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benedictine essays [ From the A TLANTIS of January , 1858.] A S the physical universe is sustained and carried on in dependence on certain centres of power and laws of writing to communicate 2 paragraphs operation, so the course of the social and political world, and of that great religious organization called the resume for college Catholic Church, is writing 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition found to proceed for the most part from the on e-governance presence or action of definite persons, places, events, and to communicate 2 paragraphs 3rd edition institutions, as the visible cause of the the jacket gary soto whole. There has been but one Juda, one Greece, one Rome; one Homer, one Cicero; one Csar, one Constantine, one Charlemagne. And so, as regards Revelation, there has been one St. John the Divine, one Doctor of the to communicate 2 paragraphs 3rd edition Nations. Dogma runs along the line of social security research papers Athanasius, Augustine, Thomas. The conversion of the to communicate and essays heathen is soto essay ascribed, after the Apostles, to writing to communicate 3rd edition champions of the truth so few, that we may almost count them, such as Martin, Patrick, Augustine, Boniface. Then there is St. Antony, the father of monachism; St. Jerome, the interpreter of Scripture; St. Chrysostom, the thesis great preacher.

Education follows the same law: it has its history in Christianity, and its doctors or masters in writing 2 paragraphs and essays that history. It has had three periods:#8212;the ancient, the medieval, and the modern; and there are three Religious Orders in those periods respectively, which succeed, one the other, on its public stage, and represent the teaching given by the Catholic Church during the wall time of their ascendancy. The first period is that long series of centuries, during which society was breaking or had broken up, and then slowly attempted its own re-construction; the second may be called the period of re-construction; and the third dates from the Reformation, when that peculiar movement of mind commenced, the issue of which is still to come. 2 Paragraphs And Essays 3rd Edition! Now, St. Benedict has had the training of the ancient intellect, St. Dominic of the medieval; and St. Social! Ignatius of the modern. And in saying this, I am in no degree disrespectful to the Augustinians, Carmelites, Franciscans, and other great religious families, which might be named, or to the holy Patriarchs who founded them; for I am not reviewing the whole history of Christianity, but selecting a particular aspect of it. Perhaps as much as this will be granted to me without great hesitation.

Next, I proceed to contrast these three great masters of Christian teaching with each other. To St. Benedict, then, who may fairly be taken to represent the various families of monks before his time and those which sprang from him (for they are all pretty much of to communicate and essays 3rd edition one school), to this great Saint let me assign, for berlin questions, his discriminating badge, the element of Poetry; to St. Dominic, the Scientific element; and to St. Ignatius, the Practical. These characteristics, which belong respectively to the schools of the three great Teachers, grow out of the circumstances under which they respectively entered upon their work.

Benedict, entrusted with his mission almost as a boy, infused into it the romance and simplicity of boyhood. Dominic, a man of forty-five, a graduate in theology, a priest and a Canon, brought with him into writing to communicate 3rd edition, religion that maturity and completeness of learning which he had acquired in the schools. Ignatius, a man of the world before his conversion, transmitted as a legacy to his disciples that knowledge of mankind which cannot be learned in cloisters. And thus the intros three several Orders were (so to 2 paragraphs say), the births of Poetry, of Science, and Practical Sense. And here another coincidence suggests itself.

I have been giving these three attributes to the three Patriarchs whom I have specified, severally, from a bon-fide regard to their history, and without at all having any theory of philosophy in my eye. But after having so described them, it certainly did strike me that I had unintentionally been illustrating a somewhat popular notion of the day, the like of which is attributed to resume admissions authors with whom I have as little sympathy as with any persons who can be named. According to these speculators, the life, whether of a race or of an individual of the great human family, is divided into three stages, each of which has its own ruling principle and characteristic. The youth makes his start in life, with hope at the prow, and fancy at to communicate 2 paragraphs, the helm; he has nothing else but these to impel or direct him; he has not lived long enough to exercise his reason, or to gather in a store of facts; and, because he cannot do otherwise, he dwells in a world which he has created. He begins with illusions. Next, when at length he looks about for some surer footing than imagination gives him, he may have recourse to reason, or he may have recourse to creative college essay intros facts; now facts are external to him, but his reason is his own: of the two, then, it is writing easier for him to exercise his reason than to ascertain facts. Narrative! Accordingly, his first mental revolution, when he discards the writing to communicate 3rd edition life of aspiration and affection which has disappointed him, and the dreams of which he has been the sport and victim, is to berlin essay questions embrace a life of logic: this, then, is his second stage,#8212;the metaphysical.

He acts now on a plan, thinks by system, is 3rd edition cautious about his middle terms, and trusts nothing but what takes a scientific form. His third stage is when he has made full trial of life; when he has found his theories break down under the resume admissions weight of facts, and experience falsify his most promising calculations. Then the old man recognizes at length, that what he can taste, touch, and handle, is and essays 3rd edition trustworthy, and nothing beyond it. Thus he runs through his three periods of Imagination, Reason, and Sense; and then he comes to an end, and is not;#8212;a most impotent and melancholy conclusion. Timeline! Undoubtedly a Catholic has no sympathy in so heartless a view of 2 paragraphs life, and yet it seems to square with what I have been saying of the three great Patriarchs of Christian teaching. And certainly there is a truth in it, which gives it its plausibility. However, I am not concerned here to do more than to put my finger on the point at which I should diverge from it, both in what I have been saying and what I must say concerning them. It is true then, that history, as viewed in these three Saints, is, somewhat after the manner of the thesis theory I have mentioned, a progress from poetry through science to practical sense or prudence; but then this important proviso has to be borne in mind at the same time, that what the Catholic Church once has had, she never has lost.

She has never wept over, or been angry with, time gone and over. Instead of passing from one stage of life to writing 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition another, she has carried her youth and middle age along with her, on to her latest time. She has not changed possessions, but accumulated them, and has brought out of essay timeline her treasure-house, according to the occasion, things new and old. She did not lose Benedict by finding Dominic; and she has still both Benedict and Dominic at writing to communicate and essays 3rd edition, home, though she has become the mother of Ignatius. Social! Imagination, Science, Prudence, all are good, and she has them all.

Things incompatible in nature, cexist in her; her prose is poetical on the one hand, and philosophical on the other. Coming now to the historical proof of the 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition contrast I have been instituting, I am sanguine in thinking that one branch of creative it is already allowed by the consent of the world, and is undeniable. By common consent, the palm of religious Prudence, in the Aristotelic sense of that comprehensive word, belongs to the School of Religion of which St. Ignatius is the Founder. That great Society is the classical seat and fountain (that is, in religious thought and the conduct of life, for of ecclesiastical politics I speak not), the school and pattern of discretion, practical sense, and wise government.

Sublimer conceptions or more profound speculations may have been created or elaborated elsewhere; but, whether we consider the illustrious Body in writing 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition its own constitution, or in its rules for instruction and direction, we see that it is its very genius to creative prefer this most excellent prudence to every other gift, and to think little both of poetry and of science, unless they happen to writing be useful. It is true that, in the long catalogue of its members, there are to be found the names of the most consummate theologians, and resume objective for college of scholars the most elegant and accomplished; but we are speaking here, not of individuals, but of the body itself. It is plain that the body is not over-jealous about its theological traditions, or it certainly would not suffer Suarez to controvert with Molina, Viva with Vasquez, Passaglia with Petavius, and Faure with Suarez, de Lugo, and Valentia. In this intellectual freedom its members justly glory; inasmuch as they have set their affections, not on the opinions of the Schools, but on the souls of men. And it is the same charitable motive which makes them give up the poetry of life, the poetry of ceremonies,#8212;of the 2 paragraphs and essays cowl, the cloister, and the choir,#8212;content with the most prosaic architecture, if it be but convenient, and the most prosaic neighbourhood, if it be but populous. I need not then dwell longer on this wonderful Religion, but may confine the remarks which are to follow to the two Religions which historically preceded it#8212;the Benedictine and the Dominican [Note 1]. One preliminary more, suggested by a purely fanciful analogy:#8212;As there are three great Patriarchs on the high road and public thoroughfare of Christian Education, so there were three chief Patriarchs in the first age of the chosen people. Putting aside Noe and Melchisedec, and Joseph and berlin his brethren, we recognize three venerable fathers,#8212;Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and what are their characteristics? Abraham, the father of many nations; Isaac, the intellectual, living in solitary simplicity, and in loving contemplation; and Jacob, the persecuted and helpless, visited by writing to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays, marvellous providences, driven from place to place, set down and taken up again, ill-treated by those who were his debtors, suspected because of his sagacity, and betrayed by his eager faith, yet carried on and triumphing amid all troubles by means of his most faithful and powerful guardian-archangel. St.

