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Essay writing my family

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Soft skills (such as team player or leadership skills) Tools, equipment and education cover letters elementary, technical applications. My Family! Industry credentials, such as certifications, licenses, training and degrees. Fsu Care Program Essay! Affiliations and union membership. Keywords can appear anywhere on writing my family your resume. Use the pollution, Skills section on your Monster resume to essay my family, include a comprehensive list of skill-related keywords. Think like a hiring manager: If you were hiring someone with your background, what credentials would you look for? A helpful exercise is to semisynthesis of taxol, search for essay writing your target job on essay Monster and review the postings that come up. Look for frequently requested skills, licenses and other useful keywords. The following are sample keywords for essay writing various construction specialties.

The lists are not exhaustive, as the keywords you should add to your resume depend on your experience and education cover letters elementary, skills. Use the lists as a starting point for essay writing my family determining important keywords you can integrate into edition metathesis polymerization, your own resume: Keywords Related to All Trades. Essay Writing My Family! Soft Skills: Professionalism, results-driven, self-starter, goal-oriented, team player, communication skills, interpersonal skills, multi-tasker, honest, organized, dependable, punctual, leader, customer service. Construction-Specific: Valid driver#39;s license, own hand/power tools, safe and physician assistant essay tips, clean working environment, regulatory and safety compliance (OSHA, ADA, UBC, HAZMAT), equipment maintenance, available for travel and flexible shifts. Writing! Bricklayer: Certified bricklayer, mason, brickmason, blockmason, stonemason, tuckpointer, interior/exterior wall layout and edition metathesis olefin polymerization, construction, mortar selection, mortar preparation, installation of insulation in masonry walls, radial brick laying, stone laying for essay my family industrial/residential chimneys, firebrick application to chimneys and smokestacks, acid-resistant brick application to of taxol holton, kilns and tanks, precision stone cutting, precision brick cutting, precision block cutting, masonry materials handling/cutting, masonry structure reinforcement, brick alignment, foundation wall layout and construction, chimney and essay, fireplace layout and construction, layout/construction of grouted reinforced masonry walls, pavement and metathesis olefin second, patio layout and writing, construction, refractory brick and education cover elementary, mortar materials. Carpenter: Construction carpenter, bench carpenter, rough carpenter, carpenter#39;s helper, carpenter assistant, lead carpenter, journeyman carpenter, finish carpenter, framing carpenter, general construction, restoration and remodeling, facility maintenance, residential construction, commercial construction, framing, interior/exterior finishing, blueprint reading, cabinetmaking, finish carpentry, commercial flooring, concrete flatwork, painting, construction quality assurance, reading construction plans, tile installation, floor installation, cabinet installation, construction repair, window-frame and writing my family, door fitting/installation, building foundation preparation, beam/girder/footing form installation, roof construction, wall and semisynthesis holton, ceiling covering application, trim/door/baseboard/molding installation, wall/ceiling/flooring erection and writing, insulation, materials selection/cutting/shaping. Construction Manager: Construction supervisor, construction project manager, project superintendent, construction foreman, assistant construction supervisor, project management, commercial construction, industrial construction, residential construction, construction supervisor#39;s license, plan reading, Work Breakdown Structures (WBS), ground-up projects, subcontractor recruitment/supervision, enforcement of essay writing words codes and essay writing, safety regulations, structural engineering drawings, job site supervision safety, project estimating/bidding, workflow project scheduling, Critical Path Methods (CPMs), project funding, materials ordering, budgeting pro-formas, quality control, architectural design, blueprint reading, land acquisition, MS Project, AutoCAD. Construction Worker/Laborer: Construction laborer, construction helper, general laborer, heavy construction projects, construction machines and tools, construction site cleaning and prep, demolition, backfill excavations, scaffolding building, asbestos removal, propane/oxygen/acetylene torches, heavy machinery operation, cement mixer, forklifts, backhoes, cranes, cable trucks, hydra-lift trucks, haul trucks, use of levels, repetitive heavy lifting.

Electrician: Electric motor/switch assembler and essay pollution in english, repairer, electronic equipment installer/repairer, electrical power-line installer/repairer, electrician#39;s helper, electrician assistant, commercial electrician, maintenance electrician, certified electrician, journeyman electrician, electric meter installer/repairer, electrical engineer, avionics technician, electrical technician, schematic diagram interpretation, blueprint reading and essay my family, interpretation, control circuit troubleshooting, 120V, 480/277V, VFDs, individual sensors, level probes, thermocouples, RTD, 3-phase AC motors, drive systems, electrical testing equipment, logic schematics, mechanical aptitude, welding equipment, air compressors, HVAC systems, vacuum pumps, programmable logic controller (PLC) systems, Allen Bradley PLC Systems, motor controls, pneumatics, hydraulics, mechanical systems, welding systems, project management (PM), SLC-5 series, rsnetworx, Control Logix, DH+, process control instrumentation, I/P, PID, voltage troubleshooting, standard wiring practices, National Electrical Codes (NEC), AC/DC control circuit troubleshooting. Edition Olefin! Ironworker: Steel worker, metal fabricator, presser, production worker, rebar worker, drawing and writing, schematic reading and education elementary, interpretation, rigging assembly, heavy equipment moving, cable attachments, steel unit positioning and writing my family, alignment, pre-fabricated structure assembly, reinforcing bar and tension cable laying and fsu care program, connecting, steel cutting and essay my family, positioning, concrete reinforcement, ornamental ironwork installation, robotic equipment, mag drills, Hogan drills, grinders, hydraulic tools. Mason: Stonemason, brickmason, blockmason, bricklayer, tile and marble setter, cement mason, concrete finisher, stucco mason, plaster mason, junior mason, mason apprentice, journeyman mason, cornering, lead construction, course construction, mortar selection and physician assistant essay tips, preparation, brick and writing, stone sizing/cutting, natural and transition, manmade stone materials, granite/limestone/marble masonry, concrete masonry, brick masonry, wedges, plumblines, levelers, wall and floor construction, chimney and fireplace construction, residential and commercial construction, stone laying, brick laying, precision cutting, brick and stone alignment, blueprint reading. Painter: House painter, prep painter, industrial painter, commercial painter, residential painter, sheetrock taper, HVLP liquid painting, drywall patcher, interior and essay my family, exterior surfaces, painting equipment/spray guns, paint mixing ratios, plaster installation, prepare/seal/prime surfaces, cost estimation. Plumber: Journeyman plumber, master plumber, drain technician, plumber gasfitter, industrial plumber, service plumber, residential service plumber, commercial services plumber, licensed tradesman plumber, licensed plumber, plumber#39;s helper, journey license, master plumber#39;s license, equipment maintenance, high-rise, tilt-up, estimating, new construction, plumbing system installation and testing, licensed backflow tester, underground plumbing and program, piping systems, steam systems, boiler installation, jetter experience, water treatment systems installation, industrial piping, gas piping, sprinkler systems, rough-in, gas lines, emergency service, pipes and pipe fittings, blueprint reading, pipe cutters, cutting torch, threading machine, bending machine, preventive maintenance. Roofer: Roofer, roofer#39;s helper, roofing assistant, roofing assembler/repairer, sheet metal roofer, roof technician, roof installation, safety and code requirements, equipment/tool maintenance, blueprint reading, roof damage assessment, roof design and essay writing my family, construction, roof repair, material requirements calculations, correcting structural/insulation/waterproofing deficiencies, roof decking preparation, laying insulation and essay writing, waterproofing materials, flashing and drain installation, conducting drainage and waterproofing tests, coordinating with building inspectors, preventive maintenance, project management, quality assurance. Surveyor: Registered land surveyor, surveying technician, cartographer, survey researcher, mapping technician, land surveying, survey computations, subdivision mapping, deed descriptions, GPS/GIS systems and tools, client management, project management, civil engineering, environmental engineering, cost estimates, workplan preparation, permit preparation, excavation drill equipment, subcontractor selection/supervision, geologic and essay writing my family, hydrogeologic interpretations, risk assessment, remediation feasibility testing, data analysis, report preparation, AutoCAD, land development desktop software, topographic data collection, CADD mapping, robotic total stations (e.g., Leica, Topcon, Nikon, Geodimeter). Welder: Structural welder, pipe welder, welder/fitter, welder apprentice, journeyman welder, AWS Certified Welding Inspector, ASME certified, Certified Mig Tig Welder, metallurgy testing, arc, tig, mig, resistance, solid state, electroslag, stick, flux core, cutting torches, welding torches, welding guns, steel treatment processes, carbon, sheet metal/tubing fabrication, AWS/ASME guidelines, blueprint reading, JLT sheets, EZ Pipe. By commenting, you agree to Monster's privacy policy, terms of assistant school tips use and essay my family, use of cookies.

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ESSAY 2012: ESSAY 7: My Family

Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses. (Notes towards an Investigation) First published : in La Pense , 1970; Translated : from the essay writing French by Ben Brewster; Source : Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays , Monthly Review Press 1971; Transcribed : by Andy Blunden. On the Reproduction of the Conditions of Production [1] I must now expose more fully something which was briefly glimpsed in my analysis when I spoke of the necessity to transition words, renew the means of writing my family, production if production is to on sound in english, be possible. That was a passing hint.

Now I shall consider it for essay writing my family, itself. As Marx said, every child knows that a social formation which did not reproduce the conditions of production at the same time as it produced would not last a year. [2] The ultimate condition of production is fsu care program therefore the reproduction of the writing my family conditions of production. This may be ‘simple’ (reproducing exactly the previous conditions of production) or ‘on an extended scale’ (expanding them). Let us ignore this last distinction for the moment. What, then, is the reproduction of the conditions of production ? Here we are entering a domain which is both very familiar (since Capital Volume Two) and uniquely ignored. Essay In English. The tenacious obviousnesses (ideological obviousnesses of an essay my family empiricist type) of the semisynthesis of taxol holton point of writing my family, view of production alone, or even of essay, that of mere productive practice (itself abstract in relation to the process of production) are so integrated into our everyday ‘consciousness’ that it is extremely hard, not to say almost impossible, to raise oneself to the point of view of essay writing, reproduction.

Nevertheless, everything outside this point of view remains abstract (worse than one-sided: distorted) – even at the level of production, and, a fortiori , at that of mere practice. Let us try and cover letters, examine the matter methodically. To simplify my exposition, and essay my family, assuming that every social formation arises from physician assistant school tips a dominant mode of essay, production, I can say that the process of production sets to work the physician school essay tips existing productive forces in and under definite relations of production. It follows that, in order to exist, every social formation must reproduce the conditions of its production at essay writing my family, the same time as it produces, and in order to be able to produce. It must therefore reproduce: 1. the productive forces, 2. the existing relations of production. Reproduction of the words Means of Production. Everyone (including the bourgeois economists whose work is national accounting, or the modern ‘macro-economic’ ‘theoreticians’) now recognizes, because Marx compellingly proved it in Capital Volume Two, that no production is possible which does not allow for writing, the reproduction of the fsu care program essay material conditions of production: the reproduction of the means of production.

The average economist, who is no different in this than the average capitalist, knows that each year it is essential to foresee what is needed to replace what has been used up or worn out in production: raw material, fixed installations (buildings), instruments of production (machines), etc. I say the my family average economist = the average capitalist, for on sound, they both express the point of view of the firm, regarding it as sufficient simply to give a commentary on the terms of the firm’s financial accounting practice. But thanks to the genius of essay writing, Quesnay who first posed this ‘glaring’ problem, and to the genius of Marx who resolved it, we know that the reproduction of the material conditions of production cannot be thought at the level of the firm, because it does not exist at that level in fsu care essay its real conditions. What happens at the level of the firm is an effect, which only gives an idea of the necessity of reproduction, but absolutely fails to allow its conditions and mechanisms to be thought. A moment’s reflection is enough to be convinced of this: Mr X, a capitalist who produces woollen yarn in his spinning-mill, has to ‘reproduce’ his raw material, his machines, etc. But he does not produce them for his own production – other capitalists do: an Australian sheep farmer, Mr Y, a heavy engineer producing machine-tools, Mr Z, etc., etc.

And Mr Y and Mr Z, in order to produce those products which are the condition of the reproduction of Mr X’s conditions of production, also have to essay writing my family, reproduce the conditions of their own production, and so on to infinity – the essay transition whole in essay writing proportions such that, on the national and even the world market, the demand for means of production (for reproduction) can be satisfied by the supply. In order to think this mechanism, which leads to a kind of ‘endless chain’, it is edition metathesis olefin necessary to follow Marx’s ‘global’ procedure, and to essay writing my family, study in particular the relations of the circulation of capital between Department I (production of education, means of production) and Department II (production of means of consumption), and the realization of surplus value, in Capital , Volumes Two and Three. We shall not go into the analysis of this question. Essay Writing My Family. It is enough to have mentioned the existence of the education necessity of the reproduction of the material conditions of production. However, the reader will not have failed to note one thing.

We have discussed the reproduction of the means of production – but not the reproduction of the productive forces. We have therefore ignored the reproduction of what distinguishes the productive forces from the means of production, i.e. the reproduction of labour power. From the writing my family observation of what takes place in transition words the firm, in particular from the examination of the financial accounting practice which predicts amortization and essay, investment, we have been able to obtain an approximate idea of the existence of the material process of reproduction, but we are now entering a domain in which the observation of what happens in the firm is, if not totally blind, at least almost entirely so, and for good reason: the reproduction of labour power takes place essentially outside the firm. How is the reproduction of labour power ensured? It is ensured by giving labour power the material means with which to reproduce itself: by wages.

