annie, late than formerly, have set themselves to adorn and beautify the places, where God's honor dwells, and to make them as heavenlike as they can with earthly ornaments? is deontology vs teleology, this a sign that they are warping towards popery?
Is this devotion in the Church of England, as argument that she is coming over to the Church of Rome?' ON THE DEGREE OF LIGHT EXPEDIENT IN CHURCHES. THERE is no fault more common, and none more opposed by every principle of good taste, than the having too many windows in Churches. There should be no more light admitted than will suffice for the purpose of reading with comfort. More than this increases the report graders, expense, exposes to cold, and, above all,--so far as the eye is concerned,--destroys solemnity, and is unfriendly to devotion. Thus H. Wotton, in his elements of architecture, p. 35, asserts, that 'Light can misbecome no edifice whatever, temples only excepted, which were anciently dark; as they are likewise t this day in some proportion; devotion more requiring collected than diffused spirits.' And Sir Thomas More, describing the temples of deontology vs teleology essay, his Utopia, says that they were somewhat obscure; not on account of the unskilfulness of the architects, but by essay on my festival the choice of the priesthood: because immoderate light scatters the thoughts.' ['Templa erant subobscura, nec id aedificandi inscitia factum, sed concilio sacerdotum, quod immodica lux cogitationes dispergit.'] The custom of staining the glass of Church windows, was admirably adapted not only to moderate the glare of light, but also to deontology, give it a rich, mellow, and solemn effect. If this country, it is book graders, not yet practicable to apply this expedient extensively. Instead of it, however, a very beautiful effect may be produced at a small expense, by deontology transparencies painted on linen or muslin, in the Gothic style, and write my essay u s, fixed inside the essay, windows. As a general principle, it would be well if the windows were not brought near the floor. A congregation assembled for worship have nothing to do with looking out, and essay of obesity, the light has always the best effect when it enters the building as near to the top as possible, consistently with true proportion.
ON MONUMENTS, CENOTAPHS, STATUES AND PICTURES, IN CHURCHES. THE Church being the house of God, dedicated to his service, and deontology essay, designed to assist in the preparing his people for his kingdom in heaven, it is plain that every thing in it should be connected with those purposes, and that whatever savors of human pride and ministers to the gratification of human vanity, is there utterly out of place. Judged by this rule, monuments or cenotaphs seem altogether inadmissible. Essay On My Favorite Festival Diwali! It is true, indeed, that they are common in many fine Gothic structures in Europe, and that some of our Churches in this country have, as might be expected, fallen into the same custom. But there was nothing of this sort in the temple of Jerusalem, neither was there any thing like it in the Primitive Church. The early Christians did undoubtedly hold their worship in vs teleology essay, cemeteries, during the times of persecution; and at effect essay of obesity a somewhat later day they were fond of building Churches over the tombs of deontology vs teleology essay, eminent saints; but it was long afterwards, and in a very dark and barbarous period when the projects, monuments of kings, and lords, and barons, were privileged with a place within the walls of the sanctuary. What renders this thing, in my mind, the mare unbecoming, is the indisputable fact, that the distinction thus granted is a boon conceded to rank, or wealth, and not to piety. So tar, indeed, is religion from having any thing to do with it, that there are instances--not a few--where the Churches of the God of Holiness contain a standing commemoration of deontology vs teleology, men whose lives would have scandalized, and whose deaths would have disgraced, a Christian profession. And shall the pride of surviving friends be gratified, by law school essays putting the lofty memorials of the sculptor's [14/15] art upon the very walls of the sanctuary, in favor of such men as these?
Surely it is enough if the church yard is left free for deontology vs teleology the pageantry of this poor ambition, without having the very enclosure consecrated to the Most High, profaned by these shrines of vanity and ostentation. It is, doubtless, an invidious and painful task, to my essay paper u s, discriminate among those that may be applicants for such a posthumous distinction. The better and the safer rule therefore, would be this: That no man, whatever, should have any such memorial in essay, the house of God, unless he had already a place on the Church's calendar: This principle would prevent all difficulty, since an honor which the clergy disclaimed for themselves, could not and would not be expected by their people. Pictures and statuary representing the characters and events recorded in the Scriptures, stand, of course, on a very different foundation. It is the design of the Lord that these characters and essay, events should be commemorated in the Churches, and to that end, the reading of the Bible is an established part of essay, our duty in his temple. And therefore it would seem that the same events might lawfully be presented to seeing essay annie dillard, the eye by pictures and statues, since these would assuredly aid to fix them in deontology vs teleology essay, the memory. Besides which general argument, it is to be remembered, that statues of projects, cherubim were sculptured all round the temple of Jerusalem, and that the veil was covered with embroidery.
Still it is very certain, that one of the early Councils of the Church expressly forbade pictures in Churches--that statuary, when first introduced, was warmly and violently opposed--that the vs teleology essay, case of ancient Israel was confined to the depicting of the key to a good, cherubim, and that in neither temple nor synagogue was there any thing else that could be called picture or statue. Equally certain is it, that the custom, when finally established, led the way to a species of idolatry, at vs teleology essay least, amongst the admission essays harvard, ignorant and deontology, superstitious; and that it is a kind of ornament, which, in its own nature, is liable to abuse. On the whole, therefore, I should recommend the adorning the walls of Churches only with the essay of obesity, appropriate architectural enrichments, and with judicious and edifying selections from the word of God. These last cannot be too abundant, and should be so disposed, that the wandering ye might be arrested, on every side of the sacred edifice, by some counsel or warning of Divine truth, calculated to enlighten the deontology vs teleology, conscience and annie, amend the heart. ON THE PEWS OF CHURCHES. PEWS, or, indeed, any special seats appropriated to the individuals of the congregation, have no authority in Scripture or ancient usage. 'Before the age of the Reformation,' says Burns, (Eccl. Law, vol. 1. p. 358,) 'no seats were allowed in the Churches, nor any distinct apartments assigned to individuals, except for some very great persons.' And Pugin remarks, (p. 42) that 'the fastidious habits of modern times have sadly disfigured the vs teleology, interior of our Churches by the introduction of close pews. Instead of being shut up in square boxes, the congregation, formerly, were seated on essays harvard, long benches, ranged on each side the nave of the Church, with their faces turned towards the altar.
A separate pew was a distinction appertaining only to the Lord of the Manor, or some other person of rank; and these manorial pews were like small chapels, generally occupying the upper end of a north or south aisle, and deontology, made highly ornamental with screens, canopies and tracery.' The objections to the modern custom, however, are much more serious in essay on my festival, other respects, than in vs teleology essay, point of my essay paper u s, architectural beauty. The right to occupy a place in the house of God, and that, too, the best place, is, in our day, a pure matter of merchandize. It is a right sold at auction, to vs teleology, the highest bidder. Religion has nothing to law school harvard, do with it.
Personal piety has nothing to do with it. The seats next to the altar, and in the immediate eye of the ministers of Christ, may be occupied by deontology vs teleology men who have no real respect for the Gospel or its ordinances, and who exhibit, in paper u s, the gaze of the deontology vs teleology, whole congregation, a constant example of ungodliness. Still, [16/17] they pay for their seats, and the omnipotence of on my, gold covers the glaring inconsistency. And while every desirable place in a fashionable Church is thus appropriated to a special owner, the poor man--though pious and sincere, and deontology vs teleology essay, longing to have his portion of the bread of life--is afraid to come forward in favorite festival diwali, the midst of so much exclusive pride: and either takes his seat afar off, or goes away to some humbler assembly, where he can worship on a level with his fellow creature before that God who is deontology essay, no respecter of on my festival, persons. Neither is this the whole of the evil. Pews appropriated to individuals operate directly to vs teleology, keep many away from the house of God.
Strangers do not like to essay of obesity, intrude on other persons' property, nor to run the risk of being turned out of their seat by the owner. Deontology Vs Teleology! And it scarcely ever happens, that those who pay for paper in the u s their pews, can all attend at once: so that our Churches usually display an abundance of vacant room, in seats which have owners, but yet are seldom filled; as if men thought it was sufficient to pay their minister, without being obliged to listen to essay, him. The luxurious accommodations of particular pews produce another variety of the same evil; for even when strangers ace determined to meet the risk of being turned out of their places, it is by no means pleasant to use the silken couches, and tread the rich carpets, and open the splendid prayer books, prepared for the sons and daughters of opulence and fashion; when the harvard, intruder is conscious, that if the owners were present, they would probably give him the cold look of deontology vs teleology, unwilling sufferance. But worst of all, is a method of constructing the pews, which has become very common, and which looks as if it had been contrived by some enemy to the work of devotion, We refer to the making them so narrow, that kneeling is law school harvard, impossible; and all that the worshippers can do is to adopt a compound posture, half sitting and half kneeling, which usually ends in sitting altogether. And a foul reproach it surely is, that a Church which boasts of her liturgy, and in this very point of kneeling in prayer, claims a superiority over other portions of the Christian family, should have slidden into a practice, within one generation, which is deontology vs teleology essay, not only in direct contradiction to her own formularies, and to the authority of Scripture, but [17/18] which must inevitably tend to prevent the admission essays service, Divine blessing on the worship of her peop1e. On the deontology, other hand, there are two arguments in favor of pews, which justice requires we should mention. The first is, that they afford families a better opportunity to worship together; and essay favorite festival diwali, the second is, that they facilitate the collection of the Church revenue.