Benedict, then, like the great Hebrew Patriarch, was the soto Father of many nations. He has been styled the Patriarch of the writing to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays West, a title which there are many reasons for ascribing to him. Not only was he the first to establish a perpetual Order of Regulars in Western Christendom; not only, as coming first, has he had an ampler course of centuries for the multiplication of berlin essay his children; but his Rule, as that of St. Basil in the East, is the 2 paragraphs 3rd edition normal rule of the narrative first age of the to communicate 2 paragraphs Church, and was in time generally received even in communities which in no sense owed their origin to creative intros him. Moreover, out of his Order rose, in process of time, various new monastic families, which have established themselves as independent institutions, and to communicate are able in their turn to boast of the number of their houses, and the sanctity and historical celebrity of their members. He is the representative of Latin monachism for the long extent of six centuries, while monachism was one; and even when at length varieties arose, and distinct titles were given to them, the thesis change grew out of him;#8212;not the act of strangers who were his rivals, but of his own children, who did but make a new beginning in all devotion and loyalty to him. He died in to communicate the early half of the sixth century; at the beginning of the tenth rose from among his French monasteries the famous Congregation of Cluni, illustrated by St. Majolus, St. Odilo, Peter the on e-governance Venerable, and other considerable personages, among whom is Hildebrand, afterwards Pope Gregory the Seventh. Then came, in long succession, the Orders or Congregations of Camaldoli under St.

Romuald, of Vallombrosa, of Citeaux, to which St. Writing To Communicate And Essays! Bernard has given his name, of intros Monte Vergine, of Fontvrault; those of 2 paragraphs and essays England, Spain, and Flanders; the Silvestrines, the Celestines, the Olivetans, the Humiliati, besides a multitude of creative college essay intros institutes for women, as the Gilbertines and the Oblates of St. Writing To Communicate 3rd Edition! Frances, and then at length, to mention no others, the Congregation of St. Maur in security research modern times, so well known for its biblical, patristical, and historical works, and for its learned members, Montfaucon, Mabillon, and their companions. Writing 2 Paragraphs And Essays 3rd Edition! The panegyrists of this illustrious Order are accustomed to claim for it in all its branches as many as 37,000 houses, and, besides, 30 Popes, 200 Cardinals, 4 Emperors, 46 Kings, 51 Queens, 1,406 Princes, 1,600 Archbishops, 600 Bishops, 2,400 Nobles, and 15,000 Abbots and learned men [Note 2]. Nor are the resume for college religious bodies which sprang from to communicate and essays St. Benedict the full measure of what he has accomplished,#8212;as has been already observed. His Rule gradually made its way into those various monasteries which were of an earlier or of an independent foundation. It first coalesced with, and objective admissions then supplanted, the Irish Rule of St. Columban in France, and the still older institutes which had been brought from the East by St. Athanasius, St.

Eusebius, and St. Martin. At the beginning of the ninth century it was formally adopted throughout the dominions of Charlemagne. Pure, or with some admixture, it was brought by writing 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition, St. Augustine to England; and that admixture, if it existed, was gradually eliminated by St. Wilfrid, St. Dunstan, and berlin wall Lanfranc, till at length it was received, with the name and obedience of St. Benedict, in all the Cathedral monasteries [Note 3] (to mention no others), excepting Carlisle. Nor did it cost such regular bodies any very great effort to make the change, even when historically most separate from St.

Benedict; for the Saint had taken up for the most part what he found, and his Rule was but the expression of the genius of monachism in those first times of the Church, with a more exact adaptation to their needs than could elsewhere be met with. So uniform indeed had been the monastic idea before his time, and so little stress had been laid by individual communities on their respective peculiarities, that religious men passed at pleasure from one body to to communicate 2 paragraphs another [Note 4]. St. Essay! Benedict provides in his Rule for the case of strangers coming to one of his houses, and wishing to remain there. And Essays 3rd Edition! If such a one came from any monastery with which the monks had existing relations, then he was not to be received without letters from his Abbot; but, in the instance of a foreign monk from distant parts, who wished to dwell with them as a guest, and was content with their ways, and conformed himself to them, and social security research papers was not troublesome, should he in the event wish to stay for good, says St. Benedict, let him not be refused; for there has been room to make trial of him, during the time that hospitality has been shown to him: nay, let him even be invited to stay, that others may gain a lesson from his example; for to communicate 2 paragraphs, in every place we are servants of one Lord and soldiers of one King. [Note 5] The unity of idea, which, as these words imply, is to be found in all monks in gary soto essay every part of writing to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays Christendom, may be described as a unity of object, of state, and of occupation. Monachism was one and thesis the same everywhere, because it was a reaction from that secular life, which has everywhere the same structure and the same characteristics. And, since that secular life contained in it many objects, many states, and many occupations, here was a special reason, as a matter of and essays 3rd edition principle, why the reaction from it should bear the badge of unity, and should be in outward appearance one and the same everywhere. Moreover, since that same secular life was, when monachism arose, more than ordinarily marked by variety, perturbation and confusion, it seemed on that very account to justify emphatically a rising and revolt against itself, and a recurrence to some state which, unlike itself, was constant and unalterable. It was indeed an narrative, old, decayed, and moribund world, into writing 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition, which Christianity had been cast.

The social fabric was overgrown with the corruptions of a thousand years, and college intros was held together, not so much by any common principle, as by the strength of possession and the tenacity of custom. It was too large for public spirit, and too artificial for patriotism, and its many religions did but foster in the popular mind division and scepticism. Want of mutual confidence would lead to to communicate and essays 3rd edition despondency, inactivity, and selfishness. Thesis! Society was in 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition the slow fever of consumption, which made it restless in proportion as it was feeble. It was powerful, however, to seduce and deprave; nor was there any locus standi from social papers which to combat its evils; and writing to communicate the only way of getting on with it was to narrative abandon principle and writing to communicate 3rd edition duty, to take things as they came, and to do as the world did. Worse than all, this encompassing, entangling system of things, was, at the time we speak of, the seat and instrument of a paganism, and then of heresies, not simply contrary, but bitterly hostile, to the Christian profession. Serious men not only had a call, but every inducement which love of life and freedom could supply, to escape from its presence and its sway. Their one idea then, their one purpose, was to be quit of it; too long had it enthralled them. It was not a question of this or that vocation, of the better deed, of the higher state, but of life and death. Creative College! In later times a variety of holy objects might present themselves for devotion to choose from, such as the care of the poor, or of the sick, or of the young, the redemption of captives, or the conversion of the barbarians; but early monachism was flight from the world, and to communicate 2 paragraphs nothing else. The troubled, jaded, weary heart, the stricken, laden conscience, sought a life free from corruption in its daily work, free from distraction in objective admissions its daily worship; and it sought employments as contrary as possible to the world's employments,#8212;employments, the end of which would be in themselves, in which each day, each hour, would have its own completeness;#8212;no elaborate undertakings, no difficult aims, no anxious ventures, no uncertainties to make the heart beat, or the temples throb, no painful combination of efforts, no extended plan of operations, no multiplicity of details, no deep calculations, no sustained machinations, no suspense, no vicissitudes, no moments of crisis or catastrophe;#8212;nor again any subtle investigations, nor perplexities of proof, nor conflicts of 2 paragraphs rival intellects, to agitate, harass, depress, stimulate, weary, or intoxicate the soul.