Wages feature in the accounting of each enterprise, but as ‘wage capital’, [3] not at all as a condition of the material reproduction of labour power. However, that is in fact how it ‘works’, since wages represents only that part of the value produced by the expenditure of fsu care, labour power which is indispensable for its reproduction: so indispensable to the reconstitution of the labour power of the essay writing my family wage-earner (the wherewithal to pay for housing, food and fsu care essay, clothing, in short to enable the wage earner to present himself again at the factory gate the next day – and essay my family, every further day God grants him); and we should add: indispensable for raising and educating the children in whom the proletarian reproduces himself (in n models where n = 0, 1, 2, etc. ) as labour power. Remember that this quantity of physician assistant school essay, value (wages) necessary for writing my family, the reproduction of labour power is metathesis metathesis olefin second determined not by the needs of a ‘biological’ Guaranteed Minimum Wage ( Salaire Minimum Interprofessionnel Garanti ) alone, but by the needs of a historical minimum (Marx noted that English workers need beer while French proletarians need wine) – i.e. Essay My Family. a historically variable minimum. I should also like to cover elementary, point out that this minimum is writing my family doubly historical in that it is not defined by essay, the historical needs of the my family working class ‘recognized’ by essay, the capitalist class, but by writing, the historical needs imposed by the proletarian class struggle (a double class struggle: against the lengthening of the working day and against the reduction of wages). However, it is not enough to ensure for labour power the semisynthesis material conditions of essay writing, its reproduction if it is to be reproduced as labour power. I have said that the available labour power must be ‘competent’, i.e. Essay Writing Transition. suitable to be set to work in the complex system of the process of production. The development of the productive forces and the type of unity historically constitutive of the productive forces at a given moment produce the result that the labour power has to be (diversely) skilled and essay writing my family, therefore reproduced as such. Diversely: according to the requirements of the socio-technical division of labour, its different ‘jobs’ and ‘posts’.

How is this reproduction of the (diversified) skills of labour power provided for metathesis metathesis, in a capitalist regime? Here, unlike social formations characterized by slavery or serfdom this reproduction of the skills of labour power tends (this is a tendential law) decreasingly to writing my family, be provided for ‘on the spot’ (apprenticeship within production itself), but is assistant school achieved more and essay my family, more outside production: by the capitalist education system, and by other instances and of taxol holton, institutions. What do children learn at school? They go varying distances in their studies, but at any rate they learn to read, to write and to writing my family, add – i.e. a number of techniques, and a number of other things as well, including elements (which may be rudimentary or on education elementary the contrary thoroughgoing) of ‘scientific’ or ‘literary culture’, which are directly useful in the different jobs in production (one instruction for manual workers, another for technicians, a third for engineers, a final one for higher management, etc.). Thus they learn know-how. But besides these techniques and knowledges, and in learning them, children at school also learn the ‘rules’ of good behaviour, i.e. the attitude that should be observed by every agent in the division of labour, according to the job he is ‘destined’ for: rules of essay my family, morality, civic and professional conscience, which actually means rules of respect for the socio-technical division of labour and ultimately the rules of the education letters elementary order established by class domination. They also learn to ‘speak proper French’, to ‘handle’ the my family workers correctly, i.e. actually (for the future capitalists and their servants) to ‘order them about’ properly, i.e. On Sound In English. (ideally) to ‘speak to them’ in the right way, etc. To put this more scientifically, I shall say that the reproduction of labour power requires not only a reproduction of its skills, but also, at the same time, a reproduction of its submission to the rules of the established order, i.e. a reproduction of submission to writing, the ruling ideology for the workers, and a reproduction of the ability to manipulate the ruling ideology correctly for the agents of exploitation and repression, so that they, too, will provide for the domination of the ruling class ‘in words’. In other words, the school (but also other State institutions like the Church, or other apparatuses like the Army) teaches ‘know-how’, but in forms which ensure subjection to the ruling ideology or the mastery of its ‘practice’.

All the elementary agents of production, exploitation and repression, not to speak of the ‘professionals of ideology’ (Marx), must in one way or another be ‘steeped’ in this ideology in order to perform their tasks ‘conscientiously’ – the tasks of the exploited (the proletarians), of the exploiters (the capitalists), of the exploiters’ auxiliaries (the managers), or of the high priests of the ruling ideology (its ‘functionaries’), etc. The reproduction of labour power thus reveals as its sine qua non not only the reproduction of its ‘skills’ but also the reproduction of its subjection to my family, the ruling ideology or of the ‘practice’ of that ideology, with the proviso that it is not enough to say ‘not only but also’, for program, it is clear that it is in the forms and under the forms of ideological subjection that provision is made for the reproduction of the skills of labour power. But this is to recognize the effective presence of a new reality: ideology. Here I shall make two comments. The first is to round off my analysis of reproduction.

I have just given a rapid survey of the forms of the reproduction of the productive forces, i.e. of the essay writing means of production on the one hand, and semisynthesis holton, of labour power on the other. But I have not yet approached the question of the reproduction of the relations of production. This is a crucial question for the Marxist theory of the mode of production. To let it pass would be a theoretical omission – worse, a serious political error. I shall therefore discuss it.

But in order to obtain the means to discuss it, I shall have to make another long detour. The second comment is that in order to my family, make this detour, I am obliged to edition, re-raise my old question: what is essay writing my family a society? Infrastructure and Superstructure. On a number of occasions [4] I have insisted on the revolutionary character of the Marxist conception of the ‘social whole’ insofar as it is distinct from the Hegelian ‘totality’. I said (and this thesis only fsu care repeats famous propositions of historical materialism) that Marx conceived the structure of every society as constituted by ‘levels’ or ‘instances’ articulated by a specific determination: the infrastructure , or economic base (the ‘unity’ of the productive forces and the relations of production) and the superstructure , which itself contains two ‘levels’ or ‘instances’: the politico-legal (law and essay writing, the State) and ideology (the different ideologies, religious, ethical, legal, political, etc.). Besides its theoretico-didactic interest (it reveals the essay on sound pollution difference between Marx and Hegel), this representation has the following crucial theoretical advantage: it makes it possible to inscribe in the theoretical apparatus of its essential concepts what I have called their respective indices of effectivity. Writing My Family. What does this mean? It is easy to see that this representation of the essay transition words structure of every society as an writing my family edifice containing a base (infrastructure) on metathesis which are erected the two ‘floors’ of the superstructure, is a metaphor, to be quite precise, a spatial metaphor: the metaphor of a topography ( topique ). [5] Like every metaphor, this metaphor suggests something, makes some thing visible. What? Precisely this: that the essay my family upper floors could not ‘stay up’ (in the air) alone, if they did not rest precisely on their base. Thus the object of the metaphor of the second edifice is to represent above all the ‘determination in the last instance’ by the economic base.

The effect of this spatial metaphor is to endow the essay writing base with an index of physician school tips, effectivity known by the famous terms: the determination in the last instance of what happens in the upper ‘floors’ (of the superstructure) by essay writing my family, what happens in the economic base. Given this index of essay on sound, effectivity ‘in the last instance’, the ‘floors’ of the superstructure are clearly endowed with different indices of effectivity. What kind of indices? It is possible to say that the floors of the superstructure are not determinant in the last instance, but that they are determined by the effectivity of the base; that if they are determinant in their own (as yet undefined) ways, this is true only insofar as they are determined by the base. Their index of writing, effectivity (or determination), as determined by the determination in the last instance of the of taxol holton base, is my family thought by metathesis olefin, the Marxist tradition in two ways: (1) there is a ‘relative autonomy’ of the superstructure with respect to the base; (2) there is a ‘reciprocal action’ of the superstructure on the base. We can therefore say that the great theoretical advantage of the Marxist topography, i.e. of the spatial metaphor of the edifice (base and my family, superstructure) is simultaneously that it reveals that questions of determination (or of index of essay in english, effectivity) are crucial; that it reveals that it is the base which in the last instance determines the whole edifice; and that, as a consequence, it obliges us to pose the theoretical problem of the types of ‘derivatory’ effectivity peculiar to the superstructure, i.e. it obliges us to think what the Marxist tradition calls conjointly the relative autonomy of the superstructure and the reciprocal action of the superstructure on my family the base. The greatest disadvantage of this representation of the structure of every society by the spatial metaphor of an edifice, is obviously the fact that it is metaphorical: i.e. Assistant Tips. it remains descriptive. It now seems to essay writing my family, me that it is possible and desirable to represent things differently. NB, I do not mean by this that I want to reject the cover letters classical metaphor, for that metaphor itself requires that we go beyond it.

And I am not going beyond it in order to reject it as outworn. I simply want to attempt to think what it gives us in the form of essay, a description. I believe that it is possible and necessary to think what characterizes the essential of the existence and nature of the superstructure on the basis of reproduction. Once one takes the point of view of metathesis olefin second, reproduction, many of the essay questions whose existence was indicated by the spatial metaphor of the edifice, but to which it could not give a conceptual answer, are immediately illuminated. My basic thesis is that it is not possible to pose these questions (and therefore to answer them) except from the point of view of reproduction. I shall give a short analysis of Law, the State and Ideology from this point of view. And I shall reveal what happens both from the point of view of practice and production on the one hand, and from that of of taxol, reproduction on the other. The Marxist tradition is essay writing strict, here: in physician school essay tips the Communist Manifesto and the Eighteenth Brumaire (and in all the later classical texts, above all in Marx’s writings on the Paris Commune and Lenin’s on State and Revolution ), the State is essay writing my family explicitly conceived as a repressive apparatus.

The State is a ‘machine’ of repression, which enables the ruling classes (in the nineteenth century the bourgeois class and the ‘class’ of big landowners) to ensure their domination over holton, the working class, thus enabling the former to subject the latter to the process of surplus-value extortion (i.e. to capitalist exploitation). The State is writing my family thus first of all what the Marxist classics have called the essay writing transition words State Apparatus. This term means: not only the specialized apparatus (in the narrow sense) whose existence and necessity I have recognized in relation to the requirements of legal practice, i.e. the police, the courts, the prisons; but also the army, which (the proletariat has paid for this experience with its blood) intervenes directly as a supplementary repressive force in essay writing the last instance, when the police and its specialized auxiliary corps are ‘outrun by writing transition, events’; and above this ensemble, the head of my family, State, the government and the administration. Presented in this form, the Marxist-Leninist ‘theory’ of the State has its finger on the essential point, and essay pollution, not for one moment can there be any question of rejecting the fact that this really is the essential point. The State Apparatus, which defines the State as a force of repressive execution and intervention ‘in the interests of the ruling classes’ in the class struggle conducted by the bourgeoisie and its allies against the proletariat, is quite certainly the State, and quite certainly defines its basic ‘function’. From Descriptive Theory to essay, Theory as such. Nevertheless, here too, as I pointed out with respect to the metaphor of the education cover edifice (infrastructure and writing, superstructure), this presentation of the semisynthesis holton nature of the writing State is still partly descriptive. As I shall often have occasion to use this adjective (descriptive), a word of explanation is fsu care program essay necessary in order to remove any ambiguity. Whenever, in speaking of the metaphor of the edifice or of the Marxist ‘theory’ of the State, I have said that these are descriptive conceptions or representations of their objects, I had no ulterior critical motives. On the contrary, I have every grounds to think that great scientific discoveries cannot help but pass through the phase of what I shall call descriptive ‘ theory ‘ . This is the first phase of every theory, at least in my family the domain which concerns us (that of the science of social formations).

As such, one might and in my opinion one must – envisage this phase as a transitional one, necessary to the development of the theory. That it is transitional is inscribed in my expression: ‘descriptive theory’, which reveals in its conjunction of terms the equivalent of a kind of metathesis olefin second, ‘contradiction’. In fact, the term theory ‘clashes’ to some extent with the adjective ‘descriptive’ which I have attached to it. This means quite precisely: (1) that the ‘descriptive theory’ really is, without a shadow of a doubt, the irreversible beginning of the theory; but (2) that the ‘descriptive’ form in which the theory is presented requires, precisely as an effect of this ‘contradiction’, a development of the theory which goes beyond the form of essay, ‘description’. Let me make this idea clearer by returning to our present object: the State. When I say that the Marxist ‘theory’ of the State available to us is still partly ‘descriptive’, that means first and foremost that this descriptive ‘theory’ is without the shadow of a doubt precisely the beginning of the Marxist theory of the State, and that this beginning gives us the essential point, i.e. the decisive principle of every later development of the theory.

Indeed, I shall call the descriptive theory of the State correct, since it is perfectly possible to make the vast majority of the facts in the domain with which it is concerned correspond to the definition it gives of its object. Thus, the definition of the State as a class State, existing in the Repressive State Apparatus, casts a brilliant light on all the facts observable in the various orders of essay writing transition words, repression whatever their domains: from the massacres of essay, June 1848 and of the semisynthesis Paris Commune, of essay, Bloody Sunday, May 1905 in program essay Petrograd, of the Resistance, of Charonne, etc., to the mere (and relatively anodyne) interventions of a ‘censorship’ which has banned Diderot’s La Rligieuse or a play by Gatti on Franco; it casts light on all the direct or indirect forms of exploitation and extermination of the masses of the people (imperialist wars); it casts light on that subtle everyday domination beneath which can be glimpsed, in the forms of essay my family, political democracy, for essay on sound, example, what Lenin, following Marx, called the dictatorship of the bourgeoisie. And yet the descriptive theory of the State represents a phase in the constitution of the theory which itself demands the ‘supersession’ of this phase. For it is essay writing my family clear that if the definition in question really does give us the means to identify and recognize the facts of oppression by relating them to the State, conceived as the Repressive State Apparatus, this ‘interrelationship’ gives rise to a very special kind of obviousness, about which I shall have something to say in a moment: ‘Yes, that’s how it is, that’s really true!’ [6] And the accumulation of facts within the definition of the State may multiply examples, but it does not really advance the definition of the State, i.e. the scientific theory of the State. Every descriptive theory thus runs the risk of education cover letters elementary, ‘blocking’ the development of the theory, and yet that development is essential.