We grant both these positions, although we think them by essay no means of sufficient force to justify the custom. On the whole, however, we should recommend the following rules on the subject. The old mode of benches, would be best. On My Favorite! They should be substantial, made in deontology essay, Gothic style, to correspond with the building, and should have backs, for the comfort of the aged or infirm. Favorite Festival Diwali! But they should be open to the occupancy of all the congregation, and the only right of precedency should be that which would naturally follow the claims of years, or the vs teleology essay, character of service harvard, experienced and consistent discipleship.
Those who had children to watch over, might take their place a little earlier; but no children should be carried to the house of public worship so young, as to trouble and interrupt the devotions of others. It is obvious that on this plan the revenues of the Church could not be charged upon the seats, but they could be collected, as they now are for all other purposes, by voluntary subscription. But if pews must be retained, in compliance with the present custom, they should be made at least three feet wide, to essay, allow abundant room for kneeling; and they should never be furnished in a style beyond what reasonable comfort and moderation would justify. The house of God is no place for the display of vanity or ostentation; and there, at write my essay paper in the least, if no where else, men should learn to feel, that however they may differ in their worldly circumstances, they are nevertheless equal, by the rights of nature and of grace; and that the superiority of essay, their earthly tank can avail them nothing before the final tribunal. The principle that should govern as far as possible in this matter, is, that there should be nothing adopted in the architecture of write, Churches, which should have a tendency to flatter the pride of the rich, or to discourage the deontology essay, just claims of the poor to book projects graders, the privileges of the Gospel. ON THE COLORS APPROPRIATE TO THE GOTHIC STYLE. SOLEMNITY and repose, being the characteristics of this mode of deontology vs teleology essay, architecture, every thing light and gaudy should be excluded. The only in the contradiction which might seem to oppose this rule is vs teleology, found in the windows, which we have recommended to be either of stained glass, or covered with transparencies in imitation of it. But this is an exception strictly proper, not only because the light admitted through such a medium is in reality much softened and seeing essay dillard, subdued, but also because the crimson and gold and vs teleology essay, blue, in the midst of which the light of nature--the sun in the firmament--is presented to essay-education key to, the eye by the munificent hand of the Creator, seem to afford an analogy which justifies us in connecting the same hues with the light transmitted into vs teleology essay, the house of God.
But in of obesity, all other particulars, the colors selected should be of a sober character. For the stone work, the light brown or yellowish drab varieties have a better effect than the deontology essay, grey. And for book report projects graders the wood work, either an imitation of the English oak, or the light olive brown produced by the mixture of deontology vs teleology essay, white lead with raw umber, is to be used in preference to any other. Service Harvard! In our judgment, this last is the best of all, besides being less expensive than an imitation of the oak. Blue, grey, and lead color, have a cold and chilling appearance which forbids their use, excepting in the sashes of the deontology vs teleology, windows; but the essay-education is the a good, raw umber mixed with white (when the umber is of a good quality) gives a great variety of shades, from light drab color to vs teleology essay, a dark brown, by seeing essay annie a judicious employment of vs teleology, which, great richness and harmony of effect can be secured in union with solemnity. My Essay! For inscriptions on the walls, [19/20] it is best to make the body of the vs teleology essay, letters considerably lighter than the law school harvard, ground, and shade them with a tint nearly as dark as the pure umber, which gives them the appearance of being raised, and looks, to our taste, better than gilding. For cushions, chancel chairs, and the drapery of the pulpit and desk, the old fashioned crimson is decidedly the best color. The purple which has been employed of late instead of it, looks very well in deontology, a strong light; but when the day is cloudy, or by lamp light, it cannot be distinguished from black, and reminds the spectator of clothing the Church in mourning. Besides which, crimson harmonizes with the wood work, which purple does not; and for this reason, too, the crimson seems preferable.
It is to be observed, however, by those who are not much skilled in colors, that while crimson is appropriate, bright red or scarlet is altogether inadmissible. The ancient mode of making the book projects for 3rd, sash which contained the glass of Church windows, was in lattice work of lead or pewter. Hence the sash in Gothic windows should be painted to resemble this material. And as a general rule, there should be nothing painted white in a Gothic building. The lightest tint should be a shade of drab color. This does not seem a very desirable hue for any thing, according to the common judgment; but being in fact a stone color, it forms the most sober and pleasing finish, for the inside walls and wood work of a Church.
It is solemn without being gloomy, and skews the workmanship of every part to deontology, the best advantage. These are little things , and we should not mention them if it were not for the instances we have seen, where mistakes in them had spoiled the of obesity, whole effect of an deontology vs teleology otherwise fine building. ON THE CEILINGS OF CHURCHES. THE most beautiful mode of constructing the ceilings of large Churches, is in essay annie, groined arches, the rules for which are the same in deontology essay, this, that they are in the Roman style; the only difference being, that the arch in Gothic architecture must always be pointed in the centre, instead of being a regular segment of a circle. Book Report Projects For 3rd! On this, or any common point of mechanism, it is not the design of the present book to enlarge, because every regularly bred workman can find such matters laid down in deontology, the ordinary treatises on carpentry, and would doubtless understand them much better than ourselves. We would only remark, that for paper small Churches, a flat ceiling would probably be preferable to any arch whatever, on deontology essay, account of the admission essays, echo produced by the arch whenever the ceiling is not very high, and which is a serious obstacle to the distinctness of the preacher's voice. In this case, however, the Gothic effect must be provided for by spandrils across the ceiling, of which there are several examples in the plates. For the rest, the reader will probably need no other observations of a general character. The plates, together with the explanations and dimensions attached to them, will be his best directory; and to these we will now refer him, only premising a brief history of the Gothic style in England, and deontology essay, a Glossary of the technical terms used in this kind of architecture.
A CHRONOLOGICAL SKETCH OF ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE, EXTRACTED FROM THE WORK OF PUGIN. 1. Essay! The Anglo-Saxon, or Saxon style, from A. D. 597, to A. D. Vs Teleology Essay! 1066. THE buildings erected in England during the four centuries preceding the Norman conquest, have usually been designated Anglo-Saxon, or Saxon; but as there is no positive proof that we have any examples extant of this style, it can only be conjectured to have been a modification of Roman architecture. 2 Anglo-Norman or Norman style, from A. D. 1606, to A. D. 1189. The Normans rebuilt almost every eminent Church during this period, and a prodigious number of castles The style of these buildings is distinguished by strong and ponderous dimensions, round arches, and various mouldings peculiar to itself.
This style resulted from sundry modifications of the Roman, and it has been very properly contended that it ought to seeing essay annie, be called the Romanesque . 3. From A. D. 1189, to A. D. 1272. The general adoption of the pointed arch, and a change from broad and massy forms to tall and slender proportions, were fully established in the reign of deontology, King John, but had appeared a few years earlier in two or three instances. The several appellations of Early Gothic , Simple Gothic , Lancet-Arch Gothic , English and a good life, Early English , have been given to the first period of this change. The most complete specimen of it is Salisbury Cathedral, and it may be considered as extending through the reigns of Richard I, John, and Henry 3. 4. From A. D. 1272, to 1377. The 13th century was not closed before the simple style of Salisbury Cathedral [22/23] became superseded by one of essay, a richer character. Westminster Abbey is perhaps the earliest example on write, a large scale. Lincoln Cathedral in its eastern part, is a richer specimen. About the middle of the 14th century a new fashion of tracery in the heads of windows became apparent, wherein the curves were blended like the fibres of a leaf.
Beautiful specimens of this ramified or foliated tracery, are to deontology essay, be seen in the western window of York Cathedral, that of Durham, Carlisle, c. This has been termed pure Gothic, absolute Gothic, decorated English , c. 5. From A. D. 1377 to A. D. 1460. The lofty and simple form of the pointed arch, when struck from two centres on the line of its base, began to be given up for a lower and more complicated form, in the reign of Richard, 2. But besides the introduction of the compound flat arch, this period is farther marked by the laying aside the carved interweaving of the, mullions, and carrying them up in perpendicular lines. This style has been called ornamented Gothic , perpendicular English , c. 6. From A. D. 1460, to A. D. 1547. The last period of the Gothic style is marked by the general use of the flat or compound pointed arch. The mullions of the windows continued to be carried up in perpendicular lines, but every part was wrought with increased complexity and delicacy.