Hitherto I have been using negatives to describe what the primitive monk was seeking; in truth monachism was, as regards the secular life and all that it implies, emphatically a negation, or, to use another word, a mortification ; a mortification of sense, and a mortification of reason. Here a word of social security explanation is necessary. The monks were too good Catholics to deny that reason was a divine gift, and to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition had too much common sense to think to do without it. What they denied themselves was the wall essay questions various and manifold exercises of the reason; and on this account, because such exercises were excitements. To Communicate 2 Paragraphs And Essays 3rd Edition! When the reason is berlin wall essay questions cultivated, it at once begins to combine, to centralize, to look forward, to writing 2 paragraphs look back, to view things as a whole, whether for speculation or for creative essay, action; it practises synthesis and analysis, it discovers, it invents. To these exercises of the intellect is opposed simplicity, which is the state of writing to communicate 2 paragraphs 3rd edition mind which does not combine, does not deal with premisses and conclusions, does not recognize means and their end, but lets each work, each place, each occurrence stand by itself,#8212;which acts towards each as it comes before it, without a thought of anything else.

This simplicity is the temper of children, and it is the temper of monks. College Essay! This was their mortification of the intellect; every man who lives, must live by reason, as every one must live by sense; but, as it is possible to be content with the writing to communicate bare necessities of animal life, so is it possible to confine ourselves to resume objective for college the bare ordinary use of reason, without caring to improve it or make the most of it. These monks held both sense and reason to be the to communicate 2 paragraphs 3rd edition gifts of heaven, but they used each of them as little as they could help, reserving their full time and their whole selves for devotion;#8212;for, if reason is better than sense, so devotion they thought to be better than either; and, as even a heathen might deny himself the innocent indulgences of sense in order to give his time to the cultivation of the reason, so did the college essay monks give up reason, as well as sense, that they might consecrate themselves to divine meditation. Now, then, we are able to understand how it was that the monks had a unity, and in what it consisted. It was a unity, I have said, of object, of state, and of occupation. Their object was rest and peace; their state was retirement; their occupation was some work that was simple, as opposed to intellectual, viz., prayer, fasting, meditation, study, transcription, manual labour, and other unexciting, soothing employments. Such was their institution all over the world; they had eschewed the busy mart, the craft of gain, the money-changer's bench, and the merchant's cargo. They had turned their backs upon the wrangling forum, the writing to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition political assembly, and the pantechnicon of social research papers trades. They had had their last dealings with architect and habit-maker, with butcher and cook; all they wanted, all they desired, was the sweet soothing presence of earth, sky, and sea, the hospitable cave, the bright running stream, the easy gifts which mother earth, justissima tellus, yields on very little persuasion.

The monastic institute, says the biographer of St. Maurus, demands Summa Quies , the most perfect quietness; [Note 6] and where was quietness to be found, if not in reverting to the original condition of man, as far as the changed circumstances of our race admitted; in having no wants, of which the writing and essays 3rd edition supply was not close at hand; in the nil admirari; in having neither hope nor fear of anything below; in daily prayer, daily bread, and daily work, one day being just like another, except that it was one step nearer than the day just gone to that great Day, which would swallow up all days, the day of everlasting rest. Security! However, I have come into collision with a great authority, M. Guizot, and I must stop the course of my argument to make my ground good against him. M. Guizot, then, makes a distinction between monachism in its birth-place, in Egypt and Syria, and that Western institute, of writing 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition which I have made St. Benedict the representative. He allows that the Orientals mortified the intellect, but he considers that Latin monachism was the creative intros seat of to communicate considerable mental activity.

The desire for retirement, he says, for creative college intros, contemplation, for 2 paragraphs, a marked rupture with civilized society, was the timeline source and fundamental trait of the Eastern monks: in the West, on the contrary , and writing 2 paragraphs and essays especially in Southern Gaul, where, at the commencement of the resume objective for college admissions fifth century, the 2 paragraphs 3rd edition principal monasteries were founded, it was in order to live in common, with a view to conversation as well as to religious edification, that the first monks met. The monasteries of Lerins, of St. Victor, and many others, were especially great schools of theology, the focus of intellectual movement. It was by no means with solitude or with mortification, but with discussion and activity, that they there concerned themselves. [Note 7] Great deference is due to an author so learned, so philosophical, so honestly desirous to set out Christianity to the best advantage; yet, I am at a loss to social research understand what has led him to make such a distinction between the East and West, and to assign to the Western monks an activity of intellect, and to the Eastern a love of writing and essays retirement. It is creative college intros quite true that instances are sometimes to be found of monasteries in the West distinguished by much intellectual activity, but more, and more striking, instances are to writing to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays be found of a like phenomenon in thesis on e-governance the East. If, then, such particular instances are to be taken as fair specimens of the state of Western monachism, they are equally fair specimens of the writing to communicate and essays state of Eastern also; and the Eastern monks will be proved more intellectual than the Western, by virtue of that greater interest in admissions doctrine and in controversy which given individuals or communities among them have exhibited.

A very cursory reference to ecclesiastical history will be sufficient to show us that the writing 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition fact is on e-governance as I have stated it. The theological sensitiveness of the monks of to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition Marseilles, Lerins, or Adrumetum, it seems, is to be a proof of the intellectualism generally of the thesis on e-governance West: then, why is not the greater sensitiveness of the Scythian monks at Constantinople, and 3rd edition of their opponents, the Ac#339;met, an evidence in favour of the East? These two bodies of Religious actually came all the way from Constantinople to Rome to denounce one another, besieging, as it were, the Holy See, and the former of them actually attempting to raise the Roman populace against gary soto the Pope, in to communicate behalf of its own theological tenet. Does not this show activity of mind? I venture to say that, for one intellectual monk in the West, a dozen might be produced in the East. The very reproach, thrown out by secular historians against Greeks in resume objective admissions general, of over-subtlety of intellect, applies in particular, if to any men, to writing 3rd edition certain classes or certain communities of Eastern monks. These were sometimes orthodox, quite as often heretical, but inexhaustible in their argumentative resources, whether the one or the other. If Pelagius be a monk in on e-governance the West, on the other hand, Nestorius and Eutyches, both heresiarchs, are both monks in the East; and Eutyches, at the time of writing and essays his heresy, was an old monk into the bargain, who had been thirty years abbot of a convent, and whom age, if not sanctity, might have saved from this abnormal use of his reason. His partizans were principally monks of Egypt; and they, coming up in force to berlin wall essay questions the pseudo-synod of Ephesus, in aid of a theological thesis, kicked to death the patriarch of Constantinople, and put to flight the Legate of the Pope, all in consequence of their intellectual susceptibilities.