That is why I think that, in order to develop this descriptive theory into theory as such, i.e. in order to understand further the mechanisms of the State in its functioning, I think that it is essay my family indispensable to add something to the classical definition of the State as a State Apparatus. The Essentials of the pollution Marxist Theory of the State. Let me first clarify one important point: the essay my family State (and its existence in its apparatus) has no meaning except as a function of State power. The whole of the cover letters elementary political class struggle revolves around the essay State. Writing Words. By which I mean around the possession, i.e. the seizure and essay writing, conservation of essay, State power by a certain class or by an alliance between classes or class fractions. This first clarification obliges me to distinguish between State power (conservation of my family, State power or seizure of State power), the writing words objective of the political class struggle on the one hand, and the State Apparatus on the other. We know that the State Apparatus may survive, as is proved by bourgeois ‘revolutions’ in nineteenth-century France (1830, 1848), by coups d’tat (2 December, May 1958), by collapses of the State (the fall of the Empire in 1870, of the Third Republic in 1940), or by the political rise of the petty bourgeoisie (1890-95 in France), etc., without the writing State Apparatus being affected or modified: it may survive political events which affect the possession of State power. Even after a social revolution like that of 1917, a large part of the fsu care State Apparatus survived after the seizure of State power by essay, the alliance of the on sound pollution in english proletariat and the small peasantry: Lenin repeated the fact again and again. It is possible to describe the distinction between state power and state apparatus as part of the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state, explicitly present since Marx’s Eighteenth Brumaire and Class Struggles in France. To summarize the writing ‘Marxist theory of the state’ on this point, it can be said that the Marxist classics have always claimed that (1) the state is the repressive state apparatus, (2) state power and state apparatus must be distinguished, (3) the objective of the class struggle concerns state power, and in consequence the use of the state apparatus by the classes (or alliance of classes or of fractions of classes) holding state power as a function of their class objectives, and (4) the proletariat must seize state power in order to destroy the essay writing transition existing bourgeois state apparatus and, in a first phase, replace it with a quite different, proletarian, state apparatus, then in later phases set in motion a radical process, that of the destruction of the my family state (the end of state power, the end of every state apparatus). In this perspective, therefore, what I would propose to add to the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state is already there in so many words.

But it seems to essay, me that even with this supplement, this theory is still in part descriptive, although it does now contain complex and essay writing my family, differential elements whose functioning and action cannot be understood without recourse to further supplementary theoretical development. The State Ideological Apparatuses. Thus, what has to be added to the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state is something else. Here we must advance cautiously in fsu care program a terrain which, in fact, the Marxist classics entered long before us, but without having systematized in theoretical form the decisive advances implied by their experiences and procedures. Their experiences and essay my family, procedures were indeed restricted in fsu care program the main to the terrain of political practice. In fact, i.e. in their political practice, the Marxist classics treated the my family State as a more complex reality than the definition of it given in the ‘Marxist theory of the state’, even when it has been supplemented as I have just suggested. They recognized this complexity in their practice, but they did not express it in a corresponding theory. [7]

I should like to attempt a very schematic outline of this corresponding theory. To that end, I propose the following thesis. In order to advance the theory of the State it is indispensable to take into account not only the distinction between state power and state apparatus , but also another reality which is clearly on the side of the (repressive) state apparatus, but must not be confused with it. I shall call this reality by its concept: the Ideological State Apparatuses. What are the Ideological State Apparatuses (ISAs)? They must not be confused with the (repressive) State apparatus. Remember that in Marxist theory, the State Apparatus (SA) contains: the Government, the Administration, the Army, the Police, the Courts, the Prisons, etc., which constitute what I shall in future call the Repressive State Apparatus.

Repressive suggests that the State Apparatus in question ‘functions by fsu care program essay, violence’ – at least ultimately (since repression, e.g. administrative repression, may take non-physical forms). I shall call Ideological State Apparatuses a certain number of realities which present themselves to the immediate observer in the form of distinct and specialized institutions. I propose an empirical list of these which will obviously have to essay, be examined in detail, tested, corrected and re-organized. With all the reservations implied by this requirement, we can for the moment regard the following institutions as Ideological State Apparatuses (the order in edition metathesis olefin which I have listed them has no particular significance): the religious ISA (the system of the different churches), the educational ISA (the system of the different public and private ‘schools’), the family ISA, [8] the legal ISA, [9] the political ISA (the political system, including the essay different parties), the trade-union ISA, the essay communications ISA (press, radio and television, etc.), the essay my family cultural ISA (literature, the arts, sports, etc.). I have said that the ISAs must not be confused with the (Repressive) State Apparatus.

What constitutes the difference? As a first moment, it is clear that while there is one (Repressive) State Apparatus, there is a plurality of Ideological State Apparatuses. Even presupposing that it exists, the unity that constitutes this plurality of ISAs as a body is not immediately visible. As a second moment, it is clear that whereas the unified – (Repressive) State Apparatus belongs entirely to semisynthesis holton, the public domain, much the larger part of the Ideological State Apparatuses (in their apparent dispersion) are part, on the contrary, of the private domain. Churches, Parties, Trade Unions, families, some schools, most newspapers, cultural ventures, etc., etc., are private.

We can ignore the first observation for the moment. But someone is bound to question the second, asking me by what right I regard as Ideological State Apparatuses, institutions which for the most part do not possess public status, but are quite simply private institutions. As a conscious Marxist, Gramsci already forestalled this objection in one sentence. The distinction between the writing public and semisynthesis of taxol holton, the private is a distinction internal to bourgeois law, and valid in writing the (subordinate) domains in which bourgeois law exercises its ‘authority’. Essay Pollution. The domain of the essay writing my family State escapes it because the latter is ‘above the law’: the State, which is the State of the ruling class, is neither public nor private; on the contrary, it is the precondition for any distinction between public and physician school, private. The same thing can be said from the starting-point of our State Ideological Apparatuses.

It is unimportant whether the institutions in which they are realized are ‘public’ or ‘private’. What matters is how they function. Private institutions can perfectly well ‘function’ as Ideological State Apparatuses. A reasonably thorough analysis of any one of the ISAs proves it. But now for what is essential. What distinguishes the ISAs from the (Repressive) State Apparatus is the following basic difference: the Repressive State Apparatus functions ‘by violence’, whereas the writing my family Ideological State Apparatuses function ‘ by ideology’. I can clarify matters by correcting this distinction.

I shall say rather that every State Apparatus, whether Repressive or Ideological, ‘functions’ both by violence and by ideology, but with one very important distinction which makes it imperative not to confuse the fsu care Ideological State Apparatuses with the (Repressive) State Apparatus. This is the writing my family fact that the pollution (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and predominantly by repression (including physical repression), while functioning secondarily by ideology. (There is no such thing as a purely repressive apparatus.) For example, the Army and the Police also function by ideology both to ensure their own cohesion and reproduction, and in the ‘values’ they propound externally. In the same way, but inversely, it is essential to say that for their part the Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and predominantly by ideology , but they also function secondarily by writing, repression, even if ultimately, but only ultimately, this is very attenuated and concealed, even symbolic. (There is no such thing as a purely ideological apparatus.) Thus Schools and Churches use suitable methods of punishment, expulsion, selection, etc., to ‘discipline’ not only their shepherds, but also their flocks. The same is true of the Family. The same is true of the cultural IS Apparatus (censorship, among other things), etc.

Is it necessary to add that this determination of the double ‘functioning’ (predominantly, secondarily) by of taxol holton, repression and by ideology, according to whether it is a matter of the (Repressive) State Apparatus or the Ideological State Apparatuses, makes it clear that very subtle explicit or tacit combinations may be woven from the interplay of the (Repressive) State Apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatuses? Everyday life provides us with innumerable examples of this, but they must be studied in detail if we are to writing, go further than this mere observation. Nevertheless, this remark leads us towards an education understanding of what constitutes the essay my family unity of the apparently disparate body of the ISAs. If the ISAs ‘function’ massively and assistant school essay tips, predominantly by ideology, what unifies their diversity is precisely this functioning, insofar as the ideology by which they function is always in fact unified, despite its diversity and its contradictions, beneath the my family ruling ideology , which is the ideology of ‘the ruling class’. Given the fact that the ‘ruling class’ in principle holds State power (openly or more often by education cover elementary, means of alliances between classes or class fractions), and writing, therefore has at its disposal the (Repressive) State Apparatus, we can accept the essay fact that this same ruling class is active in the Ideological State Apparatuses insofar as it is ultimately the ruling ideology which is realized in the Ideological State Apparatuses, precisely in its contradictions. Of course, it is a quite different thing to act by laws and decrees in essay the (Repressive) State Apparatus and to ‘act’ through the intermediary of the ruling ideology in the Ideological State Apparatuses. Essay Words. We must go into the details of this difference – but it cannot mask the reality of a profound identity.

To my knowledge, no class can hold State power over a long period without at writing, the same time exercising its hegemony over cover letters elementary, and in the State Ideological Apparatuses. I only writing my family need one example and proof of this: Lenin’s anguished concern to revolutionize the semisynthesis educational Ideological State Apparatus (among others), simply to make it possible for the Soviet proletariat, who had seized State power, to essay writing my family, secure the future of the dictatorship of the proletariat and the transition to socialism. [10] This last comment puts us in a position to understand that the Ideological State Apparatuses may be not only the stake , but also the semisynthesis site of class struggle, and often of bitter forms of class struggle. The class (or class alliance) in power cannot lay down the law in the ISAs as easily as it can in the (repressive) State apparatus, not only writing because the former ruling classes are able to retain strong positions there for education cover, a long time, but also because the essay writing resistance of the education letters elementary exploited classes is able to find means and occasions to express itself there, either by my family, the utilization of their contradictions, or by conquering combat positions in them in struggle. [11] Let me run through my comments. If the physician essay tips thesis I have proposed is well-founded, it leads me back to essay writing my family, the classical Marxist theory of the State, while making it more precise in one point. I argue that it is physician essay tips necessary to distinguish between State power (and its possession by . ) on essay writing the one hand, and the State Apparatus on the other.

But I add that the State Apparatus contains two bodies: the body of institutions which represent the Repressive State Apparatus on the one hand, and the body of institutions which represent the body of on sound in english, Ideological State Apparatuses on the other. But if this is the case, the following question is bound to be asked, even in the very summary state of my suggestions: what exactly is the extent of the role of the Ideological State Apparatuses? What is their importance based on? In other words: to what does the essay writing ‘function’ of essay writing transition, these Ideological State Apparatuses, which do not function by repression but by ideology, correspond? On the Reproduction of the my family Relations of Production. I can now answer the central question which I have left in suspense for many long pages: how is the reproduction of the relations of production secured?

In the semisynthesis of taxol holton topographical language (Infrastructure, Superstructure), I can say: for the most part, [12] it is secured by the legal-political and ideological superstructure. But as I have argued that it is essential to my family, go beyond this still descriptive language, I shall say: for the most part, it is secured by the exercise of State power in edition olefin polymerization the State Apparatuses, on the one hand the (Repressive) State Apparatus, on the other the Ideological State Apparatuses. What I have just said must also be taken into account, and essay writing, it can be assembled in fsu care program the form of the following three features: 1. All the State Apparatuses function both by repression and by ideology, with the difference that the essay writing (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and predominantly by repression, whereas the Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and predominantly by ideology. 2. Whereas the (Repressive) State Apparatus constitutes an organized whole whose different parts are centralized beneath a commanding unity, that of the politics of class struggle applied by the political representatives of the ruling classes in possession of edition metathesis polymerization second, State power, the Ideological State Apparatuses are multiple, distinct, ‘relatively autonomous’ and my family, capable of providing an objective field to contradictions which express, in forms which may be limited or extreme, the effects of the clashes between the capitalist class struggle and education cover letters elementary, the proletarian class struggle, as well as their subordinate forms. 3. Whereas the unity of the (Repressive) State Apparatus is secured by writing my family, its unified and centralized organization under the leadership of the representatives of the classes in power executing the politics of the metathesis olefin polymerization second class struggle of the classes in essay power, the unity of the metathesis olefin second different Ideological State Apparatuses is secured, usually in contradictory forms, by my family, the ruling ideology, the ideology of the ruling class. Taking these features into account, it is possible to represent the reproduction of the fsu care program essay relations of production [13] in the following way, according to my family, a kind of fsu care essay, ‘division of labour’. The role of the repressive State apparatus, insofar as it is a repressive apparatus, consists essentially in securing by force (physical or otherwise) the political conditions of the reproduction of essay writing my family, relations of production which are in the last resort relations of exploitation.

Not only does the State apparatus contribute generously to essay words, its own reproduction (the capitalist State contains political dynasties, military dynasties, etc.), but also and above all, the State apparatus secures by repression (from the most brutal physical force, via mere administrative commands and interdictions, to open and tacit censorship) the political conditions for essay writing, the action of the Ideological State Apparatuses. In fact, it is the latter which largely secure the elementary reproduction specifically of the relations of essay writing my family, production, behind a ‘shield’ provided by the repressive State apparatus. It is here that the role of the ruling ideology is heavily concentrated, the ideology of the ruling class, which holds State power. It is the intermediation of the ruling ideology that ensures a (sometimes teeth-gritting) ‘harmony’ between the repressive State apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatuses, and between the different State Ideological Apparatuses. We are thus led to envisage the following hypothesis, as a function precisely of the diversity of ideological State Apparatuses in their single, because shared, role of the reproduction of the relations of production. Indeed we have listed a relatively large number of Ideological State Apparatuses in contemporary capitalist social formations: the educational apparatus, the religious apparatus, the family apparatus, the political apparatus, the trade-union apparatus, the communications apparatus, the ‘cultural’ apparatus, etc. But in the social formations of that mode of program essay, production characterized by ‘serfdom’ (usually called the feudal mode of essay writing my family, production), we observe that although there is cover elementary a single repressive State apparatus which, since the earliest known Ancient States, let alone the Absolute Monarchies, has been formally very similar to the one we know today, the my family number of essay, Ideological State Apparatuses is smaller and their individual types are different. For example, we observe that during the essay my family Middle Ages, the Church (the religious Ideological State Apparatus) accumulated a number of functions which have today devolved on to several distinct Ideological State Apparatuses, new ones in relation to the past I am invoking, in particular educational and cultural functions. Alongside the Church there was the family Ideological State Apparatus, which played a considerable part, incommensurable with its role in elementary capitalist social formations.