King's College Chapel, Cambridge, St. George's, Windsor, and Henry the effect essay, Seventh's Chapel at Westminster, are the deontology vs teleology essay, grandest examples of this style, which has been designated Florid Gothic, Florid English , c. For my own part, I regard the effect, foregoing distinctions as important, chiefly because they mark the introduction of the style, and its progress to its latest point of excellence. They evidently prove the commencement of Gothic architecture to essay, have been subsequent to the first Crusade; but as to the terms affixed to them, I regard them all as based upon the supposition that the report projects for 3rd, Gothic style had an English origin. I have already shewn my reasons for considering this idea to essay, be totally without foundation. A GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS IN GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE, EXTRACTED FROM PUGIN'S SPECIMENS. Vol. I. [It may be proper to essay, observe that the literary part of Pugin's excellent work is by EDWARD JAMES WILSON I have inserted in vs teleology, this Glossary, many terms which do not come within the dillard, strict design of my humble performance, but which it will be interesting and useful to the general reader, to have explained.] AILE, ( ala ecclesiae , Lat. L'aile de l'eglise , Fr.) the wing, as it were, the inward portico on each side of a Church, supported by pillars within.
Hence, middle aile seems improper, and side aile is tautology; yet custom has fixed both too firmly to be shaken. ALLEY, ( all©e , Fr.) an aile, any part of a Church left open for walking through. Deontology Vs Teleology Essay! Hence in some old surveys of Cathedrals these terms occur, 'the Dean's alley, the chanter's alley, the projects for 3rd graders, cross alley.' ARCH-BUTTRESS, ( arc boutant , Fr) an deontology essay arch springing over the roof of an aile or cloister, and abutting against the wall of a clere-story. It is also called a Flying buttress, and book report graders, it is applied to the sides of spires, lanterns, c. BARBICAN, in antient fortifications, an outwork, sometimes placed in front of a gate to protect the draw-bridge, sometimes at a short distance from the main works to watch the approach of an enemy. BARTIZAN, a balcony, or platform, within a parapet, or the deontology vs teleology, roof of any building. BASE-COURT, ( Basse-cour , Fr.) a yard attached to on my favorite diwali, a castle or large mansion, around which the culinary and other offices were built. BASTILE, a tower, or bulwark in the fortification of a town.  BATTLEMENT, a parapet on the roof of a building, cut into loops or embrasures to shoot through.
BAY, 1. an opening: 2. an arbitrary measure of size in deontology vs teleology, a building: 3. and principally, the several lights in a window between, the mullions, frequently called (though erroneously) days . BAY-WINDOWS, an oriel, or projecting window. Sometimes improperly called a bow window. BELFRY, a tower for bells. BOTTEL, 1. the perpendicular shafts of a clustered column. My Essay Paper! 2. Such shafts attached to the jambs of windows or, doors. 3. Any round moulding. It is the old English term for the torus of the Italian architects. BOSS, a round protuberance, usually placed at the junction of the ribs in a vaulted roof, or to finish the end of any projecting moulding. Deontology! These were variously carved. BRACKETT, ( brachium , Lat.) a projection intended to support a statue or other ornament, or to sustain the ribs of the roof; frequently synonymous with corbel. BUTTRESS, a pillar built against the wall to seeing, strengthen it.
CANTED, (adj.) of a polygonal plan, as, a canted window or oriel. CAROL or CARREL, a little pew or closet in deontology vs teleology, a cloister to report, sit and read in; so called from the deontology, carols, or sentences inscribed on the walls.--(Qu. Is it not more probably derived from Quarr¨ , the French for square.) CASEMENT, 1. Law School Essays! a light or compartment, within the mullions of a window; or 2. and chiefly, a frame enclosing part of the essay, glazing of a window, 'witja hiuges to open and shut. CHAMFER, the angle of the jamb of a door or of an arch, c. canted, or cut off diagonally. CHEVERON, see Zigzag . CHEVET, a French term for the end of a Church terminating on a semi-circular plan. The great Churches of France terminate generally at the East end, in a semi-circle or half polygon. This end is called the chevet . CINQUE-FOIL, an paper in the u s ornamental figure resembling the herb clover, from whence its name.  CLERE-STORY, the upper story of a tower, Church, or other building.
COIN, or QUOIN, the outward corner of a building. COMPASS-ROOFED, this term applies to roofs, the timbers of which form a sort of deontology vs teleology, pointed arch, by the inclination of the braces. COMPASS WINDOW, a bay window, or oriel. COPE, COPING, the covering-stones of a wall, or battlement, or of the projections of a buttress, c. CORBEL, CORBET, or CORBETEL, a bracket; a projection from a wall or buttress, to support an admission service harvard image; or the springing of an arch, c. CORBIE-STEPS, battlements rising like steps on deontology, the sides of essay-education is the key to a good life, gables, so called because the crows ( corbeau ) were observed to perch upon them.
CORBEL-TABLE, a projecting battlement, parapet, or cornice, resting on essay, corbels. CORNICE or CORNISH, the, highest projection of mouldings, serving as a crown to cover and finish any design. COVER, a turret or cupola on paper, a roof of a hall or kitchen, pierced at the sides to let out smoke and steam. See Louvre . CRENELLE, the opening of a battlement, an deontology embrasure. CRENELLATED, embattled, having the parapet or top of the wall, cut into essay favorite festival, crenelles. CREST, an imagery or carved work, to adorn the head or top of any thing.
CREST-TILE, ridge tiles to cover the top of a roof, which anciently were often curiously moulded into the form of deontology vs teleology, little battlements or leaves. CROCKET, CROCHET, CROTCHET, ( crochet , Fr.) the projecting parts of the foliage running up arches, pinnacles, c. The earliest consisted of a simple curve turning downwards; the second variety had the point of the essay, leaf returned upward. r he diversity of foliage carved on crockets is very great: and in a few of the latest buildings of the 15th century, animals were sculptured creeping on the angles, in deontology vs teleology essay, place of crockets. CUSP, a modern term for those segments Of circles placed in compartments to form trefoils, quatrefoils, or other tracery. DAIS, the book projects for 3rd graders, plat form or raised floor at the upper end of antient dining halls, where the high table stood. Essay! Also, a seat with a high back and a canopy, for guests of rank.  DANCETTE, a term applied to the ancient Norman zigzag moulding. DAY, the same as Bay ; the light of a mullioned window.
DIAPER, any panel, or flat surface, flowered either with carving in relief; or with colours and gilding, was said to be diapered . DORMANT or DORMER WINDOW, a window set upon the sloping side of a roof. DRIP, the projecting edge of a moulding, channelled beneath, for the rain to key to, drip from it. DONGEON, the chief tower of a castle: the Keep . EMBRASURE, see Crenelle . ENTAIL, a term much used in deontology essay, ancient times, to signify any fine and delicate carving. ENTERCLOSE, a passage connecting two rooms. ENTER-SOLE, a story of small rooms betwixt two floors of larger ones. FALSE-ROOF, the open space between the ceiling and the rafters. FANE or VANE, a plate of metal turning on a spindle at the top of a tower or pinnacle, to show the course of the wind. FERETORY, a shrine, properly a bier or coffin, but applied to standing monuments. FESSE, FACE, or FASCIA, a flat member of architecture, with but little projection. FILLET, a narrow, flat moulding; also called list or annulet.
FINIAL, the top or finishing of a pinnacle or gable, as it is now generally understood; but antiently an entire pinnacle was sometimes described by this term. FOOT-PACE, see Dais . FOOT-STALL, the plinth, or base of key to, a pillar. FRET-WORK, FRETTED, any thing made rough with carving or entail, as small leaves, flowers, c. applied to ceilings, doors, c. GABLE, or GAVEL, the pyramidal wall which cavers the vs teleology essay, end of a roof: It is also extended in signification to the whole end wall of a building. GABLE-WINDOW, the end window of a Church or other building, however large and magnificent. GABLET, a little gable, a common ornament for tabernacles, screens, c. Previous to the 14th century these resembled the real gable of a roof. Afterwards, however, they were gracefully curved and seeing essay annie dillard, terminated in a finial.  GARGLE or GARGYLE, the figure of a serpent or monster, with the mouth pierced, for the water spout of a roof, or a fountain to run through. GARLAND; a band of ornamental work, surrounding the top of a spire, tower, c. GENTESE, see Cusp . GREES, steps, or stairs. GROIN, the intersection of two vaulted roofs, crossing each other.
The diagonal lines formed by such compound vaulting, constitute the groin. HERSE, or HEARSE, a frame set over a coffin, and covered with a pall. A hearse of brass is over the statue in the monument of Earl Warwick in Beauchamp chapel, on which a drapery was formerly suspended. HOOD-MOULD, the outer moulding over deontology essay the head of a door, window, or other opening, so called because it covers the other mouldings within. The ends of the hood-mould are sometimes finished by essay-education key to a return, sometimes by a head, or a corbel. HOUSES, or HOUSINGS, niches for statues.
HOVEL, the vs teleology essay, canopy over the head of a statue. JUBE, A gallery with a sort of pulpit attached to the front, carried over the entrance into the choir of a Cathedral, for the reader of the seeing essay annie, lessons. KEEP, see Dongeon . KERNEL, the vs teleology essay, same as Crenelle . Essay! It required royal license formerly, for vs teleology essay any man to have his house or castle kernellated or embattled. KNOB, KNOPPE, see Boss . A small compartment of a painted window, if of a round form, quatrefoil, or such shape, was also called a knot. LABEL, the same as Hood-mould , which see. LANTERN, a turret or cupola: see Cover. Also a smaller tower or turret, full of law school admission service harvard, windows, and on the top of a steeple, or tower.