A century earlier, Arius, on starting, carried away into his heresy as many as seven hundred nuns [Note 8]; what have the Western convents to show, in writing to communicate and essays 3rd edition the way of controversial activity, comparable with a fact like this? I do not insist on the zealous and influential orthodoxy of the monks of Egypt, Syria, and Asia Minor in the fourth century, because it was probably nothing else but an honourable adhesion to narrative timeline the faith of the Church, without any serious exercise of mind; but turn to the great writers of Eastern Christendom, and consider how many of them figure at first sight as monks;#8212;Chrysostom, Basil, Gregory Nazianzen, Epiphanius, Ephrem, Amphilochius, Isidore of Pelusium, Theodore, Theodoret, perhaps Athanasius. Among the Latin writers no great names occur to me but those of Jerome and Pope Gregory; I may add Paulinus, Sulpicius, Vincent, and Cassian, but Jerome is the only learned writer among them. I have a difficulty, then, even in comprehending, not to speak of admitting, M. To Communicate 2 Paragraphs! Guizot's assertion, a writer who does not commonly speak without a meaning or a reason. But, after all, however the balance of intellectualism may lie between certain convents or individuals in the East and the West, such particular instances of wall essay mental activity are nothing to the purpose, when taken to measure the state of the great body of the monks; certainly not in the West, with which in this paper I am exclusively concerned. In taking an estimate of the Benedictines, we need not trouble ourselves about the state of monachism in Egypt, Syria, Asia Minor, and Constantinople, as it existed after the writing to communicate 3rd edition fourth century, when the on e-governance true monastic tradition was passing from the East to the West. In the fourth century, the Eastern Monks simply follow the defined and promulgated doctrine of the Church, and in following it are guilty of to communicate and essays 3rd edition no exercise of reason; their intellectualism proper, which is foreign to the genius of their institute, begins with the fifth. Taking, then, the great tradition of St.

Antony, St. Pachomius, and resume for college admissions St. Basil in the East, and writing to communicate 2 paragraphs 3rd edition then tracing it into the West by the hands of St. Athanasius, St. Martin, and their contemporaries, we shall find no historical facts but what admit of a fair explanation, consistent with the views which we have laid down above about monastic simplicity, bearing in mind always, what holds in all matters of fact, that there never was a rule without its exceptions. Every rule has its exceptions; but, further than this, when exceptions occur, they are commonly likely to gary be great ones.

This is no paradox; illustrations of it are to be found everywhere. For instance, we may conceive a climate very fatal to children, and yet those who survive growing up to be strong men; and for a plain reason, because those alone could have passed the ordeal who had robust constitutions. Thus the writing and essays 3rd edition Romans, so jealous of their freedom, when they resolved on the appointment of a supreme ruler for an occasion, did not do the thing by halves, but made him a Dictator. In like manner, a mere trifling occurrence, or an thesis on e-governance, ordinary inward impulse, would be powerless to 2 paragraphs 3rd edition snap the bond which keeps the monk fast to his cell, his oratory, and his garden. Exceptions, indeed, may be few, because they are exceptions, but they will be great in order to essay timeline become exceptions at writing 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition, all. It must be a serious emergence, a particular inspiration, a sovereign command, which brings the monk into political life; and he will be sure to make a great figure in it, else why should he have been torn from his cloister at all? This will account for the career of St. Gregory the wall questions Seventh or of St. Dunstan, of writing to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays St.

Bernard or of Abbot Suger, as far as it was political: the work they had to do was such as none could have done but a monk with his superhuman single-mindedness and his pertinacity of purpose. Again, in the case of St. Boniface, the Apostle of Germany, and in papers that of others of the missionaries of writing 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition his age, it seems to for college admissions have been a particular inspiration which carried them abroad; and it is observable after all how soon most of them settled down into the mixed character of agriculturists and pastors in their new country, and resumed the writing 2 paragraphs and essays tranquil life to papers which they had originally devoted themselves. As to the early Greek Fathers, some of those whom we have instanced above are only prim facie exceptions, as Chrysostom, who, though he lived with the monks most austerely for as many as six years, can hardly be said to have taken on himself the responsibilities of their condition, or to have simply abandoned the world. Others of writing and essays them, as Basil, were scholars, philosophers, men of the world, before they were monks, and could not put off their cultivation of mind or their learning with their secular dress; and these would be the very men, in an age when such talents were scarce, who would be taken out of their retirement by superior authority, and who therefore cannot fairly be quoted as ordinary specimens of the monastic life.

Exceptio probat regulam : let us see what two Doctors of the Church, one Greek, one Latin, both rulers, both monks, say concerning the state, which they at one time enjoyed, and afterwards lost. You tell me, says St. Basil, writing to objective admissions a friend from his solitude, that it was little for me to describe the place of my retirement, unless I mentioned also my habits and to communicate 2 paragraphs 3rd edition my mode of berlin wall life; yet really I am ashamed to tell you how I pass night and writing to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition day in this lonely nook. I am like one who is angry with the size of his vessel, as tossing overmuch, and leaves it for the boat, and is seasick and miserable still. However, what I propose to do is as follows, with the hope of tracing His steps who has said, 'If any one will come after Me, let him deny himself.' We must strive after a quiet mind. As well might the eye ascertain an resume, object which is before it, while it roves up and down without looking steadily at it, as a mind, distracted with a thousand worldly cares, be able clearly to apprehend the truth. One who is not yoked in matrimony is harassed by rebellious impulses and hopeless attachments; he who is married is involved in his own tumult of cares: is he without children? he covets them; has he children? he has anxieties about 2 paragraphs, their education. Then there is solicitude about college essay intros, his wife, care of his house, oversight of his servants, misfortunes in trade, differences with his neighbours, lawsuits, the merchant's risks, the farmer's toil. Each day, as it comes, darkens the soul in its own way; and night after night takes up the day's anxieties, and 2 paragraphs 3rd edition cheats us with corresponding dreams.

Now, the only way of escaping all this is separation from the whole world, so as to live without city, home, goods, society, possessions, means of life, business, engagements, secular learning, that the heart may be prepared as wax for the impress of divine teaching. Solitude is of the greatest use for this purpose, as it stills our passions, and social research enables reason to extirpate them. Let then a place be found such as mine, separate from intercourse with men, that the tenor of our exercises be not interrupted from without. Pious exercises nourish the soul with divine thoughts. Soothing hymns compose the mind to a cheerful and calm state. Quiet, then, as I have said, is the first step in writing 3rd edition our sanctification; the gary soto essay tongue purified from the gossip of the world, the eyes unexcited by fair colour or comely shape, the to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays ear secured from the relaxation of voluptuous songs, and that especial mischief, light jesting. Thus the mind, rescued from narrative dissipation from without, and sensible allurements, falls back upon itself, and thence ascends to the contemplation of God. [Note 9] It is quite clear that at least St. Basil took the same view of the monastic state as I have done. So much for the East in the fourth century; now for the West in the seventh. Writing 2 Paragraphs And Essays 3rd Edition! One day, says St. Gregory, after he had been constrained, against essay his own wish, to and essays leave his cloister for the government of the Universal Church, one day, when I was oppressed with the excessive trouble of secular affairs, I sought a retired place, friendly to grief, where whatever displeased me in my occupations might show itself, and all that was wont to thesis on e-governance inflict pain might be seen at one view.

While he was in this retreat, his most dear son, Peter, with whom, ever since the latter was a youth, he had been intimate, surprised him, and he opened his grief to him. My sad mind, he said, labouring under the soreness of its engagements, remembers how it went with me formerly in this monastery, how all perishable things were beneath it, how it rose above all that was transitory, and, though still in the flesh, went out in contemplation beyond that prison, so that it even loved death, which is commonly thought a punishment, as the gate of life and the reward of labour. But now, in consequence of the pastoral charge, it undergoes the and essays busy work of secular men, and for that fair beauty of its quiet, is objective for college admissions dishonoured with the dust of the earth. And often dissipating itself in outward things, to serve the many, even when it seeks what is inward, it comes home indeed, but is no longer what it used to be. [Note 10] Here is the very same view of the monastic state at Rome which St. Basil had in Pontus, viz., retirement and repose. There have been great Religious Orders since, whose atmosphere has been conflict, and who have thriven in smiting or in being smitten.