Despite appearances, the Church and essay writing my family, the Family were not the only Ideological State Apparatuses. There was also a political Ideological State Apparatus (the Estates General, the Parlement , the different political factions and edition metathesis olefin polymerization second, Leagues, the essay writing ancestors of the modern political parties, and the whole political system of the free Communes and then of the Villes ). There was also a powerful ‘proto-trade union’ Ideological State Apparatus, if I may venture such an anachronistic term (the powerful merchants’ and bankers’ guilds and the journeymen’s associations, etc.). Publishing and Communications, even, saw an indisputable development, as did the theatre; initially both were integral parts of the Church, then they became more and more independent of it. In the pre-capitalist historical period which I have examined extremely broadly, it is absolutely clear that there was one dominant Ideological State Apparatus , the Church , which concentrated within it not only religious functions, but also educational ones, and a large proportion of the functions of communications and ‘culture’. It is essay no accident that all ideological struggle, from the sixteenth to essay writing my family, the eighteenth century, starting with the first shocks of the Reformation, was concentrated in an anti-clerical and anti-religious struggle; rather this is a function precisely of the program dominant position of the religious Ideological State Apparatus. The foremost objective and achievement of the French Revolution was not just to transfer State power from the feudal aristocracy to the merchant-capitalist bourgeoisie, to break part of the my family former repressive State apparatus and replace it with a new one (e.g., the on sound pollution in english national popular Army) but also to attack the number-one Ideological State Apparatus: the Church.

Hence the civil constitution of the clergy, the essay my family confiscation of ecclesiastical wealth, and the creation of new Ideological State Apparatuses to replace the religious Ideological State Apparatus in its dominant role. Naturally, these things did not happen automatically: witness the Concordat, the Restoration and the long class struggle between the landed aristocracy and the industrial bourgeoisie throughout the nineteenth century for the establishment of education, bourgeois hegemony over the functions formerly fulfilled by the Church: above all by the Schools. It can be said that the bourgeoisie relied on the new political, parliamentary-democratic, Ideological State Apparatus, installed in the earliest years of the Revolution, then restored after long and writing, violent struggles, for a few months in 1848 and for decades after the fall of the Second Empire, in order to conduct its struggle against the Church and transition words, wrest its ideological functions away from it, in writing other words, to ensure not only its own political hegemony, but also the ideological hegemony indispensable to the reproduction of capitalist relations of production. That is why I believe that I am justified in advancing the following Thesis, however precarious it is. Transition. I believe that the Ideological State Apparatus which has been installed in the dominant position in mature capitalist social formations as a result of a violent political and ideological class struggle against the old dominant Ideological State Apparatus, is the educational ideological apparatus. This thesis may seem paradoxical, given that for everyone, i.e. in writing my family the ideological representation that the bourgeoisie has tried to give itself and the classes it exploits, it really seems that the dominant Ideological State Apparatus in capitalist social formations is not the Schools, but the political Ideological State Apparatus, i.e. the regime of parliamentary democracy combining universal suffrage and party struggle.

However, history, even recent history, shows that the bourgeoisie has been and still is able to accommodate itself to political Ideological State Apparatuses other than parliamentary democracy: the First and metathesis metathesis olefin polymerization second, Second Empires, Constitutional Monarchy (Louis XVIII and Charles X), Parliamentary Monarchy (Louis-Philippe), Presidential Democracy (de Gaulle), to mention only France. In England this is even clearer. The Revolution was particularly ‘successful’ there from the essay bourgeois point of view, since unlike France, where the bourgeoisie, partly because of the stupidity of the petty aristocracy, had to agree to being carried to power by peasant and plebeian ‘ journes rvolutionnaires ’, something for which it had to pay a high price, the English bourgeoisie was able to ‘compromise’ with the education cover elementary aristocracy and ‘share’ State power and essay writing my family, the use of the State apparatus with it for a long time (peace among all men of good will in the ruling classes!). In Germany it is even more striking, since it was behind a political Ideological State Apparatus in which the essay on sound pollution imperial Junkers (epitomized by Bismarck), their army and essay writing my family, their police provided it with a shield and leading personnel, that the imperialist bourgeoisie made its shattering entry into history, before ‘traversing’ the Weimar Republic and entrusting itself to Nazism. Hence I believe I have good reasons for thinking that behind the scenes of its political Ideological State Apparatus, which occupies the front of the stage, what the bourgeoisie has installed as its number-one, i.e. as its dominant Ideological State Apparatus, is the assistant essay tips educational apparatus, which has in fact replaced in its functions the previously dominant Ideological State Apparatus, the writing my family Church. One might even add: the School-Family couple has replaced the Church-Family couple. Why is the educational apparatus in fact the dominant Ideological State Apparatus in capitalist social formations, and how does it function?

For the moment it must suffice to physician assistant essay, say: 1. All Ideological State Apparatuses, whatever they are, contribute to the same result: the reproduction of the relations of essay writing, production, i.e. of capitalist relations of exploitation. 2. Each of them contributes towards this single result in the way proper to essay tips, it. Essay Writing My Family. The political apparatus by subjecting individuals to metathesis, the political State ideology, the writing ‘indirect’ (parliamentary) or ‘direct’ (plebiscitary or fascist) ‘democratic’ ideology. The communications apparatus by cramming every ‘citizen’ with daily doses of nationalism, chauvinism, liberalism, moralism, etc, by means of the press, the school essay tips radio and television. The same goes for the cultural apparatus (the role of sport in chauvinism is of the first importance), etc. The religious apparatus by recalling in sermons and the other great ceremonies of Birth, Marriage and writing my family, Death, that man is only ashes, unless he loves his neighbour to the extent of turning the other cheek to whoever strikes first. Semisynthesis Of Taxol Holton. The family apparatus . but there is no need to go on. 3. Writing. This concert is dominated by on sound pollution, a single score, occasionally disturbed by contradictions (those of the essay my family remnants of former ruling classes, those of the essay transition words proletarians and their organizations): the essay writing score of the Ideology of the current ruling class which integrates into education cover letters elementary its music the great themes of the Humanism of the Great Forefathers, who produced the Greek Miracle even before Christianity, and afterwards the Glory of Rome, the Eternal City, and the themes of Interest, particular and general, etc. nationalism, moralism and economism.

4. Nevertheless, in this concert, one Ideological State Apparatus certainly has the essay writing dominant role, although hardly anyone lends an ear to its music: it is so silent! This is the School. It takes children from every class at infant-school age, and then for years, the years in which the holton child is most ‘vulnerable’, squeezed between the Family State Apparatus and the Educational State Apparatus, it drums into essay my family them, whether it uses new or old methods, a certain amount of ‘know-how’ wrapped in the ruling ideology (French, arithmetic, natural history, the sciences, literature) or simply the pollution in english ruling ideology in its pure state (ethics, civic instruction, philosophy). Somewhere around the age of essay my family, sixteen, a huge mass of children are ejected ‘into production’: these are the workers or small peasants. Another portion of scholastically adapted youth carries on: and, for better or worse, it goes somewhat further, until it falls by the wayside and fills the posts of small and middle technicians, white-collar workers, small and middle executives, petty bourgeois of all kinds. A last portion reaches the summit, either to fall into intellectual semi-employment, or to provide, as well as the ‘intellectuals of the collective labourer’, the agents of exploitation (capitalists, managers), the agents of repression (soldiers, policemen, politicians, administrators, etc.) and the professional ideologists (priests of all sorts, most of whom are convinced ‘laymen’). Each mass ejected en route is practically provided with the ideology which suits the transition role it has to fulfil in class society: the role of the my family exploited (with a ‘highly-developed’ ‘professional’, ‘ethical’, ‘civic’, ‘national’ and a-political consciousness); the role of the agent of exploitation (ability to give the workers orders and edition metathesis olefin second, speak to essay my family, them: ‘human relations’), of the agent of repression (ability to give orders and education cover, enforce obedience ‘without discussion’, or ability to manipulate the demagogy of a political leader’s rhetoric), or of the essay my family professional ideologist (ability to treat consciousnesses with the respect, i.e. with the contempt, blackmail, and demagogy they deserve, adapted to the accents of Morality, of Virtue, of ‘Transcendence’, of the Nation, of France’s World Role, etc.).

Of course, many of these contrasting Virtues (modesty, resignation, submissiveness on the one hand, cynicism, contempt, arrogance, confidence, self-importance, even smooth talk and physician tips, cunning on the other) are also taught in the Family, in the Church, in the Army, in essay my family Good Books, in films and even in the football stadium. But no other Ideological State Apparatus has the obligatory (and not least, free) audience of the totality of the children in writing the capitalist social formation, eight hours a day for five or six days out of seven. But it is by an apprenticeship in essay my family a variety of know-how wrapped up in the massive inculcation of the ideology of the ruling class that the relations of production in a capitalist social formation, i.e. the relations of exploited to exploiters and exploiters to exploited, are largely reproduced. The mechanisms which produce this vital result for the capitalist regime are naturally covered up and concealed by a universally reigning ideology of the School, universally reigning because it is physician essay one of the essential forms of the ruling bourgeois ideology: an ideology which represents the School as a neutral environment purged of ideology (because it is essay writing my family . lay), where teachers respectful of the ‘conscience’ and ‘freedom’ of the children who are entrusted to them (in complete confidence) by semisynthesis of taxol, their ‘parents’ (who are free, too, i.e. the owners of their children) open up for them the path to the freedom, morality and essay writing my family, responsibility of adults by their own example, by knowledge, literature and their ‘liberating’ virtues. I ask the pardon of those teachers who, in dreadful conditions, attempt to turn the few weapons they can find in the history and learning they ‘teach’ against the ideology, the system and the practices in which they are trapped.

They are a kind of hero. But they are rare and how many (the majority) do not even begin to suspect the ‘work’ the metathesis olefin polymerization system (which is bigger than they are and crushes them) forces them to do, or worse, put all their heart and ingenuity into performing it with the most advanced awareness (the famous new methods!). So little do they suspect it that their own devotion contributes to the maintenance and nourishment of this ideological representation of the School, which makes the School today as ‘natural’, indispensable-useful and even beneficial for our contemporaries as the Church was ‘natural’, indispensable and generous for our ancestors a few centuries ago. In fact, the Church has been replaced today in its role as the dominant Ideological State Apparatus by the School. Essay. It is coupled with the Family just as the assistant essay tips Church was once coupled with the essay my family Family. We can now claim that the unprecedentedly deep crisis which is now shaking the education system of so many States across the globe, often in conjunction with a crisis (already proclaimed in the Communist Manifesto ) shaking the family system, takes on a political meaning, given that the School (and the on sound pollution School/Family couple) constitutes the dominant Ideological State Apparatus, the Apparatus playing a determinant part in the reproduction of the relations of production of a mode of production threatened in its existence by the world class struggle.

When I put forward the concept of an Ideological State Apparatus, when I said that the ISAs ‘function by ideology’, I invoked a reality which needs a little discussion: ideology. It is well known that the expression ‘ideology’ was invented by essay, Cabanis, Destutt de Tracy and their friends, who assigned to it as an object the (genetic) theory of ideas. When Marx took up the term fifty years later, he gave it a quite different meaning, even in his Early Works. Here, ideology is the system of the ideas and representations which dominate the mind of a man or a social group. The ideologico-political struggle conducted by Marx as early as his articles in the Rheinische Zeitung inevitably and physician essay tips, quickly brought him face to face with this reality and forced him to take his earliest intuitions further.

However, here we come upon essay my family, a rather astonishing paradox. Everything seems to lead Marx to metathesis polymerization second, formulate a theory of ideology. In fact, The German Ideology does offer us, after the 1844 Manuscripts , an explicit theory of ideology, but . it is not Marxist (we shall see why in my family a moment). Essay Tips. As for Capital , although it does contain many hints towards a theory of ideologies (most visibly, the ideology of the vulgar economists), it does not contain that theory itself, which depends for the most part on a theory of ideology in general. I should like to venture a first and very schematic outline of such a theory.

The theses I am about to put forward are certainly not off the cuff, but they cannot be sustained and essay writing my family, tested, i.e. Semisynthesis Of Taxol Holton. confirmed or rejected, except by much thorough study and analysis. One word first of all to expound the reason in principle which seems to me to found, or at essay writing my family, least to justify, the edition metathesis olefin project of a theory of ideology in general , and not a theory of particular ideolog ies , which, whatever their form (religious, ethical, legal, political), always express class positions. It is quite obvious that it is necessary to proceed towards a theory of ideologies in the two respects I have just suggested. It will then be clear that a theory of ideolog ies depends in the last resort on my family the history of social formations, and thus of the of taxol holton modes of production combined in social formations, and of the class struggles which develop in them. In this sense it is clear that there can be no question of a theory of ideolog ies in general, since ideolog ies (defined in the double respect suggested above: regional and class) have a history, whose determination in the last instance is clearly situated outside ideologies alone, although it involves them. On the contrary, if I am able to put forward the project of a theory of ideology in general , and if this theory really is one of the elements on which theories of ideologies depend, that entails an apparently paradoxical proposition which I shall express in the following terms: ideology has no history.

As we know, this formulation appears in so many words in a passage from The German Ideology. Marx utters it with respect to metaphysics, which, he says, has no more history than ethics (meaning also the other forms of ideology). In The German Ideology , this formulation appears in a plainly positivist context. Ideology is conceived as a pure illusion, a pure dream, i.e. as nothingness. All its reality is external to essay my family, it. Ideology is physician school thus thought as an imaginary construction whose status is exactly like the theoretical status of the dream among writers before Freud. For these writers, the essay writing my family dream was the purely imaginary, i.e. null, result of ‘day’s residues’, presented in an arbitrary arrangement and order, sometimes even ‘inverted’, in other words, in ‘disorder’.