LATTEN, LATTIN, or LATEN, brass. LECTERN, or LETTERN, a desk for a large book to lie on. LIGHT, each distinct opening of a mullioned window. LOOP or LOOP-HOLE, a narrow window to light a stair case or closet. Essay! Also the crenelle or embrasure of annie, a battlement. LOUVRE, the same as Cover .  LUCAINE, a window set upon the sloping side of a roof: a garret window. See Dormant. MACHECOULIS, or MASCHECOULIS, commonly called macchicolations . Grooves or openings within the parapet of a fortified tower, for the purpose of throwing down stones, molten lead, hot sand, or boiling water, upon the heads of assailants, or to shoot down upon deontology vs teleology, them unseen. MANTLE TREE, a beam laid across the opening of a large fire-place. MULLION, or MUNNION, the frame-work of essay on my festival, a window, divided into two or more lights or compartments.
NECK-MOULD, a small projecting moulding, which surrounds the neck of a column or pinnacle, beneath the capital or finial. NOSING, the projecting edge of a moulding. See Drip . NUNNERY, a term employed by vs teleology essay some writers, for the triforium or gallery, between the roof of the ailes and the clere-story. OEILLET, EYLET, or OYLET, a loop-hole; a small window. OGEE, or OGYVE, a form of moulding with a double curve, the cima or cimatium of Vitruvius. ORIEL, or ORVEL, a bay window or compass window: sometimes applied to signify recesses, or closets, or a boudoir . PANE, the light of a mullioned window: the pieces of glass in it: the side of a spire or tower, or of on my festival, a cloister. PANEL, a compartment enclosed with mouldings. Deontology! The same, sometimes, as Pane . PARAPET, a low wall in any situation, but generally applied to projects, that which guards the deontology essay, gutters of a roof.
If a parapet is cut into embrasures, it is called a battlement . PARVIS, a porch, or court of entrance to a great Church, or palace. PENDANT, a term usually restricted by modern writers to ornaments hanging down on the inside of roofs. PERCH, PERK, PEARCH, see Brackett and Corbel . PINNACLE, a turret: a spire: any tall perpendicular ornament. POMEL, a knob, any round protuberance finishing the top of a pinnacle, or similar ornament.  POOP, the high ends of the book report, seats in the antient Churches, with finials or crests carved on their tops.
PRESEYTERY, the eastern parts of deontology, large Churches, kept exclusively for the use of the clergy. PURFLED, trimmed with knots, crockets, or flourishings at the edges. QUARREL, a pane of glass, oblong or square, but usually of the diamond or lozenge shape. QUARTER, a square panel. QUATREFOIL, an ornament of tracery composed of four intersecting circles, and resembling a flower with four leaves.
REREDOS, a screen or partition wall: the back of a fire place, an altar piece. RESPOND, or RESPONDER, a half column or pilaster attached to a wall, and write paper in the u s, responding to another, or to a pillar opposite to it. ROOD-LOFT, a gallery over the entrance into deontology vs teleology essay, the choir of the greater Churches, so called from the Rood or cross, which stood in front. Since the Reformation the Rood lofts have become Organ lofts. ROOD-TOWER, the tower or steeple built over a good the intersection of the body and cross ailes of a Church. ROUND, a turret of a circular form: also a room or closet within such turret. ROSE-WINDOW, a circular window, sometimes called a Catharine wheel window, from the resemblance of such windows to a wheel in the farm of their mullions. SCONCE, a branch to set a light upon: a screen or partition to cover or protect any thing a head or top. SCUTCHEON, a shield of arms: also a quoin or angle buttress.
SHAFT, a bottel , or slender perpendicular part of a clustered column. SHRINE, a case wherein the remains of saints were preserved. SPANDRIL, applied to the arches formed within a square of a ceiling, door, or other opening: the open (or ornamented) space between the outward moulding of an deontology essay arch, from its impost to the horizontal line which surmounts it above. STALL, a seat for an ecclesiastic in the choir or chancel of a Church. Every stall was enclosed for a single person only to sit in. STANCHEON, the upright iron bars of a window. STOUP, a post, or small pedestal for a statue. TABERNACLE, a stall or niche with a canopy above, for an image to be placed in an arched canopy over a tomb: a shrine. TRACERY, a term much used by modern writers for the ornamental pattern formed by the tracing or interweaving of the mullions in on my, a window, or the fret-work in a roof. TRANSEPT, a cross aisle.
TREFOIL, an ornament resembling the three-leaved clover. TRELLICE, a gate or screen of open work, whether wood or metal. TURN-PIKE, a flight of stairs winding round a centre. VICE, a spiral stair case; the same as the foregoing. VIGNETTE, an ornamental carving in imitation of the tendrils and foliage of a vine. WEEPERS, small statues of children or friends placed on the sides of a tomb, around the principal figure. ZIGZAG, one of the varieties of fretwork used in buildings of the 12th century, erected by the Normans.
EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. THE upper half of this plate presents various modes of deontology vs teleology, forming Gothic arches, copied from 'Pugin's Specimens,' and selected from several edifices in England. a , the common semicircular arch, usually called the Roman arch, and never to be admitted in buildings of the Gothic style. b , the four-centred pointed arch. The dots shew the place of the compasses in describing this arch. c , the equilateral, where the essay-education is the key to, points of the base and crown are equi-distant. Deontology! This may be called the standard form of the essay-education, pointed arch, and is reckoned, by many, the most beautiful.
d , the lancet arch, described from two centres outside the arch. e , the three-centred pointed arch. f , the four-centred pointed arch in another form. g , the ogee arch, an ornamental variety, sometimes used over doors and windows on a small scale. h , the four-centred ogee arch.
i j , other varieties of the same, employed chiefly in florid tracery. k , a pointed arch, formed by deontology vs teleology essay the crossing of straight lines, the in the u s, curves being drawn through the intersections, by the hand. 1, m, n , are four-centred obtuse arches, the centres of deontology, which are upon the diagonal lines, which are formed by book report projects dividing the base line into more or less parts, according to the height intended. The lower half of the plate presents several figures of Gothic door-ways and doors, from the same author. o , south door-way of Tattershall Church. The waving line across the vs teleology essay, bottom, shews the plan of the mouldings. One half only is laid down in the plate, [32/33] the other half being precisely in the same form. The date of this building is A. D. 1455. p , door-way from Oultin, Norfolk. q , door-way from u s Horn Church, Essex, A. IX 1440. Fig. s . shews the ground plan of the deontology, same.
r , door of the refectory of St. George's Chapel, Windsor. aa , specimen of panel from St. Paul's Chapel, Westminster Abbey. pp , specimen of panel from Henry the Seventh's Chapel. oo , specimen of panel from the monument of favorite diwali, Henry IV, in Westminster Abbey. rr, specimen of panel from essay Bishop Longland's Chapel, Lincoln Cathedral, ss , specimen of panel from the same. qq , specimen of panel from the same. ff , specimen of panel from the same.
kk , specimen of panel from Magdalen College. mm , specimen of panel from the palace of Hampton Court, bb , a Gothic cross, in the florid style. dd , buttress and pinnacle, at Oxford. gg , finish of one of the admission essays service harvard, small turrets of the palace at Hampton Court. ee , niche, or tabernacle and canopy of a buttress, from the South side of Magdalen Church, Oxford.
The usual plan for deontology these recesses was a hexagon, half recessed and half projecting. ll , finial over the door-way of St. Stephen's Chapel, Westminster Abbey. On My Festival Diwali! nu, niche of deontology vs teleology, Bishop Beauchamp, from St. Effect Essay! George's Chapel, Windsor, shewing the crocketted canopy, with its finial. xx , part of the foliated crest which finishes the top of the above niche, enlarged. tt , finial, from Corpus Christi College. uu , finial, from Brazen Nose College, Oxford.  vv , plan of the tracery of the ceiling in deontology, the aile of Henry the Seventh's Chapel, shewing one fourth of a compartment.
ww , one half of the arch of the great window over the entrance to Westminster hall. On My Favorite! The tracery is confined by perpendicular lines, continued upwards from the mullions of the deontology vs teleology, chief lights. The hood-mould of the arch is terminated by the figure of a hart, collared and chained, the badge of Richard II. aaa , elevation of Chancel, drawn for St. Paul's Church, Burlington, Vt. Shewing the essay on my favorite festival, pulpit with its canopy, the essay, desk, the communion table, the chairs, and the doors immediately behind them, leading into the vestry room. bbb , section of the above, shewing the canopy over the pulpit, the desk, the altar, the Chancel railing, and is the key to a good life, the steps, according to their several projections. ccc , ground plan of the same.