It has been their high calling; it has been their peculiar meritorious service; but, as for the Benedictine, the very air he breathes is peace. I have now said enough both to explain and to writing 2 paragraphs 3rd edition vindicate the biographer of St. Maurus, when he says that the object, and life, and reward of the ancient monachism was summa quies,#8212;the absence of all excitement, sensible and intellectual, and the vision of Eternity. And therefore have I called the monastic state the most poetical of religious disciplines. It was a return to that primitive age of the world, of which poets have so often sung, the simple life of Arcadia or the reign of Saturn, when fraud and violence were unknown. It was a bringing back of those real, not fabulous, scenes of thesis innocence and miracle, when Adam delved, or Abel kept sheep, or Noe planted the vine, and Angels visited them. Writing And Essays 3rd Edition! It was a fulfilment in the letter, of the the jacket gary glowing imagery of prophets, about the to communicate evangelical period. Nature for art, the resume objective wide earth and the majestic heavens for the crowded city, the writing to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition subdued and docile beasts of the field for the wild passions and rivalries of social life, tranquillity for ambition and care, divine meditation for the exploits of the intellect, the essay questions Creator for the creature, such was the normal condition of the monk. He had tried the world, and found its hollowness; or he had eluded its fellowship, before it had solicited him;#8212;and so St.

Antony fled to the desert, and St. Writing To Communicate And Essays! Hilarion sought the sea shore, and St. The Jacket Gary Essay! Basil ascended the mountain ravine, and St. Benedict took refuge in writing to communicate 2 paragraphs his cave, and St. Giles buried himself in the forest, and St. Martin chose the broad river, in order that the world might be shut out of view, and the soul might be at rest. Creative Essay Intros! And such a rest of intellect and of passion as this is full of the elements of the poetical. I have no intention of writing and essays committing myself here to a definition of poetry; I may be thought wrong in the use of the term; but, if I explain what I mean by it, no harm is done, whatever be my inaccuracy, and each reader may substitute for it some word he likes better.

Poetry, then, I conceive, whatever be its metaphysical essence, or however various may be its kinds, whether it more properly belongs to resume objective action or to suffering, nay, whether it is more at home with society or with nature, whether its spirit is seen to best advantage in Homer or in Virgil, at any rate, is always the antagonist to science . As science makes progress in any subject-matter, poetry recedes from it. The two cannot stand together; they belong respectively to two modes of viewing things, which are contradictory of each other. Reason investigates, analyzes, numbers, weighs, measures, ascertains, locates, the objects of its contemplation, and thus gains a scientific knowledge of 2 paragraphs and essays them. Science results in system, which is complex unity; poetry delights in the indefinite and various as contrasted with unity, and in objective admissions the simple as contrasted with system. The aim of science is to get a hold of things, to 2 paragraphs grasp them, to handle them, to comprehend them; that is (to use the the jacket gary soto essay familiar term), to writing 3rd edition master them, or to be superior to the jacket gary them. To Communicate 3rd Edition! Its success lies in being able to draw a line round them, and to intros tell where each of them is to be found within that circumference, and how each lies relatively to all the rest. Writing To Communicate 3rd Edition! Its mission is to destroy ignorance, doubt, surmise, suspense, illusions, fears, deceits, according to resume for college the Felix qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas of the Poet, whose whole passage, by the way, may be taken as drawing out the contrast between the and essays poetical and the scientific [Note 11]. For College Admissions! But as to the poetical, very different is the frame of mind which is necessary for its perception. It demands, as its primary condition, that we should not put ourselves above the objects in writing and essays which it resides, but at their feet; that we should feel them to be above and creative college beyond us, that we should look up to them, and that, instead of fancying that we can comprehend them, we should take for granted that we are surrounded and comprehended by to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays, them ourselves. It implies that we understand them to resume objective admissions be vast, immeasurable, impenetrable, inscrutable, mysterious; so that at best we are only 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition forming conjectures about them, not conclusions, for the phenomena which they present admit of many explanations, and we cannot know the true one. Poetry does not address the reason, but the the jacket imagination and affections; it leads to admiration, enthusiasm, devotion, love.

The vague, the uncertain, the irregular, the sudden, are among its attributes or sources. Hence it is that a child's mind is so full of poetry, because he knows so little; and an old man of the world so devoid of poetry, because his experience of writing 3rd edition facts is so wide. Hence it is that nature is commonly more poetical than art, in spite of Lord Byron, because it is admissions less comprehensible and less patient of definitions; history more poetical than philosophy; the savage than the citizen; the knight-errant than the brigadier-general; the winding bridle-path than the straight railroad; the sailing vessel than the steamer; the ruin than the writing to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays spruce suburban box; the Turkish robe or Spanish doublet than the resume for college French dress coat. I have now said far more than enough to 2 paragraphs 3rd edition make it clear what I mean by on e-governance, that element in the old monastic life, to which I have given the name of the Poetical. Now, in many ways the family of to communicate St. Berlin Questions! Benedict answers to this description, as we shall see if we look into its history. Its spirit indeed is writing to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays ever one, but not its outward circumstances. It is not an Order proceeding from one mind at a particular date, and appearing all at once in its full perfection, and in its extreme development, and in form one and the same everywhere and from first to last, as is the case with other great religious institutions; but it is an wall essay questions, organization, diverse, complex, and irregular, and variously ramified, rich rather than symmetrical, with many origins and centres and new beginnings and the action of writing to communicate 2 paragraphs 3rd edition local influences, like some great natural growth; with tokens, on the face of essay it, of its being a divine work, not the mere creation of human genius. Instead of progressing on plan and system and from the will of a superior, it has shot forth and run out as if spontaneously, and has shaped itself according to events, from an irrepressible fulness of life within, and writing 2 paragraphs from the narrative essay timeline energetic self-action of its parts, like those symbolical creatures in and essays 3rd edition the prophet's vision, which went every one of them straight forward, whither the impulse of the spirit was to go.

It has been poured out over the earth, rather than been sent, with a silent mysterious operation, while men slept, and through the romantic adventures of individuals, which are well nigh without record; and thus it has come down to thesis on e-governance us, not risen up among us, and is found rather than established. Its separate and scattered monasteries occupy the land, each in its place, with a majesty parallel, but superior, to that of old aristocratic houses. Their known antiquity, their unknown origin, their long eventful history, their connection with Saints and Doctors when on earth, the legends which hang about them, their rival ancestral honours, their extended sway perhaps over writing to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays, other religious houses, their hold upon the associations of the neighbourhood, their traditional friendships and compacts with other great landlords, the benefits they have conferred, the sanctity which they breathe,#8212;these and the like attributes make them objects, at once of objective for college admissions awe and of affection. Such is the great Abbey of Bobbio, in the Apennines, where St. Columban came to die, having issued with his twelve monks from his convent in 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition Benchor, county Down, and having spent his life in preaching godliness and planting monasteries in creative essay intros half-heathen France and Burgundy. Such St. Writing To Communicate And Essays 3rd Edition! Gall's, on the lake of Constance, so called from berlin wall another Irishman, one of St. Columban's companions, who remained in writing to communicate 2 paragraphs 3rd edition Switzerland, when his master went on into Italy.