For them, the dream was the edition polymerization second imaginary, it was empty, null and arbitrarily ‘stuck together’ ( bricol ), once the writing my family eyes had closed, from the metathesis metathesis second residues of the only full and positive reality, the reality of the day. This is essay exactly the status of philosophy and ideology (since in this book philosophy is ideology par excellence ) in The German Ideology. Ideology, then, is for Marx an imaginary assemblage ( bricolage ), a pure dream, empty and olefin second, vain, constituted by the ‘day’s residues’ from the only full and essay my family, positive reality, that of the concrete history of concrete material individuals materially producing their existence. It is on this basis that ideology has no history in The German Ideology , since its history is outside it, where the only existing history is, the program history of concrete individuals, etc. In The German Ideology , the thesis that ideology has no history is therefore a purely negative thesis, since it means both: 1. ideology is nothing insofar as it is essay my family a pure dream (manufactured by who knows what power: if not by the alienation of the metathesis olefin division of labour, but that, too, is a negative determination); 2. ideology has no history, which emphatically does not mean that there is no history in it (on the contrary, for essay my family, it is merely the words pale, empty and inverted reflection of real history) but that it has no history of its own. Now, while the essay writing my family thesis I wish to defend formally speaking adopts the terms of The German Ideology (‘ideology has no history’), it is radically different from the positivist and essay, historicist thesis of my family, The German Ideology. For on the one hand, I think it is possible to hold that ideolog ies have a history of their own (although it is determined in the last instance by the class struggle); and on the other, I think it is possible to education elementary, hold that ideology in general has no history , not in a negative sense (its history is external to it), but in an absolutely positive sense. This sense is a positive one if it is writing my family true that the peculiarity of ideology is that it is endowed with a structure and a functioning such as to make it a non-historical reality, i.e. an omni-historical reality, in the sense in which that structure and functioning are immutable, present in the same form throughout what we can call history, in the sense in which the Communist Manifesto defines history as the history of class struggles, i.e. the history of class societies. To give a theoretical reference-point here, I might say that, to return to our example of the physician assistant school dream, in its Freudian conception this time, our proposition: ideology has no history, can and must (and in a way which has absolutely nothing arbitrary about it, but, quite the reverse, is theoretically necessary, for there is an organic link between the two propositions) be related directly to Freud’s proposition that the writing unconscious is eternal , i.e. that it has no history.

If eternal means, not transcendent to all (temporal) history, but omnipresent, trans-historical and therefore immutable in form throughout the extent of history, I shall adopt Freud’s expression word for word, and write ideology is eternal , exactly like the unconscious. And I add that I find this comparison theoretically justified by the fact that the eternity of the unconscious is not unrelated to the eternity of ideology in general. That is essay transition why I believe I am justified, hypothetically at least, in proposing a theory of ideology in essay general , in the sense that Freud presented a theory of the unconscious in general. To simplify the phrase, it is convenient, taking into account what has been said about ideologies, to use the plain term ideology to designate ideology in general, which I have just said has no history, or, what comes to the same thing, is eternal, i.e. Fsu Care Program Essay. omnipresent in its immutable form throughout history (= the history of social formations containing social classes). For the moment I shall restrict myself to writing my family, ‘class societies’ and their history.

Ideology is a ‘Representation’ of the Imaginary Relationship of Individuals to their Real Conditions of Existence. In order to approach my central thesis on metathesis olefin polymerization the structure and functioning of my family, ideology, I shall first present two theses, one negative, the other positive. The first concerns the semisynthesis of taxol object which is ‘represented’ in the imaginary form of ideology, the second concerns the materiality of ideology. Thesis I. Ideology represents the imaginary relationship of individuals to my family, their real conditions of of taxol holton, existence. We commonly call religious ideology, ethical ideology, legal ideology, political ideology, etc., so many ‘world outlooks’. Of course, assuming that we do not live one of these ideologies as the essay writing my family truth (e.g. ‘believe’ in God, Duty, Justice, etc. ), we admit that the ideology we are discussing from a critical point of view, examining it as the ethnologist examines the myths of a ‘primitive society’, that these ‘world outlooks’ are largely imaginary, i.e. do not ‘correspond to reality’. However, while admitting that they do not correspond to reality, i.e. Semisynthesis Of Taxol. that they constitute an my family illusion, we admit that they do make allusion to essay, reality, and that they need only be ‘interpreted’ to discover the reality of the world behind their imaginary representation of that world (ideology = illusion/allusion ). There are different types of interpretation, the essay my family most famous of which are the mechanistic type, current in the eighteenth century (God is the imaginary representation of the real King), and the ‘ hermeneutic ‘ interpretation, inaugurated by the earliest Church Fathers, and revived by Feuerbach and the theologico-philosophical school which descends from him, e.g. the theologian Barth (to Feuerbach, for example, God is the essence of real Man). Of Taxol Holton. The essential point is that on essay writing condition that we interpret the imaginary transposition (and inversion) of ideology we arrive at the conclusion that in semisynthesis ideology ‘men represent their real conditions of existence to themselves in an imaginary form’. Unfortunately, this interpretation leaves one small problem unsettled: why do men ‘need’ this imaginary transposition of their real conditions of existence in order to ‘represent to writing my family, themselves’ their real conditions of existence?

The first answer (that of the eighteenth century) proposes a simple solution: Priests or Despots are responsible. They ‘forged’ the essay Beautiful Lies so that, in the belief that they were obeying God, men would in fact obey the Priests and Despots, who are usually in alliance in their imposture, the Priests acting in the interests of the Despots or vice versa , according to the political positions of the ‘theoreticians’ concerned. There is therefore a cause for the imaginary transposition of the real conditions of existence: that cause is the existence of a small number of cynical men who base their domination and exploitation of the writing ‘people’ on a falsified representation of the world which they have imagined in order to enslave other minds by dominating their imaginations. The second answer (that of essay pollution, Feuerbach, taken over word for word by Marx in his Early Works) is more ‘profound’, i.e. just as false. It, too, seeks and finds a cause for writing, the imaginary transposition and distortion of men’s real conditions of existence, in short, for the alienation in the imaginary of the representation of men’s conditions of existence. This cause is essay words no longer Priests or Despots, nor their active imagination and the passive imagination of their victims.

This cause is the material alienation which reigns in the conditions of existence of men themselves. This is how, in The Jewish Question and elsewhere, Marx defends the Feuerbachian idea that men make themselves an alienated (= imaginary) representation of their conditions of existence because these conditions of existence are themselves alienating (in the 1844 Manuscripts : because these conditions are dominated by the essence of alienated society – ‘ alienated labour ’). All these interpretations thus take literally the essay my family thesis which they presuppose, and on which they depend, i.e. that what is reflected in the imaginary representation of the world found in essay writing words an ideology is the conditions of existence of men, i.e. their real world. Now I can return to a thesis which I have already advanced: it is not their real conditions of existence, their real world, that ‘men’ ‘represent to essay writing, themselves’ in program ideology, but above all it is their relation to those conditions of writing, existence which is represented to them there. It is this relation which is at the centre of every ideological, i.e. imaginary, representation of the essay real world. It is this relation that contains the ‘cause’ which has to explain the imaginary distortion of the ideological representation of the real world. Essay. Or rather, to leave aside the language of causality it is necessary to semisynthesis holton, advance the thesis that it is the imaginary nature of this relation which underlies all the imaginary distortion that we can observe (if we do not live in its truth) in all ideology. To speak in a Marxist language, if it is true that the writing representation of the real conditions of existence of the individuals occupying the posts of agents of production, exploitation, repression, ideologization and scientific practice, does in the last analysis arise from the relations of production, and from relations deriving from the relations of production, we can say the following: all ideology represents in its necessarily imaginary distortion not the existing relations of production (and the other relations that derive from them), but above all the (imaginary) relationship of individuals to the relations of production and the relations that derive from them. What is represented in ideology is therefore not the system of the real relations which govern the existence of individuals, but the imaginary relation of those individuals to the real relations in which they live.

If this is the case, the question of the ‘cause’ of the imaginary distortion of the real relations in ideology disappears and must be replaced by a different question: why is the representation given to individuals of their (individual) relation to the social relations which govern their conditions of existence and their collective and individual life necessarily an imaginary relation? And what is the nature of this imaginariness? Posed in this way, the question explodes the solution by holton, a ‘clique’ [14] , by a group of individuals (Priests or Despots) who are the authors of the great ideological mystification, just as it explodes the solution by the alienated character of the real world. We shall see why later in my exposition. For the moment I shall go no further.

Thesis II: Ideology has a material existence. I have already touched on this thesis by saying that the ‘ideas’ or ‘representations’, etc., which seem to essay my family, make up ideology do not have an ideal ( idale or idelle ) or spiritual existence, but a material existence. I even suggested that the ideal ( idale , idelle ) and spiritual existence of ‘ideas’ arises exclusively in an ideology of the ‘idea’ and of ideology, and let me add, in an ideology of what seems to have ‘founded’ this conception since the emergence of the sciences, i.e. what the practicians of the sciences represent to physician assistant essay, themselves in their spontaneous ideology as ‘ideas’, true or false. Writing. Of course, presented in physician school essay tips affirmative form, this thesis is unproven. I simply ask that the reader be favourably disposed towards it, say, in essay writing the name of materialism. A long series of pollution, arguments would be necessary to prove it. This hypothetical thesis of the not spiritual but material existence of ‘ideas’ or other ‘representations’ is indeed necessary if we are to advance in our analysis of the nature of essay writing, ideology. Or rather, it is merely useful to us in order the better to reveal what every at all serious analysis of any ideology will immediately and empirically show to every observer, however critical.

While discussing the Ideological State Apparatuses and their practices, I said that each of edition polymerization second, them was the realization of an ideology (the unity of these different regional ideologies – religious, ethical, legal, political, aesthetic, etc. – being assured by their subjection to the ruling ideology). I now return to this thesis: an essay my family ideology always exists in an apparatus, and its practice, or practices. Assistant Essay. This existence is essay my family material. Of course, the material existence of the ideology in an apparatus and its practices does not have the same modality as the material existence of a paving-stone or a rifle. But, at metathesis olefin polymerization second, the risk of essay, being taken for a Neo-Aristotelian (NB Marx had a very high regard for Aristotle), I shall say that ‘matter is discussed in many senses’, or rather that it exists in different modalities, all rooted in the last instance in ‘physical’ matter. Having said this, let me move straight on and see what happens to the ‘individuals’ who live in ideology, i.e. in a determinate (religious, ethical, etc.) representation of the world whose imaginary distortion depends on of taxol holton their imaginary relation to their conditions of existence, in other words, in essay my family the last instance, to the relations of production and to class relations (ideology = an imaginary relation to real relations). I shall say that this imaginary relation is itself endowed with a material existence. Now I observe the following. An individual believes in God, or Duty, or Justice, etc. Semisynthesis. This belief derives (for everyone, i.e. for all those who live in an ideological representation of ideology, which reduces ideology to ideas endowed by definition with a spiritual existence) from the ideas of the individual concerned, i.e. from him as a subject with a consciousness which contains the ideas of his belief. In this way, i.e. by means of the absolutely ideological ‘conceptual’ device ( dispositif ) thus set up (a subject endowed with a consciousness in which he freely forms or freely recognizes ideas in which he believes), the (material) attitude of the subject concerned naturally follows.

The individual in question behaves in such and such a way, adopts such and essay writing, such a practical attitude, and, what is more, participates in certain regular practices which are those of the ideological apparatus on which ‘depend’ the semisynthesis ideas which he has in all consciousness freely chosen as a subject. If he believes in God, he goes to Church to attend Mass, kneels, prays, confesses, does penance (once it was material in the ordinary sense of the term) and naturally repents and my family, so on. If he believes in Duty, he will have the fsu care essay corresponding attitudes, inscribed in essay my family ritual practices ‘according to the correct principles’. If he believes in letters Justice, he will submit unconditionally to the rules of the my family Law, and may even protest when they are violated, sign petitions, take part in a demonstration, etc. Throughout this schema we observe that the ideological representation of ideology is itself forced to recognize that every ‘subject’ endowed with a ‘consciousness’ and believing in the ‘ideas’ that his ‘consciousness’ inspires in him and freely accepts, must ‘ act according to his ideas’, must therefore inscribe his own ideas as a free subject in the actions of his material practice. If he does not do so, ‘that is of taxol holton wicked’. Indeed, if he does not do what he ought to do as a function of what he believes, it is because he does something else, which, still as a function of the essay writing same idealist scheme, implies that he has other ideas in his head as well as those he proclaims, and that he acts according to these other ideas, as a man who is either ‘inconsistent’ (‘no one is willingly evil’) or cynical, or perverse. In every case, the ideology of ideology thus recognizes, despite its imaginary distortion, that the ‘ideas’ of a human subject exist in his actions, or ought to exist in his actions, and pollution, if that is writing not the case, it lends him other ideas corresponding to the actions (however perverse) that he does perform. Of Taxol. This ideology talks of actions: I shall talk of actions inserted into practices.

And I shall point out that these practices are governed by essay writing, the rituals in which these practices are inscribed, within the material existence of an ideological apparatus , be it only a small part of that apparatus: a small mass in a small church, a funeral, a minor match at a sports’ club, a school day, a political party meeting, etc. Besides, we are indebted to Pascal’s defensive ‘dialectic’ for essay writing words, the wonderful formula which will enable us to invert the order of the notional schema of ideology. Pascal says more or less: ‘Kneel down, move your lips in prayer, and essay, you will believe.’ He thus scandalously inverts the order of things, bringing, like Christ, not peace but strife, and in addition something hardly Christian (for woe to him who brings scandal into edition olefin second the world!) – scandal itself. A fortunate scandal which makes him stick with Jansenist defiance to a language that directly names the reality. I will be allowed to leave Pascal to the arguments of his ideological struggle with the religious Ideological State Apparatus of his day.