These three figures are drawn according to the scale of feet, which is at the top of the plate, to the right. ddd , pedestal which gives an appropriate form either for a baptismal font or a pulpit, taken from Westminster hall. ccc , canopy for a pulpit or a niche, from All Soul's College, Oxford. fff , ggg , hhh shew an enlarged view of the parts which belong to a confessional in St. Mary's Church, Oxford. iii , one half of a window from King's College Chapel, Cambridge. kkk , turret from the entrance tower of vs teleology, Brazen nose College, Oxford.
lll , turret, with a niche below, from the same. mmm , enlarged tracery shewing how to lay out all similar figures, from the oriel window of Balliol College, Oxford. THIS plate represents the interior of a plain village Church, with several of the external parts, viz. A, section of the essay-education is the a good, end which contains the tower, shewing the frame-work o the roof, the belfry, the stairs leading to the same; the organ gallery with an appropriate organ case, the doors below, opening into the vestibule, the two front windows, and the Gothic pilasters, with the Gothic arches, connecting them, and terminating in the main arch of the ceiling. In this plan, the tower contains the vestibule and the stairs ascending to the organ gallery and belfry, in vs teleology, the first story: in the second story it is effect essay, divided by a partition into vs teleology, two portions, of which the front portion contains the stairs ascending to the belfry, and the other portion contains the organ gallery as shewn in the plate. Its third story, also shewn in the plate, contains another flight of stairs, above which is the write my essay paper, platform where the frame-work for the bell should be placed. The windows opposite the bell may be left open, as represented in the plate, but they look much better closed with boards, planed very thin, not less than five or six inches wide, and about the same distance apart, set in the manner of a Venetian blind, sloping downwards at an angle of about forty-five degrees, and painted a dark stone color. The sound of the bell will not be obstructed by such blinds as these, and the beauty of the tower will be much improved. But in painting the tower, the common colors of white and green should never be employed.
Stone colors of deontology, different shades are the only proper colors for a Gothic building. See on this subject, Chapter VI. B. This figure shews a section of the seeing essay, chancel and of the interior, with the frame work of the roof, the end windows, the Gothic pilasters connected with their arches, as before; the pulpit, from the deontology, centre of which, at projects for 3rd graders each side, a Gothic screen extends to the end of the chancel railing, and is then turned at right angles to deontology, the wall, forming an enclosure for effect of obesity the steps which descend to deontology vs teleology essay, the vestry room in the basement story, and also for those which ascend to the pulpit. Where there is no basement, this space may be easily managed so as to afford accommodation for a robing room; without which, an Episcopal Church should never be erected. Below [35/36] the pulpit, is seen the book report projects, desk; on vs teleology essay, each side of which, are the doors of the screen. Below the law school admission essays service harvard, desk appears the communion table, and at deontology vs teleology each end of the chancel, is a gothic chair. In front, is the chancel railing, in the centre of which is placed the font for baptism. The wall behind and is the life, above the screen shews an essay appropriate finish, which may be given by painting; the two oblong squares representing tablets containing the Lord's prayer, the Creed, the ten commandments, or any other parts of Scripture, according to the choice of the key to a good, minister; and deontology vs teleology, the centre of the wall exhibiting the sentence, HOLINESS TO THE LORD, or any other short and impressive text, in larger characters. In the plate, I have surmounted this sentence with the essay of obesity, well known and ancient symbol, I. H. S., signifying, Jesus Hominum Salvator , with the cross rising out of the middle letter a symbol to which I confess myself strongly attached on account of its solemn and affecting signification. Many pious people are afraid of this figure of the deontology vs teleology essay, cross, because it is used so extensively by the Church of Rome; but this is a weak and unworthy argument for laying aside any thing, which, in itself, possesses an edifying and wholesome character. There would be a great improvement in the Christian philosophy of our day, if some of our brethren could discover, that there may be as much superstition in quarreling with the Church of Rome, as in agreeing with her.
C. This figure represents on a distinct scale, the ornamental heading of the windows of the tower outside, with the Gablet, Crockets and Finial, belonging to the enriched and annie dillard, florid variety of the Gothic style. They may be carved at an expense which would not exceed forty or fifty dollars for the whole four windows; and they may also be cast in lead or pewter, and essay, nailed on. I have used them in both ways, and consider them the most beautiful finish, in this or any other kind of architecture. It is effect essay of obesity, not necessary, however, that they should be put up when a Church is first erected, but it should be planned with regard to their being added at a future day. D. This figure represents the deontology vs teleology essay, ornamental heading of the other windows of the Church, with the lattice sash which properly belongs to the best specimens of the Gothic style. When these can be cast in lead, they should be much smaller than is seeing essay annie dillard, here represented; but when they are of wood, they cannot be conveniently [36/37] made, in most cases, of a size much less than the ordinary window sash. It is always important, however, that they should be considerably longer in their perpendicular, than in their transverse dimension s: and vs teleology, I should recommend a much greater difference than the plate exhibits. The reader will find in some of the figures of the three first plates, much better models for the construction of the details of window heads and mouldings, than this. E. This figure shews an elevation of a baptismal font, which may be made square, the top containing a basin of marble, silver, or china, according to circumstances.
But stone should be preferred, and effect essay of obesity, the cost of marble for deontology vs teleology essay such a purpose, is paper in the, inconsiderable. It should be observed, however, that the square form is by no means so good as the hexagon or octagon. F. This figure exhibits a side elevation of the buttress, with its pinnacle and its coping. These buttresses are built into the wall, thereby strengthening and securing it. Vs Teleology! If the law school service harvard, Church be of brick, they may be one brick and a half oil the face, which face continues the same breadth from the bottom to the top. Their projection must be not less than a brick and a half beyond the wall at the bottom, where they should be built of stone with the rest of the foundation. At the water table where the stone work of a brick edifice usually terminates, the buttresses fall back half a brick in the form of a coping as represented in the plate: see the sections marked A and B. And opposite to the middle part of the wall, or a little below it, they fall back another half brick, leaving a projection of the remaining half brick to continue up to the top of the wall, and then extending inwards upon the wall, they are carried up to a height sufficient for the battlements, and a little above the top of the battlements, as in the plate, they finish square, a brick and a half each way, ending with a pinnacle. Deontology Vs Teleology Essay! In a large Church, these dimensions should be proportionably increased, and in a building altogether of stone, it will be advisable to allow something more for the buttresses in book report projects for 3rd, each direction.
I have been thus particular, because the buttresses are an indispensable feature in vs teleology, the Gothic style, and workmen are in need of minute instruction in essay favorite festival diwali, regard to them, because they are not of frequent occurrence in our country. The copings where the buttresses fall back, should be of stone below; but above, where they have nothing to bear but the deontology vs teleology essay, weather, they may be of wood, built in, [37/38] and painted to agree with the rest of the seeing essay dillard, wall. Their form in such case is marked in fig. F, by dotted lines; but the projection of the outward slope which casts off the water, ought to deontology vs teleology, have a groove or channel below , which the essay annie, plate should have represented. The pinnacles are best made of stone, but where economy must be studied, they may be made of plank or thick boards, filled with brick and mortar, and set down in mortar upon the buttresses. In this mode they will not cost more than one or two dollars apiece, and will last, if well put together and painted, for many years. G. This figure represents the organ gallery of fig. A on a larger scale, so as to shew distinctly the top of a plain single Gothic pillar, with the corner and pinnacle above, and the panel work, the battlement, and the connexion of the arch beneath. The most simple method of producing the essay, effect of the Gothic panel is here designed. The front of the projects for 3rd, gallery is first wainscotted, leaving a sufficient projection to the corner posts for the subsequent finish, then the panels are cut out separately, each being a distinct piece: the inner edge is chamfered three quarters of an inch each way, and vs teleology essay, the panels thus prepared, are nailed side by side upon effect essay of obesity, the wainscotting.
A fillet of about an inch square is then nailed over the joints, intersecting with the essay, same above and below, as in the plate. The same plan is applicable to the panel of the arch, the law school admission service harvard, corner post, c. the screen behind the pulpit, and every other part where the effect to deontology vs teleology essay, be produced is essay-education key to a good, similar. The thicker the plank out of which the panel is cut, the richer will be the effect, but a full inch board will look well, and the appearance of vs teleology essay, it when finished, will be greatly improved, by painting the inside or bottom of the wainscotting, two or three shades darker than the rest; as in the plate. This minute detail may appear trifling, but it must be remembered that I am not writing for architects, nor for men of taste and science in this branch of the arts, but for the clergy who may never have paid the essay-education key to a good life, attention of a moment to the subject, until, in deontology vs teleology, some distant region of our extensive country, they are called upon to preside over the erection of a Church, with none but ordinary house carpenters around them. Effect Essay! To men thus circumstanced, my own experience of such little difficulties is deontology vs teleology, a sufficient proof that these practical hints will he valuable. I furnish them for this reason, without any [38/39] regard to the criticisms of those for whom they were not intended. Utility, not fame, is my object.
Happily for write paper in the me,--let me take the liberty of adding,--if fame were within my reach, I should value it only in proportion as it was founded upon utility. This plate represents a perspective view of Trinity Church, Pittsburgh, the building mentioned in the preface, as being the lint fruits of the necessity which turned my attention to the study of Church architecture. The best part of the exterior of this building is the tower, which exhibits an example of the flying buttress, taken from deontology vs teleology Henry the Seventh's Chapel. The pinnacles of the tower are finished with crockets and finials, or purfled , according to book report projects for 3rd, the phraseology of the vs teleology essay, Gothic style. Fig.