Such the Abbey of Fulda, where lies St. Boniface, who, burning with zeal for the conversion of the Germans, attempted them a first time and failed, and then a second time and research succeeded, and at length crowned the 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition missionary labours of forty-five years with martyrdom. Such Monte Cassino, the metropolis of the Benedictine name, where the resume for college admissions Saint broke the idol, and cut down the grove, of Apollo. Ancient houses such as these subdue the mind by the mingled grandeur and sweetness of writing to communicate and essays their presence. They stand in history with an accumulated interest upon them, which belongs to no other monuments of the past. Whatever there is of venerable authority in other foundations, in Bishops' sees, in Cathedrals, in Colleges, respectively, is social found in combination in them. Writing To Communicate And Essays! Each gate and cloister has had its own story, and time has engraven upon their walls the soto chronicle of its revolutions. And, even when at length rudely destroyed, or crumbled into dust, they live in history and antiquarian works, in the pictures and relics which remain of them, and in the traditions of their place. In the early part of last century the and essays Maurist Fathers, with a view of collecting materials for the celebrated works which they had then on hand, sent two of their number on a tour through France and the adjacent provinces.

Among other districts the travellers passed through the forest of Ardennes, which has been made classical by the prose of Csar, and the poetry of Shakespeare. There they found the wall questions great Benedictine Convent of St. Hubert [Note 12]; and, if I dwell awhile upon the illustration which it affords of what I have been saying, it is not as if twenty other religious houses which they visited would not serve my purpose quite as well, but because it has come first to 3rd edition my hand in resume for college turning over the pages of their volume. 2 Paragraphs And Essays 3rd Edition! At that time the venerable abbey in question had upon it the weight of the jacket soto essay a thousand years, and was eminent above others in the country in wealth, in privileges, in name, and, not the least recommendation, in the sanctity of its members. The lands on which it was situated were its freehold, and their range included sixteen villages. The old chronicle informs us that, about the middle of the seventh century, St. Sigibert, the Merovingian, pitched upon Ardennes and its neighbourhood for the establishment of as many as twelve monasteries, with the hope of thereby obtaining from heaven an writing 2 paragraphs 3rd edition, heir to his crown. Dying prematurely, he but partially fulfilled his pious intention, which was taken up by Pepin, sixty years afterwards, at the instance of creative college intros his chaplain, St. Beregise; so far, at least, as to make a commencement of the abbey of which we are speaking.

Beregise had been a monk of the Benedictine Abbey of St. Tron, and he chose for the site of the new foundation a spot in 2 paragraphs the midst of the forest, marked by the ruins of a temple dedicated to the pagan Diana, the objective for college goddess of the chase. The holy man exorcised the place with the sign of the Cross; and, becoming abbot of the new house, filled it either with monks, or, as seems less likely, with secular canons. From that time to the summer day, when the two Maurists visited it, the sacred establishment, with various fortunes, had been in possession of the land. On entering its precincts, they found it at once full and empty: empty of the monks, who were in the fields gathering in writing 2 paragraphs 3rd edition the harvest; full of pilgrims, who were wont to thesis come day after day, in never-failing succession, to visit the tomb of St. Hubert. What a series of events has to be recorded to make this simple account intelligible! and how poetical is the picture which it sets before us, as well as those events themselves, which it presupposes, when they come to be detailed! Were it not that I should be swelling a passing illustration into a history, I might go on to tell how strict the observance of the monks had been for the last hundred years before the travellers arrived there, since Abbot Nicholas de Fanson had effected a reform on the pattern of the French Congregation of St.

Vanne. I might relate how, when a simple monk in the Abbey of writing 2 paragraphs and essays St. Hubert, Nicholas had wished to change it for a stricter community, and how he got leave to go off to the Congregation just mentioned, and how then his old Abbot died suddenly, and how he himself to his surprise was elected in for college admissions his place. And I might tell how, when his mitre was on his head, he set about reforming the house which he had been on writing 2 paragraphs, the point of quitting, and how he introduced for that purpose two monks of thesis St. Vanne; and to communicate 3rd edition how the Bishop of Liege, in whose diocese he was, set himself against his holy design, and how some of the old monks attempted to poison him; and how, though he carried it into effect, still he was not allowed to creative college essay aggregate his Abbey to the Congregation whose reform he had adopted; but how his good example encouraged the to communicate and essays neighbouring abbeys to social security commence a reform in themselves, which issued in an ecclesiastical union of the 3rd edition Flemish Houses. All this, however, would not have been more than one passage, of course, in the adventures which had befallen the abbey and its abbots in the course of its history. It had had many seasons of creative college essay decay before the time of Nicholas de Fanson, and many restorations, and from different quarters. None of them was so famous or important as the reform effected in writing to communicate and essays 3rd edition the year 817, about thesis, a century after its original foundation, when the secular canons, who anyhow had got in, were put out, and the monks put in their place, at the instance of the then Bishop of Liege, who had a better spirit than his successor in the time of Nicholas. The new inmates were joined by some persons of noble birth from the Cathedral, and by their suggestion and influence the to communicate 2 paragraphs bold measure was taken of attempting to gain from Liege the body of the great St. Hubert, the Apostle of Ardennes.

But to return to the relics of the Saint; the sacred body was taken by water up the Maes. The coffin was of marble, and admissions perhaps could have been taken no other way; but another reason, besides its weight, lay in the indignation of the citizens of Liege, who might have interfered with a land journey, and in fact did make several attempts, in the following years, to regain the body. In consequence, the writing to communicate 2 paragraphs 3rd edition good monks of Ardennes hid it within the essay walls of their monastery, confiding the secret of its whereabouts to only two of their community at a time; and they showed in to communicate and essays 3rd edition the sacristy to the devout, instead, the Saint's ivory cross and his stole, the sole of his shoe and his comb, and Diana, Marchioness of Autrech, gave a golden box to hold the stole. Narrative Timeline! This, however, was in after times; for they were very loth at first to let strangers within their cloisters at all; and in 838, when a long spell of rain was destroying the crops, and the people of the neighbourhood came in procession to writing 3rd edition the shrine to ask the essay intercession of the Saint, the cautious Abbot Sewold, availing himself of the Rule, would only admit priests, and them by threes and to communicate 3rd edition fours, with naked feet, and a few laymen with each of them. The supplicants were good men, however, and had no notion of playing any trick: they came in piety and devotion, and the rain ceased, and the country was the gainer by St. Hubert of Ardennes.

And thenceforth others, besides the monks, became interested in narrative timeline his stay in the forest. And now I have said something in explanation why the 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition courtyard was full of pilgrims when the travellers came. St. Hubert had been an object of on e-governance devotion for a particular benefit, perhaps ever since he came there, certainly as early as the eleventh century, for we then have historical notice of it. His preference of the writing 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition forest to the city, which he had shown in his life-time before his conversion, was illustrated by the particular grace or miraculous service, for which, more than for any other, he used his glorious intercession on gary, high.

He is famous for 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition, curing those who had suffered from the bite of wild animals, especially dogs of the chase, and a hospital was attached to the Abbey for their reception. The sacristan of the Church officiated in the cure; and with rites which never indeed failed, but which to some cautious persons seemed to savour of superstition. Certainly they were startling at first sight; accordingly a formal charge on that score was at one time brought against them before the Bishop of Liege, and a process followed. The Bishop, the berlin University of writing to communicate 3rd edition Louvain, and social its Faculty of Medicine, conducted the inquiry, which was given in favour of the Abbey, on the ground that what looked like a charm might be of the nature of a medical regimen. However, though the sacristan was the medium of the cure, the general care of the patients was left to externs. The hospital was served by secular priests, since the monks heard no confessions save those of their own people. This rule they observed, in order to writing and essays 3rd edition reserve themselves for the proper duties of a Benedictine,#8212;the choir, study, manual labour, and transcription of books; and, while the Maurists were ocular witnesses of their agricultural toils, they saw the diligence of their penmanship in narrative timeline its results, for the MSS. of their Library were the choicest in the country. Among them, they tell us, were copies of St. Writing To Communicate! Jerome's Bible, the Acts of the Councils, Bede's History, Gregory and Isidore, Origen and Augustine.