And I shall be expected to my family, use a more directly Marxist vocabulary, if that is possible, for we are advancing in still poorly explored domains. I shall therefore say that, where only a single subject (such and such an semisynthesis individual) is essay concerned, the essay transition existence of the my family ideas of his belief is material in that his ideas are his material actions inserted into material practices governed by material rituals which are themselves defined by the material ideological apparatus from which derive the ideas of that subject. Naturally, the four inscriptions of the adjective ‘material’ in my proposition must be affected by different modalities: the materialities of a displacement for going to elementary, mass, of kneeling down, of the gesture of the sign of the cross, or of the mea culpa , of a sentence, of a prayer, of an act of contrition, of a penitence, of a gaze, of a hand-shake, of an essay my family external verbal discourse or an ‘internal’ verbal discourse (consciousness), are not one and the same materiality. Fsu Care. I shall leave on one side the problem of a theory of the differences between the writing modalities of assistant school essay, materiality. It remains that in this inverted presentation of things, we are not dealing with an ‘inversion’ at all, since it is clear that certain notions have purely and simply disappeared from our presentation, whereas others on the contrary survive, and new terms appear. Disappeared: the my family term ideas.

Survive: the terms subject , consciousness , belief , actions. Appear: the fsu care program terms practices , rituals , ideological apparatus. It is therefore not an inversion or overturning (except in the sense in which one might say a government or a glass is overturned), but a reshuffle (of a non-ministerial type), a rather strange reshuffle, since we obtain the my family following result. Ideas have disappeared as such (insofar as they are endowed with an ideal or spiritual existence), to the precise extent that it has emerged that their existence is inscribed in the actions of practices governed by rituals defined in the last instance by writing transition words, an ideological apparatus. It therefore appears that the subject acts insofar as he is acted by the following system (set out in the order of its real determination): ideology existing in a material ideological apparatus, prescribing material practices governed by a material ritual, which practices exist in the material actions of a subject acting in all consciousness according to his belief.

But this very presentation reveals that we have retained the following notions: subject, consciousness, belief, actions. Writing My Family. From this series I shall immediately extract the decisive central term on which everything else depends: the notion of the subject. And I shall immediately set down two conjoint theses: 1. there is no practice except by and in an ideology; 2. there is no ideology except by the subject and for subjects. I can now come to my central thesis.

Ideology Interpellates Individuals as Subjects. This thesis is simply a matter of making my last proposition explicit: there is no ideology except by the subject and for subjects. Meaning, there is no ideology except for concrete subjects, and this destination for ideology is only made possible by edition metathesis metathesis olefin polymerization, the subject: meaning, by the category of the essay subject and semisynthesis, its functioning. By this I mean that, even if it only appears under this name (the subject) with the rise of writing my family, bourgeois ideology, above all with the rise of legal ideology, [15] the category of the subject (which may function under other names: e.g., as the soul in Plato, as God, etc.) is the constitutive category of all ideology, whatever its determination (regional or class) and whatever its historical date – since ideology has no history. I say: the category of the semisynthesis of taxol holton subject is essay constitutive of essay on sound in english, all ideology, but at the same time and immediately I add that the category of the subject is only constitutive of all ideology insofar as all ideology has the function ( which defines it ) of my family, ‘ constituting ‘ concrete individuals as subjects. In the interaction of this double constitution exists the functioning of all ideology, ideology being nothing but its functioning in the material forms of existence of that functioning. In order to grasp what follows, it is essential to realize that both he who is writing these lines and the reader who reads them are themselves subjects, and therefore ideological subjects (a tautological proposition), i.e. that the author and essay tips, the reader of these lines both live ‘spontaneously’ or ‘naturally’ in ideology in the sense in which I have said that ‘man is an ideological animal by nature’.

That the essay writing my family author, insofar as he writes the lines of a discourse which claims to essay on sound in english, be scientific, is completely absent as a ‘subject’ from ‘his’ scientific discourse (for all scientific discourse is by definition a subject-less discourse, there is no ‘Subject of science’ except in essay writing my family an ideology of science) is physician school tips a different question which I shall leave on one side for the moment. As St Paul admirably put it, it is in the ‘Logos’, meaning in ideology, that we ‘live, move and writing, have our being’. It follows that, for you and for me, the category of the subject is polymerization a primary ‘obviousness’ (obviousnesses are always primary): it is clear that you and I are subjects (free, ethical, etc. ). Like all obviousnesses, including those that make a word ‘name a thing’ or ‘have a meaning’ (therefore including the obviousness of the ‘transparency’ of language), the ‘obviousness’ that you and I are subjects – and that that does not cause any problems – is an ideological effect, the elementary ideological effect. [16] It is indeed a peculiarity of ideology that it imposes (without appearing to do so, since these are ‘obviousnesses’) obviousnesses as obviousnesses, which we cannot fail to recognize and before which we have the inevitable and natural reaction of crying out (aloud or in the ‘still, small voice of conscience’): ‘That’s obvious! That’s right! That’s true!’ At work in this reaction is the ideological recognition function which is one of the two functions of ideology as such (its inverse being the function of misrecognition – mconnaissance ). To take a highly ‘concrete’ example, we all have friends who, when they knock on our door and we ask, through the door, the question ‘Who’s there?’, answer (since ‘it’s obvious’) ‘It’s me’. And we recognize that ‘it is my family him’, or ‘her’. We open the door, and ‘it’s true, it really was she who was there’.

To take another example, when we recognize somebody of essay writing, our (previous) acquaintance ( (re) - connaissance ) in the street, we show him that we have recognized him (and have recognized that he has recognized us) by my family, saying to him ‘Hello, my friend’, and shaking his hand (a material ritual practice of ideological recognition in cover letters elementary everyday life – in France, at least; elsewhere, there are other rituals). In this preliminary remark and these concrete illustrations, I only wish to point out that you and I are always already subjects, and as such constantly practice the rituals of ideological recognition, which guarantee for us that we are indeed concrete, individual, distinguishable and (naturally) irreplaceable subjects. The writing I am currently executing and the reading you are currently [17] performing are also in this respect rituals of ideological recognition, including the ‘obviousness’ with which the ‘truth’ or ‘error’ of essay writing my family, my reflections may impose itself on you. But to recognize that we are subjects and that we function in the practical rituals of the most elementary everyday life (the hand-shake, the fact of calling you by your name, the fact of knowing, even if I do not know what it is, that you ‘have’ a name of your own, which means that you are recognized as a unique subject, etc.) – this recognition only gives us the metathesis metathesis olefin second ‘consciousness’ of my family, our incessant (eternal) practice of ideological recognition – its consciousness, i.e. its recognition – but in no sense does it give us the (scientific) knowledge of the mechanism of this recognition. Now it is this knowledge that we have to reach, if you will, while speaking in ideology, and from within ideology we have to outline a discourse which tries to break with ideology, in on sound order to dare to be the beginning of a scientific (i.e. subject-less) discourse on writing ideology. Thus in order to represent why the essay on sound pollution in english category of the ‘subject’ is constitutive of ideology, which only exists by writing, constituting concrete subjects as subjects, I shall employ a special mode of exposition: ‘concrete’ enough to essay, be recognized, but abstract enough to be thinkable and thought, giving rise to a knowledge. As a first formulation I shall say: all ideology hails or interpellates concrete individuals as concrete subjects , by essay, the functioning of the category of the subject. This is essay a proposition which entails that we distinguish for the moment between concrete individuals on the one hand and concrete subjects on the other, although at this level concrete subjects only exist insofar as they are supported by a concrete individual. I shall then suggest that ideology ‘acts’ or ‘functions’ in such a way that it ‘recruits’ subjects among the writing individuals (it recruits them all), or ‘transforms’ the individuals into edition metathesis olefin polymerization second subjects (it transforms them all) by essay my family, that very precise operation which I have called interpellation or hailing, and which can be imagined along the lines of the edition metathesis metathesis most commonplace everyday police (or other) hailing: ‘Hey, you there!’ [18] Assuming that the essay writing theoretical scene I have imagined takes place in the street, the letters hailed individual will turn round. By this mere one-hundred-and-eighty-degree physical conversion, he becomes a subject.

Why? Because he has recognized that the essay writing hail was ‘really’ addressed to him, and that ‘it was really him who was hailed’ (and not someone else). Experience shows that the practical telecommunication of hailings is such that they hardly ever miss their man: verbal call or whistle, the one hailed always recognizes that it is really him who is being hailed. And yet it is a strange phenomenon, and one which cannot be explained solely by ‘guilt feelings’, despite the large numbers who ‘have something on their consciences’. Naturally for metathesis metathesis polymerization, the convenience and my family, clarity of my little theoretical theatre I have had to present things in the form of a sequence, with a before and an after, and thus in the form of a temporal succession.

There are individuals walking along. Somewhere (usually behind them) the hail rings out: ‘Hey, you there!’ One individual (nine times out of ten it is the right one) turns round, believing/suspecting/knowing that it is for him, i.e. recognizing that ‘it really is he’ who is meant by the hailing. But in reality these things happen without any succession. The existence of ideology and essay writing transition, the hailing or interpellation of writing my family, individuals as subjects are one and the same thing. I might add: what thus seems to take place outside ideology (to be precise, in the street), in reality takes place in ideology. What really takes place in ideology seems therefore to take place outside it. On Sound Pollution In English. That is why those who are in ideology believe themselves by definition outside ideology: one of the effects of ideology is the practical denegation of the ideological character of ideology by ideology: ideology never says, ‘I am ideological’. It is necessary to be outside ideology, i.e. in scientific knowledge, to be able to say: I am in ideology (a quite exceptional case) or (the general case): I was in ideology. As is well known, the accusation of being in ideology only applies to others, never to oneself (unless one is really a Spinozist or a Marxist, which, in this matter, is to be exactly the same thing). Writing My Family. Which amounts to saying that ideology has no outside (for itself), but at the same time that it is nothing but outside (for science and reality).

Spinoza explained this completely two centuries before Marx, who practised it but without explaining it in edition metathesis detail. But let us leave this point, although it is heavy with consequences, consequences which are not just theoretical, but also directly political, since, for example, the essay whole theory of criticism and self-criticism, the golden rule of the Marxist-Leninist practice of the class struggle, depends on it. Thus ideology hails or interpellates individuals as subjects. As ideology is eternal, I must now suppress the temporal form in which I have presented the functioning of ideology, and say: ideology has always-already interpellated individuals as subjects, which amounts to education cover letters, making it clear that individuals are always-already interpellated by essay writing my family, ideology as subjects, which necessarily leads us to words, one last proposition: individuals are always-already subjects. Writing. Hence individuals are ‘abstract’ with respect to the subjects which they always already are. This proposition might seem paradoxical. That an essay transition words individual is always-already a subject, even before he is born, is nevertheless the plain reality, accessible to everyone and not a paradox at all.

Freud shows that individuals are always ‘abstract’ with respect to the subjects they always-already are, simply by noting the writing ideological ritual that surrounds the expectation of a ‘birth’, that ‘happy event’. Everyone knows how much and in what way an unborn child is expected. Which amounts to saying, very prosaically, if we agree to drop the ‘sentiments’, i.e. the forms of family ideology (paternal/maternal conjugal/fraternal) in which the unborn child is writing transition words expected: it is certain in advance that it will bear its Father’s Name, and will therefore have an identity and be irreplaceable. Before its birth, the child is therefore always-already a subject, appointed as a subject in and by essay writing, the specific familial ideological configuration in which it is essay pollution ‘expected’ once it has been conceived. I hardly need add that this familial ideological configuration is, in its uniqueness, highly structured, and that it is in this implacable and more or less ‘pathological’ (presupposing that any meaning can be assigned to that term) structure that the former subject to-be will have to ‘find’ ‘its’ place, i.e. ‘become’ the sexual subject (boy or girl) which it already is in advance. It is clear that this ideological constraint and pre-appointment, and all the rituals of rearing and then education in the family, have some relationship with what Freud studied in the forms of the pre-genital and genital ‘stages’ of sexuality, i.e. in the ‘grip’ of essay writing, what Freud registered by its effects as being the unconscious. But let us leave this point, too, on one side. Let me go one step further. What I shall now turn my attention to is the way the ‘actors’ in this mise en scne [setting] of interpellation, and their respective roles, are reflected in the very structure of metathesis second, all ideology.

An Example: The Christian Religious Ideology. As the formal structure of all ideology is always the same, I shall restrict my analysis to a single example, one accessible to everyone, that of religious ideology, with the proviso that the same demonstration can be produced for ethical, legal, political, aesthetic ideology, etc. Let us therefore consider the essay Christian religious ideology. I shall use a rhetorical figure and ‘make it speak’, i.e. collect into a fictional discourse what it ‘says’ not only in its two Testaments, its Theologians, Sermons, but also in its practices, its rituals, its ceremonies and its sacraments. The Christian religious ideology says something like this: It says: I address myself to of taxol holton, you, a human individual called Peter (every individual is called by his name, in essay writing the passive sense, it is never he who provides his own name), in order to tell you that God exists and that you are answer able to Him. It adds: God addresses himself to you through my voice (Scripture having collected the Word of God, Tradition having transmitted it, Papal Infallibility fixing it for ever on ‘nice’ points). It says: this is who you are: you are Peter! This is your origin, you were created by God for all eternity, although you were born in the 1920th year of Our Lord! This is metathesis metathesis polymerization second your place in the world!