4, shews a method of striking a Gothic arch from four centres, which may be recommended as in essay, good proportion. Fig. 5, shews the method of laying out a compound Gothic window with its tracery, the part at the left exhibiting the skeleton, and the other half shewing the deontology essay, filling up of the detail. Fig. 6, shews the base and the capital of a single Gothic pillar, taken from St. George's Chapel, Windsor. Fig. 7, shews the flying buttress on a larger scale. Fig. 8, shews a pendant of the ceiling, taken from Crosby hall, London.
Fig. 9. This figure represents, according to the scale below, an arrangement of the chancel, in which the pulpit and the desk are at each side, and the altar in the middle, with a richly ornamented Gothic window over it. Write In The! Between the deontology, window and the buttresses at the side are tablets, containing sentences from essay on my festival diwali Scripture; [39/40] under which are the chairs. The entrances to the desk and pulpit are in the rear, through two low Gothic doors. The light transmitted over the altar is from the vestry room, which stands immediately behind the whole chancel. There are canopies over vs teleology the pulpit and service harvard, desk, on each side of which rises a buttress enriched in the florid style, taken from Henry the deontology essay, Seventh's Chapel. In the front is the Gothic railing of the chancel, with a baptismal font in the centre. Essays Service Harvard! Upon this plan the pulpit and desk are in the same form, the pulpit being only essay a little higher. Fig.
10. This figure represents the construction of a triple Gothic pillar, which should always be preferred when the expense can be afforded, as it is both richer and more delicate in its effect. There is on my favorite diwali, a fault in the plate, however, which must be carefully avoided. The circles are too large. Instead of cutting into each other, they should have just met, which would have given the best proportion. Fig. 11, shews a good form for a Gothic pulpit. Fig. 14, another for the same.
Fig. 15, shews the enriched buttress used in deontology essay, No. 9, on a larger scale. Fig. Essay On My! 17, shews the deontology vs teleology essay, railing of the chancel in No. 9. on a larger scale. Fig. 13. This figure exhibits a perspective view of the ceiling, the effect, front of the deontology vs teleology, galleries, and the chancel, in Trinity Church, Pittsburg. Projects For 3rd! The ceiling is perfectly flat, but in order to give somewhat of the effect of the enriched Gothic style, it is crossed by spandrils from the heads of the pillars.
Where these meet along the centre, there are pendants, made in the form of that, represented in Plate 5, and the whole is filled up with a representation in painting of vs teleology, Gothic tracery, done in various shades of stone color. When fresh, and for several years afterwards, this kind of finish looks extremely well, if skilfully executed; because it gives an effect essay accurate picture of the exquisite fretwork of the English Gothic Churches. But it requires to be renewed in time, and workmen are not often to be found who can do it justice. Fig. Vs Teleology Essay! 12, represents the head of one of the pillars with its spandrils, as in No. Admission Essays Service Harvard! 13, but on a larger scale. Fig. 16, shews the plan of the ceiling in No.
13, the deontology essay, part at the left exhibiting the skeleton, and that, at my essay the right, shewing the filling up, in deontology vs teleology essay, imitation of fretwork. Fig. 19, shews the border of foliage which surrounds the book for 3rd graders, oval and the segments [40/41] of circles in No. Deontology Vs Teleology Essay! 16, on a larger scale. The idea of the whole of this is derived from the Chapel of Henry the Seventh. Fig. 18, a perspective view of the battlements which finish the top of the galleries in Trinity Church, Pittsburgh, THE principal figure in effect essay, this plate represents a perspective view of vs teleology, a design for a Gothic Church, with an octagonal steeple, instead of admission harvard, a tower. Deontology Essay! The top of the steeple is not shewn, but a ball and vane is the usual and appropriate finish. In this design the windows are in effect essay, a single row, and not doubled, as in Plate 6. And therefore this design is better, because it accords with the vs teleology, principle set forth in the first chapter; viz, the giving force to the perpendicular line, as far as practicable.
The building at the end, is a vestry room, which agrees with the effect of obesity, style of the main building, and the window above is to throw light into the chancel, over the altar, where the plan laid down in Plate 6, No. 9, is preferred. In such case, however, the window over the altar should be either filled with stained glass, or covered with a transparency, to vs teleology essay, subdue the light; for otherwise it would pain all but the strongest eyes in report for 3rd graders, the congregation. Fig. 21, shews a ground plan with two ailes; but three ailes are better. A, is the vestibule, containing the deontology vs teleology, stairs to the organ gallery. B, is the space between the altar and the chancel railing which should be not less than from four to six feet. Favorite Festival Diwali! The centre of the railing shews the place for essay the baptismal font. C, is the altar, or communion table, at each end of of obesity, which stands a Gothic chair.
D E, the deontology essay, desk and pulpit, both entered from the vestry room behind. F, the vestry room, shewing the festival diwali, stairs leading to the desk, from which a plat form passing along to the other end leads to the pulpit. Fig. 22. This figure shews a section, explanatory of a simple plan to save the roof in a Gothic building.
In order to understand it, the reader will bear in mind that the finishing the wall with a battlement is constant characteristic of the [41/42] Gothic style This, however, produces what is deontology, called by workmen a valley gutter that is, the sloping roof meeting with the wall which forms the battlement, makes a valley, or hollow, from which the water must be carried through pipes to the ground Now the practical difficulty in this case is, that no degree of book projects for 3rd graders, care in essay, the construction of these valley gutters, is usually able to on my, keep them from leaking In the summer half of the vs teleology, year, they do well enough, but in winter, the freezing and thawing of the snow upon the roof, almost invariably produces leakage, which ruins, in time, the ceiling below, occasions the plaster to crack and seeing essay dillard, fall down, and makes the building both unsafe and unsightly. The mode in which I think the whole of this difficulty can be avoided, is shewn in the fig marked 22, which is a section exhibiting the wall, the roof, the vs teleology, eavetrough, and the battlement, as follows, viz. c , the buttress, through which the eave-trough passes the whole length of the building. d , the seeing essay, plank which forms the battlement, which is spiked or screwed to the eavetrough in such a manner, that the openings or embrasures of the battlement are a little below the edge of the eave-trough The triangular piece which projects backward from deontology vs teleology essay this plank, is merely to give the appearance of thickness from below, without which, the book graders, battlement would seem to want substance. e , the eave-trough, hollowed, as usual, out of solid timber, and having the outer edge an inch lower than the inner The piece of plank below the trough, is for ornament, as is also the fillet outside, and vs teleology, the appearance of the law school, whole is shewn accurately in the perspective view above it, in the same plate.
The operation of this is, that the deontology vs teleology, battlement does not form a valley at key to a good life all It is not, as in the ordinary cases, a continuation of the wall, but it is attached to the eave-trough and whenever the eave-trough fills in deontology vs teleology, frosty weather, and a thaw succeeds, the openings of the battlement, being as low, or a little lower than the outer edge of the eave-trough, ard an escape for the water, which effectually prevents its using above the edge of the roof; and is the life, flowing inwards upon the wall It is cheaper than the other method, because the application of vs teleology, tin or lead to the valley [42/43] gutter is rendered unnecessary; and the beauty of the effect is so far from being diminished by the projecting of the battlement outwards, that I think it is rather increased. Book Report! Care, however, must be taken to have the deontology vs teleology essay, buttresses project sufficiently to allow of this finish, without having any part of the work to come within an inch of essay-education key to life, their face. The inspection of the perspective view marked No. Deontology Vs Teleology! 20, will make this plain. THE figure in the plate, marked No. 23, exhibits the front view of the same building of which the diwali, rear was presented in Plate 7. The upper part of the steeple is quite too short for a proper proportion, and should be about twice as high from the base of the vs teleology essay, pyramid to the top.
The size of the plate did not admit of its being so represented; but any one who likes the draught in other respects, can easily make the alteration. The rest of the tower is in reasonably good style, and book report projects for 3rd, if well executed, would look sufficiently imposing. Deontology! The windows in the body of the building are, much more numerous and nearer together than necessity requires, though not more so, perhaps, than the beauty of the building would justify, provided they were filled with stained glass, or well covered with transparencies. Their number, however, can be diminished, at pleasure. But there is one defect in this plan that would produce considerable inconvenience.
It is the want of more passages of ingress and egress; the single door through the tower being by no means sufficient for the convenience of a congregation. The best method of supplying the deficiency would be that which is shewn in Plate 10, fig. 25. This plate presents a perspective drawing of a design for a small cathedral, in which the roof is book report projects for 3rd graders, concealed by a rich screen of tracery, the water, however, having the same means of escape provided as formerly described, through the lower [43/44] row of small Gothic arches. The large tower, containing the chancel and vestry room, should be placed towards the East, according to ancient custom, derived from the Temple at Jerusalem.
And two doors, one at each side of the tower would be necessary, in addition to the western door, shewn in deontology vs teleology essay, the plate, for the ingress and egress of the congregation. The octagonal towers would afford room for winding stairs to ascend into the organ loft and is the a good life, the galleries. These octagonal towers are taken from King's College Chapel, and the great octagonal tower from the celebrated Fonthill Abbey. THE principal figure in this plate, numbered 25, represents Skirlaw Chapel in Yorkshire, and is copied from Britton's Architectural Antiquities of Great Britain. It is a much admired specimen of Gothic architecture for deontology the purposes of a parish Church. Fig. 26, represents a quatre foil opening, from Red Mount Chapel, Lynn, Norfolk. Fig. 27, exhibits a font from law school essays service Binham Priory Church, Norfolk. Fig. 28, shews the capital and base of a Gothic pillar from deontology Red Mount Chapel.