The Maurists report as favourably of the monastic buildings themselves as of the thesis on e-governance hospital and library. Those buildings were a chronicle of past times, and writing and essays of the changes which had taken place in berlin questions them. First there were the writing to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays poor huts of St. Berlin Wall Essay! Beregise upon the half-cleared and still marshy ground of the forest; then came the building of a sufficient house, when St. Hubert was brought there; and centuries after that, St. 3rd Edition! Thierry, the intimate friend of the college essay great Pope Hildebrand, had renewed it magnificently, at the time that he was Abbot. 2 Paragraphs! He was sadly treated in his lifetime by admissions, his monks, as Nicholas after him; but, after his death, they found out that he was a Saint, which they might have discovered before it; and they placed him in the crypt, and there he and another holy Abbot after him lay in peace, till the Calvinists broke into writing and essays, it in the sixteenth century, and burned both of them to ashes.

There were marks too of the same fanatics on the pillars of the nave of the social Church; which had been built by writing 2 paragraphs 3rd edition, Abbot John de Wahart in the twelfth century, and then again from creative essay its foundations by Abbots Nicholas de Malaise and Romaclus, the friend of Blosius, four centuries later; and writing to communicate and essays it was ornamented by Abbot Cyprian, who was called the friend of the essay poor; and writing to communicate 3rd edition doubtless the travellers admired the marble of the choir and sanctuary, and the silver candelabra of the altar given by the reigning Lord Abbot; and thesis on e-governance perhaps they heard him sing solemn Mass on the Assumption, as was usual with him on that feast, with his four secular chaplains, one to carry his Cross, another his mitre, a third his gremial, and a fourth his candle, and accompanied by the pealing organ and the many musical bells, which had been the 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition gift of Abbot Balla about a hundred years earlier. Can we imagine a more graceful union of human with divine, of the sweet with the austere, of business and of calm, of splendour and of simplicity, than is displayed in a great religious house after this pattern, when unrelaxed in its observance, and pursuing the ends for which it was endowed? The monks have been accused of choosing beautiful spots for their dwellings; as if this were a luxury in ascetics, and not rather the papers necessary alleviation of their asceticism. Even when their critics are kindest, they consider such sites as chosen by a sort of sentimental, ornamental indolence. Beaulieu river, says Mr. Warner in his topography of Hampshire, and, because he writes far less ill-naturedly than the run of authors, I quote him, Beaulieu river is stocked with plenty of fish, and boasts in particular of writing 2 paragraphs and essays good oysters and fine plaice, and wall essay questions is fringed quite to the edge of the water with the most beautiful hanging woods.

In the area enclosed are distinct traces of various fishponds, formed for the use of the convent. Writing To Communicate! Some of them continue perfect to essay the present day, and abound with fish. A curious instance occurs also of monkish luxury, even in the article of water; to secure a fine spring those monastics have spared neither trouble nor expense. About half a mile to the south-east of the Abbey is a deep wood; and at 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition, a spot almost inaccessible is a cave formed of smooth stones. It has a very contracted entrance, but spreads gradually into a little apartment, of seven feet wide, ten deep, and about five high. This covers a copious and transparent spring of water, which, issuing from the mouth of the cave, is lost in a deep dell, and is there received, as I have been informed, by a chain of small stone pipes, which formerly, when perfect, conveyed it quite to the Abbey. It must be confessed the monks in general displayed an elegant taste in the choice of their situations. Beaulieu Abbey is on e-governance a striking proof of this. Perhaps few spots in 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition the kingdom could have been pitched upon the jacket essay better calculated for monastic seclusion than this. The deep woods, with which it is almost environed, throw an air of gloom and solemnity over writing to communicate and essays 3rd edition, the scene, well suited to excite religious emotions; while the stream that glides by its side afforded to the recluse a striking emblem of human life: and at the same time that it soothed his mind by a gentle murmuring, led it to serious thought by its continual and irrevocable lesson. [Note 13 ] The monks were not so soft as all this, after all; and if Mr.

Warner had seen them, we may be sure he would have been astonished at the stern, as well as sweet simplicity which characterized them. They were not dreamy sentimentalists, to fall in love with melancholy winds and purling rills, and waterfalls and nodding groves; but their poetry was the poetry of hard work and hard fare, unselfish hearts and charitable hands. They could plough and reap, they could hedge and ditch, they could drain; they could lop, they could carpenter; they could thatch, they could make hurdles for the jacket gary essay, their huts; they could make a road, they could divert or secure the streamlet's bed, they could bridge a torrent. Mr. Warner mentions one of writing to communicate 2 paragraphs 3rd edition their luxuries,#8212;clear, wholesome water; it was an allowable one, especially as they obtained it by their own patient labour.

If their grounds are picturesque, if their views are rich, they made them so, and had, we presume, a right to enjoy the work of the jacket gary soto essay their own hands. Writing And Essays! They found a swamp, a moor, a thicket, a rock, and they made an Eden in the wilderness. They destroyed snakes; they extirpated wild cats, wolves, boars, bears; they put to flight or they converted rovers, outlaws, robbers. The gloom of the forest departed, and the sun, for the first time since the Deluge shone upon the moist ground. St. Benedict is the true man of Ross.

Who hung with woods yon mountain's sultry brow? From the dry rock who made the waters flow? Whose causeway parts the vale with shady rows? Whose seats the weary traveller repose? He feeds yon almshouse, neat, but void of state, When Age and Want sit smiling at college, the gate; Him portioned maids, apprenticed orphans blessed, The young who labour, and the old who rest. And candid writers, though not Catholics, allow it. Even English, and much more foreign historians and antiquarians, have arrived at a unanimous verdict here. 2 Paragraphs And Essays 3rd Edition! We owe the agricultural restoration of great part of Europe to the monks, says Mr. Hallam.

The monks were much the best husbandmen, and the only college intros gardeners, says Forsyth. None, says Wharton, ever improved their lands and possessions more than the monks, by building, cultivating, and other methods. The cultivation of Church lands, as Sharon Turner infers from Doomsday Book, was superior to that held by other proprietors, for there was less wood upon them, less common pasture, and more abundant meadow. Wherever they came, says Mr. Soame on writing 2 paragraphs 3rd edition, Mosheim, they converted the wilderness into a cultivated country; they pursued the breeding of cattle and agriculture, laboured with their own hands, drained morasses, and cleared away forests. By them Germany was rendered a fruitful country. M. Guizot speaks as strongly: The Benedictine monks were the agriculturists of Europe; they cleared it on a large scale, associating agriculture with preaching. [Note 14] St. Benedict's direct object indeed in setting his monks to social security papers manual labour was neither social usefulness nor poetry, but penance; still his work was both the one and the other. The above-cited authors enlarge upon its use, and I in to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition what I am writing may be allowed to creative intros dwell upon its poetry; we may contemplate both its utility to man and its service to God in the aspect of its poetry. Writing To Communicate 2 Paragraphs And Essays 3rd Edition! How romantic then, as well as useful, how lively as well as serious, is their history, with its episodes of timeline personal adventure and prowess, its pictures of squatter, hunter, farmer, civil engineer, and writing to communicate 2 paragraphs 3rd edition evangelist united in berlin wall essay the same individual, with its supernatural colouring of heroic virtue and miracle! When St.

Columban first came into Burgundy with his twelve young monks, he placed himself in a vast wilderness, and made them set about cultivating the soil. At first they all suffered from hunger, and were compelled to live on the barks of trees and wild herbs. On one occasion they were for five days in this condition. St. Gall, one of them, betook himself to a Swiss forest, fearful from the multitude of wild beasts; and then, choosing the writing 3rd edition neighbourhood of a mountain stream, he made a cross of twigs, and hung some relics on it, and laid the foundation of his celebrated abbey. Narrative Essay Timeline! St. Ronan came from writing to communicate 2 paragraphs Ireland to Cornwall, and chose a wood, full of wild beasts, for his hermitage, near the Lizard. The monks of St. Dubritius, the founder of the Welsh Schools, also sought the woods, and narrative essay timeline there they worked hard at manufactures, agriculture, and road making. St.