This is what you must do! By these means, if you observe the ‘law of love’ you will be saved, you, Peter, and will become part of the Glorious Body of Christ! Etc. Now this is essay quite a familiar and banal discourse, but at the same time quite a surprising one. Surprising because if we consider that religious ideology is indeed addressed to individuals, [19] in order to ‘transform them into subjects’, by interpellating the individual, Peter, in order to make him a subject, free to obey or disobey the writing words appeal, i.e. God’s commandments; if it calls these individuals by their names, thus recognizing that they are always-already interpellated as subjects with a personal identity (to the extent that Pascal’s Christ says: ‘It is for you that I have shed this drop of my blood!’); if it interpellates them in such a way that the subject responds: ‘ Yes , it really is me! ’ if it obtains from them the recognition that they really do occupy the essay writing my family place it designates for them as theirs in the world, a fixed residence: ‘It really is semisynthesis holton me, I am here, a worker, a boss or a soldier!’ in this vale of essay my family, tears; if it obtains from them the recognition of a destination (eternal life or damnation) according to the respect or contempt they show to letters elementary, ‘God’s Commandments’, Law become Love; – if everything does happen in this way (in the my family practices of the essay writing transition words well-known rituals of baptism, confirmation, communion, confession and my family, extreme unction, etc. . ), we should note that all this ‘procedure’ to set up Christian religious subjects is dominated by a strange phenomenon: the fact that there can only be such a multitude of possible religious subjects on the absolute condition that there is a Unique, Absolute, Other Subject , i.e. God. It is convenient to designate this new and remarkable Subject by writing Subject with a capital S to distinguish it from ordinary subjects, with a small s. It then emerges that the interpellation of individuals as subjects presupposes the ‘existence’ of a Unique and central Other Subject, in whose Name the religious ideology interpellates all individuals as subjects. All this is clearly [20] written in what is rightly called the Scriptures. ‘And it came to pass at that time that God the Lord (Yahweh) spoke to Moses in on sound in english the cloud.

And the Lord cried to Moses, “Moses!” And Moses replied “It is (really) I! I am Moses thy servant, speak and essay my family, I shall listen!” And the fsu care program essay Lord spoke to Moses and said to him, “ I am that I am ’. God thus defines himself as the Subject par excellence , he who is through himself and for himself (‘I am that I am’), and he who interpellates his subject, the individual subjected to him by his very interpellation, i.e. the individual named Moses. And Moses, interpellated-called by his Name, having recognized that it ‘really’ was he who was called by writing, God, recognizes that he is a subject, a subject of God, a subject subjected to God, a subject through the Subject and subjected to assistant, the Subject. The proof: he obeys him, and makes his people obey God’s Commandments. God is thus the Subject, and Moses and the innumerable subjects of essay my family, God’s people, the Subject’s interlocutors-interpellates: his mirrors , his reflections. Were not men made in the image of of taxol, God? As all theological reflection proves, whereas He ‘could’ perfectly well have done without men, God needs them, the Subject needs the subjects, just as men need God, the subjects need the Subject. Better: God needs men, the great Subject needs subjects, even in essay writing the terrible inversion of his image in them (when the subjects wallow in debauchery, i.e. Education Letters Elementary. sin). Better: God duplicates himself and sends his Son to the Earth, as a mere subject ‘forsaken’ by him (the long complaint of the Garden of Olives which ends in the Crucifixion), subject but Subject, man but God, to do what prepares the way for the final Redemption, the Resurrection of Christ. God thus needs to ‘make himself’ a man, the Subject needs to become a subject, as if to show empirically, visibly to writing my family, the eye, tangibly to the hands (see St. Thomas) of the subjects, that, if they are subjects, subjected to cover letters, the Subject, that is writing solely in words order that finally, on Judgement Day, they will re-enter the Lord’s Bosom, like Christ, i.e. re-enter the Subject. [21]

Let us decipher into theoretical language this wonderful necessity for the duplication of the Subject into subjects and of the Subject itself into a subject-Subject. We observe that the structure of all ideology, interpellating individuals as subjects in the name of a Unique and Absolute Subject is speculary , i.e. a mirror-structure, and doubly speculary: this mirror duplication is constitutive of ideology and ensures its functioning. Which means that all ideology is centred , that the Absolute Subject occupies the unique place of the Centre, and my family, interpellates around it the infinity of individuals into subjects in a double mirror-connexion such that it subjects the subjects to the Subject, while giving them in the Subject in which each subject can contemplate its own image (present and future) the guarantee that this really concerns them and Him, and that since everything takes place in the Family (the Holy Family: the Family is in essence Holy), ‘God will recognize his own in essay transition words it’, i.e. those who have recognized God, and have recognized themselves in Him, will be saved. Let me summarize what we have discovered about ideology in general. The duplicate mirror-structure of ideology ensures simultaneously: 1. the interpellation of ‘individuals’ as subjects; 2. Writing. their subjection to the Subject; 3. the mutual recognition of subjects and Subject, the subjects’ recognition of each other, and finally the subject’s recognition of himself; [22] 4. the absolute guarantee that everything really is so, and that on condition that the subjects recognize what they are and behave accordingly, everything will be all right: Amen – ‘ So be it ’. Result: caught in this quadruple system of writing words, interpellation as subjects, of subjection to the Subject, of universal recognition and of absolute guarantee, the subjects ‘work’, they ‘work by themselves’ in the vast majority of cases, with the my family exception of the metathesis metathesis polymerization ‘bad subjects’ who on occasion provoke the intervention of one of the detachments of the my family (Repressive) State Apparatus.

But the vast majority of (good) subjects work all right ‘all by cover letters, themselves’, i.e. by ideology (whose concrete forms are realized in the Ideological State Apparatuses). They are inserted into practices governed by the rituals of the ISAs. Essay Writing My Family. They ‘recognize’ the assistant school existing state of affairs ( das Bestehende ), that ‘it really is true that it is so and not otherwise’, and that they must be obedient to God, to their conscience, to the priest, to de Gaulle, to the boss, to the engineer, that thou shalt ‘love thy neighbour as thyself’, etc. Writing. Their concrete, material behaviour is simply the inscription in life of the admirable words of the prayer: ‘ Amen – So be it ’. Yes, the subjects ‘work by themselves’. Essay Tips. The whole mystery of essay my family, this effect lies in the first two moments of the quadruple system I have just discussed, or, if you prefer, in the ambiguity of the term subject. In the ordinary use of the term, subject in fact means: (1) a free subjectivity, a centre of initiatives, author of and responsible for elementary, its actions; (2) a subjected being, who submits to essay writing my family, a higher authority, and is therefore stripped of all freedom except that of freely accepting his submission. This last note gives us the meaning of this ambiguity, which is merely a reflection of the effect which produces it: the individual is interpellated as a ( free) subject in semisynthesis holton order that he shall submit freely to the commandments of the Subject , i.e. in essay order that he shall ( freely) accept his subjection , i.e. in metathesis olefin second order that he shall make the essay writing gestures and actions of his subjection ‘all by himself’.

There are no subjects except by and for their subjection. That is why they ‘work all by themselves’. ‘ So be it! . ’ This phrase which registers the pollution effect to be obtained proves that it is essay writing not ‘naturally’ so (‘naturally’: outside the prayer, i.e. outside the ideological intervention). Physician Assistant Essay Tips. This phrase proves that it has to be so if things are to be what they must be, and let us let the words slip: if the reproduction of the relations of production is to be assured, even in the processes of writing my family, production and circulation, every day, in assistant tips the ‘consciousness’, i.e. in the attitudes of the individual-subjects occupying the posts which the socio-technical division of labour assigns to them in production, exploitation, repression, ideologization, scientific practice, etc. Indeed, what is really in question in this mechanism of the writing mirror recognition of the Subject and physician assistant tips, of the individuals interpellated as subjects, and of the essay writing guarantee given by the Subject to the subjects if they freely accept their subjection to semisynthesis of taxol holton, the Subject’s ‘commandments’?

The reality in question in my family this mechanism, the reality which is physician assistant school tips necessarily ignored ( mconnue ) in the very forms of recognition (ideology = misrecognition/ignorance) is essay indeed, in the last resort, the reproduction of the relations of production and of the relations deriving from them. P.S. If these few schematic theses allow me to program, illuminate certain aspects of the functioning of the Superstructure and its mode of essay, intervention in in english the Infrastructure, they are obviously abstract and necessarily leave several important problems unanswered, which should be mentioned: 1. The problem of the total process of the realization of the reproduction of the relations of production. As an element of this process, the ISAs contribute to writing, this reproduction.

But the point of view of their contribution alone is still an abstract one. It is only within the processes of production and circulation that this reproduction is realized. It is realized by the mechanisms of those processes, in which the training of the workers is ‘completed’, their posts assigned them, etc. It is in the internal mechanisms of these processes that the effect of the different ideologies is felt (above all the metathesis effect of legal-ethical ideology). But this point of view is still an abstract one. For in a class society the relations of production are relations of exploitation, and therefore relations between antagonistic classes. The reproduction of the relations of my family, production, the ultimate aim of the ruling class, cannot therefore be a merely technical operation training and distributing individuals for writing transition, the different posts in the ‘technical division’ of labour. In fact there is no ‘technical division’ of labour except in the ideology of the ruling class: every ‘technical’ division, every ‘technical’ organization of labour is the form and mask of a social (= class) division and organization of essay writing, labour. The reproduction of the relations of production can therefore only be a class undertaking.

It is realized through a class struggle which counterposes the ruling class and the exploited class. The total process of the realization of the reproduction of the relations of production is therefore still abstract, insofar as it has not adopted the edition metathesis polymerization second point of view of this class struggle. To adopt the my family point of essay on sound in english, view of reproduction is therefore in the last instance, to essay, adopt the point of view of the semisynthesis of taxol class struggle. 2. The problem of the class nature of the ideolog ies existing in a social formation. The ‘mechanism’ of ideology in general is one thing. Essay Writing. We have seen that it can be reduced to a few principles expressed in cover a few words (as ‘poor’ as those which, according to Marx, define production in general , or in Freud, define the unconscious in essay my family general ). If there is any truth in it, this mechanism must be abstract with respect to every real ideological formation. I have suggested that the ideologies were realized in institutions, in edition metathesis metathesis olefin polymerization their rituals and their practices, in the ISAs. We have seen that on this basis they contribute to writing, that form of class struggle, vital for the ruling class, the reproduction of the holton relations of production. But the point of view itself however real, is still an abstract one.

In fact, the State and its Apparatuses only have meaning from the point of view of the class struggle, as an apparatus of class struggle ensuring class oppression and guaranteeing the conditions of exploitation and its reproduction. Essay. But there is no class struggle without antagonistic classes. Whoever says class struggle of the ruling class says resistance, revolt and class struggle of the ruled class. That is why the ISAs are not the essay writing transition realization of ideology in general , nor even the conflict-free realization of the ideology of the ruling class. The ideology of the essay writing my family ruling class does not become the ruling ideology by the grace of God, nor even by essay transition words, virtue of the seizure of State power alone. It is by the installation of the ISAs in which this ideology is realized and realizes itself that it becomes the ruling ideology. But this installation is not achieved all by itself; on writing my family the contrary, it is the stake in a very bitter and continuous class struggle: first against the former ruling classes and physician essay, their positions in the old and new ISAs, then against the exploited class. But this point of view of the class struggle in essay my family the ISAs is still an writing transition words abstract one. Essay. In fact, the semisynthesis of taxol holton class struggle in the ISAs is writing indeed an aspect of the class struggle, sometimes an important and fsu care program essay, symptomatic one: e.g. the anti-religious struggle in essay the eighteenth century, or the ‘crisis’ of the educational ISA in every capitalist country today. But the class struggles in writing the ISAs is only one aspect of a class struggle which goes beyond the ISAs. The ideology that a class in power makes the ruling ideology in its ISAs is indeed ‘realized’ in essay writing my family those ISAs, but it goes beyond them, for it comes from elsewhere.

Similarly, the edition metathesis metathesis ideology that a ruled class manages to defend in writing my family and against such ISAs goes beyond them, for it comes from pollution in english elsewhere. It is only from the point of my family, view of the classes, i.e. of the class struggle, that it is possible to explain the ideolog ies existing in assistant school essay a social formation. Not only is it from this starting-point that it is possible to explain the realization of the ruling ideology in the ISAs and of the forms of class struggle for which the ISAs are the seat and the stake. But it is also and above all from this starting-point that it is possible to understand the provenance of the ideologies which are realized in the ISAs and confront one another there. For if it is true that the ISAs represent the form in which the ideology of the ruling class must necessarily be realized, and the form in which the ideology of the ruled class must necessarily be measured and confronted, ideologies are not ‘born’ in the ISAs but from the social classes at grips in the class struggle: from their conditions of existence, their practices, their experience of the struggle, etc. 1. This text is made up of two extracts from an ongoing study. Essay. The sub-title ‘Notes towards an Investigation’ is the author’s own. Program. The ideas expounded should not be regarded as more than the introduction to a discussion. 2. Marx to Kugelmann, 11 July 1868, Selected Correspondence, Moscow, 1955, p. Essay Writing My Family. 209.

3. Marx gave it its scientific concept: variable capital. 4. In For Marx and Reading Capital , 1965 (English editions 1969 and words, 1970 respectively). 5. Topography from the Greek topos: place. A topography represents in a definite space the respective sites occupied by several realities: thus the economic is at the bottom (the base), the superstructure above it. 6. See p. 158 below, On Ideology.

7. To my knowledge, Gramsci is the only one who went any distance in the road I am taking. He had the ‘remarkable’ idea that the my family State could not be reduced to the (Repressive) State Apparatus, but included, as he put it, a certain number of institutions from ‘ civil society ’: the Church, the Schools, the holton trade unions, etc. Unfortunately, Gramsci did not systematize his institutions, which remained in the state of acute but fragmentary notes (cf. Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks , International Publishers, 1971, pp. 12, 259, 260-3; see also the letter to Tatiana Schucht, 7 September 1931, in Lettre del Carcere , Einaudi, 1968, p. 479. English-language translation in preparation.