THIS figure, numbered 29, presents a drawing of a Church, in simple elevation, according to the manner used for workmen. The scale is one tenth of an inch to the foot. THE principal figure in this plate, No. 30, shews the essay on my favorite diwali, front elevation, and fig. 31 shews the deontology vs teleology essay, rear elevation of the same building, the side of which is exhibited in write my essay paper in the, the last plate. Fig. 32, is a perspective drawing, taken from Britton, of St. Botolph's tower, which is surmounted by vs teleology a lantern, supported by flying buttresses.
It is a remarkable example of the kind. THESE figures are two of the Crosses, so common formerly in England, at which the people were in essay-education a good life, the habit of stopping to pray, and where the preaching friars delivered sermons to the surrounding multitudes on the Lord's day. I have added them to this little work, partly as an deontology vs teleology essay interesting relic of former days, but more because I think they might furnish beautiful models for Gothic monuments, in commemoration of 'the dead, who die in favorite festival, the Lord.' The figure on the left is the Cross at Leighton Buzzard, Bedfordshire; and vs teleology, that, on the right, represents the essay-education is the life, Cross at Winchester, Hampshire. This last is vs teleology essay, 43 1/2 feet high. There is, on the frontispiece, a representation of another,--the Black-Friars' Cross, at Hereford--which, though in ruin, retains enough of its original character o afford a useful example of the Gothic style. THE reader must have remarked, that nothing has been said of any arrangement for warming Churches, nor any place marked out for flues or chimneys. Essay! The reason is, because these are matters which have no particular connexion with the style of architecture. Chimneys are deformities in every public edifice, and deontology vs teleology, all that can he done, so long as they are necessary, is to dispose of is the key to a good, them where they shall attract the vs teleology essay, smallest possible observation.
In the Gothic style, however, the buttresses afford an effect of obesity opportunity for carrying up flues with great convenience, and by making the pinnacles of those buttresses of cast iron, with the opening at the side which is essay, farthest fom the a good, spectator, the whole purposes of chimneys may be provided for, without any violation of good taste. And where this plan may not be thought advisable, the chimney may be so designed as to resemble a turret, with battlements above, and thus be kept in consistency with the style of vs teleology essay, building. As to the modes of applying heat for the purpose of warming Churches, it is [45/46] beside the object of this little work to enlarge upon them. I would only observe, that where a supply of heated air can be introduced below, it is, on many accounts, to essay-education is the a good life, be preferred before the vs teleology, common plan of erecting stoves in law school admission harvard, the Church itself. Best of all, perhaps, would be a recurrence to the practice of our ancestors, who used no artificial heat whatever in the house of God. But if this be too much to expect from the effeminacy of our day, it might be well to consider whether the end could not be sufficiently accomplished by conducting, at the side of each aile, a stove pipe, made square, instead of round, and deontology, secured by brick or stone work so as to effect essay, form a part of the floor of the deontology, building. In conclusion, I have only to remind the reader of the humble rank to which this volume lays claim. It is but the essay of an amateur, designed chiefly for those who have not made architecture their study. Effect Of Obesity! No man can be more sensible than myself, of its defects; yet, well knowing the want of some plain and simple directory of the kind, I lay it upon the altar of utility with the hope that it may be found acceptable to deontology essay, some of my brethren, and save them from many of those perplexities which commonly attend an attempt to write paper in the u s, erect the essay, earthly sanctuary of God.
With regard to credit, emolument, or reputation, I may well apply the adage, 'Happy is he that expecteth nothing, for he shall not be disappointed.' To supply the wants of the Church, in any and every department within my power, is the main business of my life; and if I have succeeded in this design to any reasonable degree, my labor will not have been in vain.
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The BP Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico essay. This report discusses the issue of concern because an oil spill is considered to be a disaster for both for human beings and the environment. Essay. The BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is no exception. Festival. The oil spill affected both human beings and the environment, polluting and damaging vast areas of the adjacent territories and deontology the large populations of wildlife. The BP oil spill caused a serious damage not only to the marine life, but also to the human factor, including wild inhabitants, fishing and tourism industry in the Gulf of Mexico (Tangley, 2010). A large number of factors, including Petroleum toxicity, Corexit dispersant usage and oxygen depletion can be viewed as the major causes of the disaster which led to the negative impact on ecological system (Smithsona Venette, 2013). In this paper, the major risk management issues, which illustrate the case, are identified.
Among these risk management issues are slow response to my essay paper in the u s the crisis, as the oil spill took several weeks to stop. The results of risk management assessment demonstrate that loss prevention measures in the case of the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010 were in place to prevent the oil spillage starting and the proper cost containment steps were taken to manage the cost of the vs teleology essay, required clean-up operations, recovery procedures to promote business continuation, many days had been lost. Second, the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico demonstrated poor governance of organization as the company lacked the effective crisis plan. Thus, the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico case can be used to teach people lesson how to effectively use risk management and crisis management practices in addressing unexpected disasters. To manage the essay on my festival diwali, crisis, a special plan should be developed and tested. Any company should six stages of deontology vs teleology essay crisis management to essay on my favorite festival remain successful on the competitive market. The company€™s leaders should demonstrate their remarkable leadership capabilities, serving their companies, employees and communities. The Gulf of Mexico is one of the most valuable territories because of the availability of the great variety of marine life, including fish, shrimp and other species. The coasts of the Gulf of Mexico are the best place for seabirds€™ nests and turtles€™ nesting. However, the most valuable treasure for economic development of the country is the vs teleology, richest reserve of oil and natural gas.
In general, there are more than 4,000 offshore rigs in the Gulf of Mexico designed for drilling gas and oil (Chiang et al., 2010). According to essay dillard researchers, €śmany people who live in the five U.S. Vs Teleology Essay. states that border the of obesity, Gulf of Mexico (Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and Florida) depend on deontology vs teleology essay the Gulf for book jobs and survival€ť(Chiang et al., 2010, p. Deontology Essay. 5). One more important function of the admission essays harvard, Gulf of Mexico is the growing fishing industry that provides over 1.3 pounds of fish and shellfish each year. This information helps to better understand the vs teleology, negative consequences of the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico that occurred on April 20, 2010. Essay. The negative effects from oil spill have been widely discussed in scientific literature. These effects include species-specific effects, effects on the near shore environment, serious trophic effects through oil contamination of vs teleology sediments, various site-specific effects, and the effects on drilling discharges (Lin Mendelssohn, 2012). Based on recent research findings, €śthe BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico that followed the explosion of the is the life, exploration platform Deepwater Horizon on 20 April 2010 was the largest accidental oil spill€ť in America that requires finding the proper solutions to develop effective risk management practices. It is very important to find out €śif an accident of this size could have been expected€ť (Acton, 2013, p. 501). The general aims of the analysis presented in this paper include: providing an overview of the key facts surrounding the essay, case identification of the major risk management issues identified in the case Comparing and contrast the way in which these three risk management issues were dealt with by the firm(s) involved with material presented in the course or other reference material dealing with the concepts or issues that the case illustrates Assessment of the effectiveness with which the crisis, created as a result of the failures in risk management evident in the case, were managed Identification of the lessons that can be learned from the case, providing conclusions and the nature of any control procedures and/or risk treatment systems that should have been implemented or where failures occurred.
This report is significant for assessment of the key risk management issues that are associated with the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Essay. The BP€™s handling of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill that occurred in 2010 teaches people some important crisis management lessons. Deontology Vs Teleology Essay. Actually, the work on oil platforms is automated, but human errors often occur on these structures (Smithsona Venette, 2013). According to researchers, these oil drilling rigs are considered to be the largest movable human-made structures in report graders the world, as such €śthey have become virtual cities afloat that will always have minor equipment failure and deontology vs teleology essay human error, not to festival mention working in hurricane-prone environments€ť (Ostrom Wilhelmsen, 2012, p. 23). Deontology Vs Teleology Essay. The Deepwater Horizon platform is essay annie dillard no exception, as it has a long history of oil spillages and fires that occurred before the oil spillage of 2010. The Deepwater platform operates day and deontology vs teleology essay night; therefore, some problems with equipment may appear on a regular basis. This report is aimed at giving explanation of some important risk management practices that should be taken into consideration by other companies to avoid negative consequences, similar to the Deepwater Horizon platform€™s disaster. Case Study Description of the key facts surrounding the essay on my, case.
The BP oil spill in the Gulf of deontology Mexico is considered to be the €ślargest accidental marine oil spill in the history of petroleum industry, being 8%-31% larger in volume that the key to a good, previous largest oil spill, the Ixtos I oil spill€ť (Holland Schemwell, 2014, p. 23). The BP oil disaster is often called the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. It occurred on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Actually, the BP oil spill can be viewed as the worst environmental disaster in America. The BP oil spill occurred near Mississippi River Delta, as a result of a deep-sea floor oil gusher, which was made by the massive explosion of the deontology, Deepwater Horizon platform, one of the effect essay of obesity, most efficient and effective semi-submersible drilling rigs in the Gulf of deontology vs teleology Mexico. It has been found that oil slick coverage was approximately 2,500 square miles in the Gulf of Mexico region. It has been reported that there were huge underwater oil plumes invisible at the surface.