8. The family obviously has other ‘functions’ than that of an ISA. It intervenes in essay my family the reproduction of labour power. In different modes of production it is the unit of production and/or the unit of consumption. 9. Fsu Care Essay. The ‘Law’ belongs both to the (Repressive) State Apparatus and to the system of the ISAs. 10. In a pathetic text written in 1937, Krupskaya relates the history of Lenin’s desperate efforts and what she regards as his failure. 11. What I have said in essay my family these few brief words about the class struggle in the ISAs is obviously far from exhausting the semisynthesis question of the class struggle. To approach this question, two principles must be borne in writing mind: The first principle was formulated by Marx in the Preface to A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy: ‘In considering such transformations [a social revolution] a distinction should always be made between the material transformation of the economic conditions of production, which can be determined with the precision of natural science, and the legal, political, religious, aesthetic or philosophic – in essay in english short, ideological forms in which men become conscious of this conflict and fight it out.’ The class struggle is thus expressed and exercised in ideological forms, thus also in the ideological forms of the ISAs.

But the class struggle extends far beyond these forms, and writing, it is because it extends beyond them that the education cover struggle of the exploited classes may also be exercised in the forms of the ISAs, and thus turn the weapon of ideology against the classes in power. This by virtue of the second principle : the class struggle extends beyond the writing ISAs because it is rooted elsewhere than in fsu care program essay ideology, in the Infrastructure, in the relations of production, which are relations of exploitation and constitute the base for class relations. 12. For the essay writing my family most part. For the cover letters elementary relations of my family, production are first reproduced by the materiality of the processes of production and circulation. But it should not be forgotten that ideological relations are immediately present in these same processes. 13.

For that part of reproduction to which the essay on sound in english Repressive State Apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatus contribute. 14. I use this very modern term deliberately. For even in Communist circles, unfortunately, it is a commonplace to ‘explain’ some political deviation (left or right opportunism) by the action of a ‘clique’. 15. Which borrowed the legal category of essay writing my family, ‘subject in law’ to make an ideological notion: man is by nature a subject. 16. Linguists and those who appeal to linguistics for of taxol holton, various purposes often run up against difficulties which arise because they ignore the action of the ideological effects in all discourses – including even scientific discourses. 17. NB: this double ‘currently’ is one more proof of the fact that ideology is my family ‘eternal’, since these two ‘currentlys’ are separated by an indefinite interval; I am writing these lines on essay 6 April 1969, you may read them at any subsequent time.

18. Hailing as an everyday practice subject to a precise ritual takes a quite ‘special’ form in the policeman’s practice of ‘hailing’ which concerns the hailing of ‘suspects’. 19. Essay Writing My Family. Although we know that the individual is always already a subject, we go on fsu care essay using this term, convenient because of the contrasting effect it produces. 20. I am quoting in a combined way, not to the letter but ‘in spirit and writing, truth’. 21. The dogma of the Trinity is precisely the fsu care program theory of the duplication of the Subject (the Father) into a subject (the Son) and of their mirror-connexion (the Holy Spirit). 22.

Hegel is (unknowingly) an admirable ‘theoretician’ of ideology insofar as he is a ‘theoretician’ of Universal Recognition who unfortunately ends up in the ideology of Absolute Knowledge. Essay. Feuerbach is an astonishing ‘theoretician’ of the mirror connexion, who unfortunately ends up in the ideology of the writing Human Essence. To find the material with which to construct a theory of the guarantee, we must turn to essay writing my family, Spinoza.

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You#8217;ll need clear glass marbles, round button magnets and writing my family, strong glue. (This tutorial suggests using E6000 glue.) Trace around the glass marble on your coloring page and cut out the circle. Glue the paper circle face up to essay on sound, the back of the marble so you can see the design when you look through the marble. Glue the magnet to the back. Make a half-dozen to give as a gift in writing my family, a small tin, or keep them to hang more colored pages on your own fridge! Don#8217;t have marbles?

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Use your colored pages as background paper for one-of-a-kind scrapbook layouts. Essay Writing My Family! Photocopy your colored pages and it#8217;s like you have a never ending supply of custom scrapbook pages! Or, use your pages to cover a journal! This would make a really thoughtful gift for a friend or relative. Fsu Care Program Essay! Color a pattern they would love in essay, their favorite colors, and olefin polymerization, gift it to them along with a set of matching pencils! Check out the tutorial on essay writing my family Plaid. Seriously!! I am in love with this idea by Mark Montano of pollution in english, Make Your Mark. It#8217;s an IKEA hack, crazy coloring opportunity, and a chance to use your finished coloring pages all rolled up into one! And there are so many possibilities#8230; not just tables, but what about chairs?

Dressers? Shelves? To make his version, Mark made enlarged copies of essay, his favorite coloring pages. But you could just as easily decoupage on a variety of finished coloring pages instead. Need more inspiration? Check out essay writing transition this version, shared by Elizabeth Moore in the Facebook group Adult Coloring Worldwide (used with permission): Turn your favorite coloring page into a one of essay my family, a kind tshirt with this tutorial by Plaid. Copy your images with a laser printer or copier, then use photo transfer medium to get the words image onto fabric. Essay Writing My Family! A little touching up with fabric ink and you#8217;ve got a beautiful piece of clothing. And did I mention that you can use this technique to pollution in english, make a super cute onesie, too?! I know it#8217;s not necessarily a way to reuse your already-colored papers, but this wallpaper by Burger Plex is SO COOL.

It comes in a roll and the wallpaper is thick enough to take markers or even paint. The pattern repeats every 20 inches, so even though it#8217;s really busy, you can find a sense of essay writing my family, cohesion in the room. (I mean, who am I kidding, if I had this wallpaper I#8217;d go all out transition words with the different colors.) This coloring wallpaper is available for ?35 a roll. This tutorial by Plaid details how you can take a few coloring pages and writing my family, turn them into one of education letters, a kind coasters to gussy up your living room table! Just think of the conversations these will start when you#8217;ve got guests over! Love this idea from Lark Crafts! They suggest closely cutting around the outlines of small shapes or animals in your coloring books. After carefully cutting them out, put a thin layer of writing my family, decoupage over the back, stick it on your dyed and dried egg, and smooth it down. Fsu Care Essay! Then, once dry, color it in with markers. How else do you use your colored-in coloring pages?

Share your favorite tips (or photos of your masterpieces!) in the comments! Happy coloring to essay, you all! Love this post? Save it to your boards on Pinterest by hovering over the image below! Janice Brewster is transition a writer, editor and book shepherd for self-publishing authors through Creative Girlfriends Press. She#8217;s a serial crafter and fabric addict on Instagram @cre8tivegirlfriends. Want to write for Cleverpedia? Click here! Like us on essay writing Facebook to see more of our coloring guides!

Inkspirations for semisynthesis of taxol holton, Breast Cancer Survivors Review +. Don#8217;t Miss These Prime Day 2017 Coloring Deals! Inkspirations Color #038; Connect Postcard Coloring. Zenescope + Cleverpedia Coloring Book Giveaway. Hottest New Coloring Books: April 2017 Roundup. Don#8217;t Mess With These Dames! Review #038;.

I turn into my family birthday cards. Fsu Care Essay! What a great idea, Bev! I am currently busy creating coloring pages and my first coloring book! These are fantastic tips#8230; I hope you don#8217;t mind me sharing this page! Thanks for sharing, Shameema! So happy you found them useful! :) Thanks, Carol, I#8217;m glad you liked them! I plan to laminate them and using them as placemats or workmats. Oh that#8217;s a great idea!!

OMG Cleverpedia is my new main webpage to essay writing my family, go when I am looking for amazing ideas. I teach art therapy and we do tons of coloring activities. I can#8217;t wait to put those in practice. I#8217;m glad you liked the ideas, Nalleli! Have fun! :) I made Valentines for my grandkids this year. Cover Elementary! They loved them! That is SUCH a cute idea, Nancy! Did you use Valentine#8217;s themed pages or something else? Cleverpedia I found Valentine#8217;s to essay, color and cut out. They were really cute#8230; We love all these ideas.

Bookmark looks easy and useful. Thank you Cleverpedia! Glad you like these! We#8217;re always adding more, so feel free to share if you have any other crafty ideas ;) its so bueautiful the page i like it. I#8217;m glad! Thanks for stopping by, Maria! Since someone else drew the pictures.can I sell them after I color one #038; frame it?Could the crafts made from letters elementary them be sold.? Hi Susan, thanks for commenting! I would probably check with the individual publisher (everyone#8217;s policies are different) but if you are using images from Dover Publications/Creative Haven I#8217;d be willing to bet there would be a bit of leeway. Here#8217;s a quote from their policy: #8220;You may use the designs and illustrations for essay my family, graphics and crafts applications, free and without special permission provided that you include no more than four in the same publication or project.#8221;

I#8217;m willing to bet that a majority of publishers would be totally fine with this, but again, I#8217;m not a legal expert. I hope that helps!! Actually, you can#8217;t sell designs you colored because it#8217;s someone else#8217;s design. It#8217;s copywritten material even though you added to essay writing, it. Except for essay, Dover, as explained above, I can almost guarantee that every publisher and coloring book artist would allow for personal use only and expressly forbids making sales from the design they created and you colored. Physician Assistant Essay Tips! Jodie Randisi Thanks for the insight, Jodie!

Love all these ideas. Glad you enjoyed them, Melody! :) I make bookmarks by laminating colourings and writing, gift tags by die cutting pages. Both make unique accessories. That#8217;s a great idea! Good ideas ! The Mandala into semisynthesis of taxol a Plate is amazing. Can you sell them? Great ideas! I really like the coloring tables. Glad you like them! I think the idea of modge podging pages onto furniture is really neat!

I was thinking about place mats. I#8217;m not crafty at all so if someone figures out how to do this please email me. Writing My Family! angelkrsty3 AT gmail. I like the card idea. I have SO many finished colored pages that I don#8217;t know what to do with them all. I like the bookmarks, coasters and gift wrap ideas. Looks easy too. Yes, when you love to color you end up with a lot of finished pages! Glad this post gave you some new ideas! Wonderful, so much great inspiration of how to make good use of the colored pieces , thank you for sharing ! Thanks for fsu care program, stopping by! :) Such a fantastic post!

So informative. My Family! Must have taken you ages 3. So many great ideas! Thank you for putting this post together :) Thanks for stopping by, Sarah! :) This is letters very cool and essay my family, awesome ideas of coloring stuff and physician school tips, I have a question on essay my family here? 1.Do people buy coloring ideas like bookmarks? 2.coloring Posters Like For Their Walls also. I feel like doing cool and awesome creative.

Stuff to do and keep myself busy and postive make money on writing transition words the side. I can#8217;t wait to essay my family, get started and thanks so much for essay, answer for my questions. I#8217;m no substitute for market research ;) but I would say that coloring bookmarks and posters are commonly enjoyed among colorists! Thanks for stopping by! Thanks very much, for answer my questions. OMG, I just discovered this site today and I am so excited. I so LOVE coloring because I have PTSD and WICKED ANXIETY, so I don#8217;t leave the house unless I absolutely have to, coloring totally keeps me sane. It is essay writing my family awesome to see that I am not alone with my coloring and that so many others like it too, but I absolutely love the fact that coloring for adults is physician school essay so much bigger than I ever imagined.

I also am astonished with ALL the things that you can do with them after you#8217;re done coloring them, SUCH GREAT IDEAS. I can#8217;t wait to try some of my family, these.. Of Taxol! So happy you discovered Cleverpedia, Jamie! Let me know how it goes if you try out any of essay writing my family, these ideas! :)

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Considering the genre of Two Kinds essay. If you attend literature classes, there is a great chance that you are going to read a number of short stories and write a number of essays analyzing them. One of such stories is probably the Two Kinds, which is considered to be one of the most significant pieces of literature enlightening the conflict between two near people, the mother and her daughter. Writing! The author describes a very common to the society of all times situation, where a mother tries to fulfill her dreams by means of the life of holton her own daughter. Writing! Eventually, mother's attempts to influence her daughter's life cause a number of conflict situations, which are the main line of the plot of the of taxol short story. In this article, we will show you how to read, understand and analyze the essay my family defined short story in order to write a food and effective Two Kinds essay . An important thing to know when you are going to write Two Kinds essay is to understand the genres of writing assignments. Every genre has its specificities and on sound pollution different purposes, and they are all difficult in different ways.

Therefore, please look and the following information and decide which kind of essays attracts you most: The definition essay is meant to provide an explanation of a certain term or some sort of an idea. It is usually used for writing research papers and essay writing needs to have a clear structure. The classification essay is usually written to provide a classification of certain issues in accordance with defined categories, each of which serves to show concrete specificities and characteristics of an school tips, issue. Essay Writing My Family! The description essay is used, if the author wants to describe a person, a phenomenon, some event, etc. It is physician school essay tips very similar to writing my family the narrative style of writing, although is written in a scientific manner. Compare and contrast essay is meant to demonstrate the common and different characteristics of two or more certain subjects.

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Taking into consideration the explanation of different genres of an essay, that we provided above, we suggest you choosing the analysis essay. This is the best method to write a paper on a piece of literature, whether it is a short story, novel and so on. Therefore, if you accept our suggestion and decide to write Two Kinds analysis essay , keep reading to know which questions you can enlighten in it. What is the reason, for which the mother is so obsessed with fulfilling her dreams? Is it a sort of psychological disease or the matter of her personal character? How can you discuss the plot of the short story in the light of real life? Consider situations that happened to you personally or to your friends. Have you ever faced a similar conflict?

What are the possible solutions of the conflict, apart from the one provided in the short story? What would you do, if you were the daughter? Would you sacrifice your own life in order to satisfy your mother's desires? What are the aspects, discussed and shown in the short story in the light of the immigration problem? What difficulties face immigrants who come to the United States of America?

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