As a result of the massive explosion, there were many victims of this disaster; including 11 workers killed during the explosion and 17 men seriously injured (Holland Schemwell, 2014). On the 15th of July, 2010, the gushing wellhead was capped, but the Deepwater Horizon platform released over 4.9 million barrels or 780,000 m3 of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico (Griggs, 2011). This fact means that as a result of the my essay paper in the, explosion, over deontology essay, 53,000 barrels of oil were spilled each day of the accident (from July 10 till July 15) before the workers could cap the well. Admission Harvard. The experts state that for 87 days, the oil continued to flow to the waters of the Gulf of Mexico, causing serious damage to the environment and local economy. In other words, crude oil was flowing into the estuaries, marshes and beaches of three states affected by the spillage – Alabama, Louisiana and Mississippi (Griggs, 2011). The U.S. government declared that the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico can be regarded as a national disaster.
As a rule, an area contaminated by oil, is deontology vs teleology closely connected with the whole character of the affected environment. The free spilling of oil leads to a wide range of negative consequences, including €śthe spread by wind and wave€ť (Bai Bai, 2014, p. 363). The oil spillage from the Deepwater Horizon platform floating on the surface could evaporate through air and sun, spreading over law school service harvard, the water surface. As a result, oil spillage affected the environment, including the wildlife. Identification of three major risk management issues illustrated by the case. The BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico that occurred in essay 2010 gives an opportunity to identify three major risk management issues, which can be assessed by experts as significant risk management lessons. One of the of obesity, key risk management issues is that €śthe oil spill took some weeks to stop€ť (Hopkin, 2012, p. 175).
Although the results of risk management assessment show that loss prevention measures in the case of the BP oil spill were in place to prevent the oil spillage starting and the proper cost containment steps were taken to manage the cost of the required clean-up operations, recovery procedures to essay promote business continuation, much time had been lost. According to essay-education key to a good Paul Hopkin (2012), €śit is, perhaps, the case that the damage limitation measures were not as robust as may have been required€ť(p. 175). Besides, the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico has raised serious risk management issues regarding the governance of organization involved in the case. Risk management and governance in the BP organization are separate activities, which have their own committees and vs teleology essay organize their own processes to achieve the established goals. According to researchers, €śthe BP oil spill disaster has clearly shown that the annie dillard, board has to own both the general governance of the organization and its many and varied risk activities€ť (Wright et al., 2013, p. 16). Deontology Vs Teleology. As a result, the disaster created an enormous financial crisis, leading to poor reputation of the admission essays service harvard, BP organization. According to vs teleology essay Otto Lerbinger (2012), €śits image as a leader in deep sea technology was shattered, as well as its professed dedication to corporate social responsibility and the environment€ť(p. 24).
Now the organization needs to use the proper strategies aimed at seeing annie, restoring its reputation in order to successfully operate in the Gulf of deontology Mexico. Based on the US federal government report that was issued in 2011 after investigation of the seeing dillard, key causes of the deontology essay, disaster, the admission service, following failures were identified: Poor risk management practices Last-minute changes in decision making (Anastas et al., 2010) Failure to adequately observe and effectively respond to critical indicators that were identified on the platform Inadequate and insufficient well control response €śInsufficient emergency bridge response training by employees responsible€ť (Guinness Walpole, 2012, p. 227). Comparing and contrast the way in which these three risk management issues were dealt with by the firm(s) involved with material presented in the course or other reference material dealing with the concepts or issues that the case illustrates. In the case discussed in this paper, the deontology essay, BP failed to essay dillard avoid certain management errors that led to massive damage to the environment and caused considerable harm to people. The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon platform rig can be viewed as an example of deontology vs teleology essay €śa designation that is a prevailing contention of government and other reports on the disaster€ť (Lerbinger, 2012, p. 24). Essays Service Harvard. The disaster in the Gulf of Mexico that occurred in deontology essay 2010 was caused by essays certain management failures both by the organization (the BP Company) and essay its contractors (Transocean and Halliburton). Admission Service Harvard. Risk management practices were influenced by deontology vs teleology the wrong decision making associated with some technological problems. According to write my essay in the u s the material presented in the course lectures, the risk management cycle involves several stages, which help an organization to manage risks: Identification, Quantification, Risk assessment, Risk treatment, Monitoring, Risk context.
These stages are interrelated (Business Risk Management Week 2, 2014, p. 2). Based on the established components of risk management process, it is possible to avoid negative consequences of vs teleology disasters in all spheres of human activity, including oil and gas industry. In the Deepwater Horizon platform, many events led to the disaster because inadequate risk management practices were ineffective in that situation. In the case of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, €śthe behaviors and attitudes of law school service harvard leaders have been disappointing at best and irresponsible at worst€ť (Corkindale, 2010, p.1). Vs Teleology Essay. In this crisis, some leadership skills have been misunderstood by the key players. The BP are responsible for the environmental disaster, but the BP CEO Tony Hayward demonstrated some failures in leadership practices, providing control over the €śorganizational culture that sanctioned extreme risk-taking, ignored expert advice, overlooked warnings about safety issues and hid facts€ť (Corkindale, 2010, p.1).
The BP leaders failed to respond to the disaster with sufficient speed and attention. Actually, this failure was a result of the inconsistent organizational culture. Assessment of the effectiveness with which the crisis, created as a result of the failures in essay on my risk management evident in the case, was managed. The effectiveness with which the crisis of the Deepwater Horizon platform, created as a result of the failures in risk management is evident in vs teleology this case. There are six stages of harvard crisis management, including €śavoiding the crisis, preparing to manage the crisis, recognizing the crisis, containing the crisis, resolving the crisis and essay profiting from the on my festival diwali, crisis€ť (Business Risk Management Week 3, 2014, p. 1). The Deepwater Horizon platform€™s governance did not include all the above mentioned stages in vs teleology essay its crisis management. In the Deepwater Horizon platform, there were serious problems with governance as the Company failed to examine all possible scenarios, assess all possible consequences and identify the cost of seeing essay prevention of essay these negative consequences. Is The Key To A Good. The response to the crisis was not planned in a proper way. This fact means the BP Company failed to use the appropriate strategies to avoid the crisis. Because of the explosion on the Deepwater Horizon offshore drilling platform, over 5 million barrels of oil were sent into the waters of the Gulf of Mexico.
This fact proves that the deontology, company failed to avoid the crisis. According to researchers, the BP oil spill in seeing annie the Gulf of Mexico is an example of a €ścompany without crisis planning€ť (Cox, 2012, p. 87). The BP disaster was an unexpected event, which required the implementation of the effective crisis planning. Deontology Essay. According to Charles E. Essay On My Festival. Cox (2012), €śBP€™s advantage was that, even without a crisis plan, the company had billions of dollars in the bank and enough cash reserves to manage its way through the crisis and take steps to rebuild its reputation€ť (p. 88). Undoubtedly, the impact of the BP disaster was enormous because of the lack of the crisis planning.
Nevertheless, the BP governance managed to deontology essay take some reasonably decisive action, using the media and public relations to address the issue of concern and demonstrate the company€™s response to the disaster. The team to respond to the crisis was formed, but there were some failures as well. Mishandled communication influences the company€™s response and harvard the company€™s reputation. The BP hired 2500 people on order to organize and conduct cleaning efforts in deontology essay the states: Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi and Florida (Anastas et al., 2010). Book Projects. As a result, the company was judged by the success the BP had in dealing with this disaster. The company employed many people to deontology vs teleology essay collect oil and essay protect the shore line from pollution. Deontology Vs Teleology Essay. This strategy to address the crisis was effective only when sea was calm (Pennington-Gray et al., 2012). Thus, it is necessary to conclude that pollution from the activities of offshore companies leads to degradation of the marine environment. In those regions where major disasters take place, pollution can lead to the most devastating consequences both on law school admission the environment and human beings. The Deepwater Horizon disaster is one of the examples that can be used to deontology vs teleology teach some lessons.
The key lessons that can be learned from the case are connected with risk management practices. The Deepwater Platform was operating under the BP contract (British Petroleum, the well-known multinational corporation headquartered in the UK). Service Harvard. The discharge of oil had negative impact on the region, caused serious damage to fisheries and marine habitants, bringing to light the risks of deep water oil and deontology vs teleology gas drilling. The lessons that can be learned from the case give an opportunity to other companies to avoid negative consequences of the crisis and write my essay paper develop, maintain and implement effective crisis management practices. One of the most important strategies to manage crisis is to implement a well-developed crisis plan, provide effective control procedures and risk treatment systems that must be developed and implemented in the areas, where failures occur frequently.
In addition, the vs teleology, company€™s leaders should demonstrate their remarkable leadership capabilities, serving their companies, employees and communities.