Sequanus placed himself where the to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays trees almost touched the clouds. He and his companions, when they first explored it, asked themselves how they could penetrate into it, when they saw a winding footpath, so narrow and full of briars that it was with difficulty that one foot followed another. With much labour and wall questions with torn clothes they succeeded in gaining its depths, and stooping their heads into the darkness at their feet, they perceived a cavern, shrouded by the thick interlacing branches of the trees, and blocked up with stones and writing 2 paragraphs 3rd edition underwood. This, says the monastic account, was the cavern of robbers, and the resort of evil spirits. Sequanus fell on resume objective, his knees, prayed, made the sign of the Cross over the abyss, and built his cell there. Such was the first foundation of the celebrated abbey called after him in Burgundy [Note 15]. Sturm, the Bavarian convert of St. Boniface, was seized with a desire, as his master before him in his English monastery, of founding a religious house in the wilds of Pagan Germany; and setting out with two companions, he wandered for two days through the Buchonian forest, and saw nothing but earth, sky, and large trees.

On the third day he stopped and chose a spot, which on trial did not answer. Then, mounting an ass, he set out by himself, cutting down branches of a night to secure himself from the wild beasts, till at length he came to writing and essays the place (described by St. Boniface as locum silvaticum in eremo, vastissim solitudinis), in which afterwards arose the abbey and schools of Fulda. Wunibald was suspicious of the good wine of the Rhine where he was, and, determining to leave it, he bought the land where Heidensheim afterwards stood, then a wilderness of trees and underwood, covering a deep valley and the sides of lofty mountains. There he proceeded, axe in hand, to clear the ground for his religious house, while the savage natives looked on sullenly, jealous for their hunting-grounds and sacred trees. Objective For College Admissions! Willibald, his brother, had pursued a similar work on system; he had penetrated his forest in every direction and scattered monasteries over it. The Irish Alto pitched himself in a wood, half way between Munich and Vienna.

Pirminius chose an island, notorious for its snakes, and there he planted his hermitage and chapel, which at length became the rich and noble abbey and school of Augia Major or Richenau [Note 16]. The more celebrated School of Bec had a similar beginning at a later date, when Herluin, an old soldier, devoted his house and farm to an ecclesiastical purpose, and governed, as abbot, the monastery which he had founded. You might see him, says the writing 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition writer of wall questions his life, when office was over in to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition church, going out to his fields, at the head of resume objective his monks, with his bag of seed about writing to communicate and essays 3rd edition, his neck, and his rake or hoe in his hand. There he remained with them hard at work till the day was closing. Some were employed in clearing the thesis land of brambles and weeds; others spread manure; others were weeding or sowing; no one ate his bread in idleness. Then when the hour came for saying office in church, they all assembled together punctually. Their ordinary food was rye bread and vegetables with salt and water; and the water muddy, for the well was two miles off. [Note 17] Lanfranc, then a secular, was so edified by to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays, the simple Abbot, fresh from the field, setting about his baking with dirty hands, that he forthwith became one of the party [Note 18]; and, being unfitted for labour, opened in the house a school of logic, thereby to creative college essay make money for the community. Such was the writing 2 paragraphs 3rd edition cradle of the scholastic theology; the last years of the patristic, which were nearly contemporaneous, exhibit a similar scene,#8212;St. Bernard founding his abbey of Clairvaux in a place called the Valley of gary soto Wormwood, in the heart of a savage forest, the to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays haunt of wall essay robbers, and his thirteen companions clearing a homestead, raising a few huts, and living on barley or cockle bread with boiled beech leaves for 2 paragraphs and essays, vegetables [Note 19]. Gary! How beautiful is Simeon of Durham's account of to communicate and essays Easterwine, the first abbot after Bennet of St.

Peter's at resume, Wearmouth! He was a man of noble birth, who gave himself to religion, and died young. Though he had been in the service of King Egfrid, says Simeon, when he had once left secular affairs, and lain aside his arms, and taken on him the spiritual warfare instead, he was nothing but the humble monk, just like any of writing his brethren, winnowing with them with great joy, milking the ewes and cows, and in the bakehouse, the garden, the kitchen, and all house duties, cheerful and obedient. Narrative Essay! And, when he received the name of Abbot, still he was in spirit just what he was before to every one, gentle, affable, and kind; or, if any fault had been committed, correcting it indeed by the Rule, but still so winning the offender by his unaffected earnest manner, that he had no wish ever to repeat the offence, or to dim the brightness of that most clear countenance with the cloud of his transgression. And often going here and there on business of the monastery, when he found his brothers at work, he would at once take part in it, guiding the plough, or shaping the iron, or taking the winnowing fan, or the like. He was young and strong, with a sweet voice, a cheerful temper, a liberal heart and a handsome countenance.

He partook of the same food as his brethren, and under the same roof. He slept in the common dormitory, as before he was abbot, and writing to communicate and essays 3rd edition he continued to on e-governance do so for the first two days of his illness, when death had now seized him, as he knew full well. But for the last five days he betook himself to a more retired dwelling; and then, coming out into the open air and writing to communicate 3rd edition sitting down, and calling for all his brethren, after the manner of his tender nature, he gave his weeping monks the kiss of peace, and died at night while they were singing lauds. [Note 20] This gentleness and tenderness of heart seems to have been as characteristic of the monks as their simplicity; and if there are some Saints among them, who on the public stage of history do not show it, it was because they were called out of their convents for some special purpose, and, as I have said above, exceptions to a rule are commonly great exceptions. Bede goes out of his way to observe of King Ethelbert, on St. Austin's converting him, that he had learned from the teachers and authors of college essay intros his salvation that men were to be drawn heaven-wards, and not forced. Aldhelm, when a council had been held about the perverse opinions of the British Christians, seconding the principle which the Fathers of it laid down, that schismatics were to be convinced, not compelled, wrote a book upon to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition their error and essay questions converted many of them.

Wolstan, when the civil power failed in its attempts to stop the slave trade of the Bristol people, succeeded by his persevering preaching. In the confessional he was so gentle, that penitents came to him from all parts of writing 2 paragraphs England [Note 21]. Narrative Essay! This has been the writing 2 paragraphs 3rd edition spirit of the resume objective admissions monks from the first; the student of to communicate 2 paragraphs ecclesiastical history may recollect a certain passage in St. Martin's history, when his desire to shield the Spanish heretics from capital punishment brought him into great difficulties [Note 22] with the usurper Maximus. Works of penance indeed and works of mercy have gone hand in hand in the history of the monks; from the Solitaries in Egypt down to the Trappists of this day, it is one of the berlin wall questions points in 2 paragraphs 3rd edition which the unity of the for college monastic idea shows itself.

They have ever toiled for others, while they toiled for themselves; nor for posterity only, but for their poor neighbours, and for travellers who came to them. St. Augustine tells us that the monks of writing Egypt and of the East made so much by manual labour as to be able to freight vessels with provisions for impoverished districts. Theodoret speaks of a certain five thousand of them, who by their labour supported, besides themselves, innumerable poor and strangers. Sozomen speaks of the berlin questions monk Zeno, who, though a hundred years old, and the bishop of a rich Church, worked for the poor as well as for himself. Corbinian in writing to communicate and essays 3rd edition a subsequent century surrounded his German Church with fruit trees and vines, and sustained the poor with the produce.

The monks of St. Gall, already mentioned, gardened, planted, fished, and thus secured the means of relieving the poor and essay entertaining strangers. Monasteries, says Neander, were seats for the promotion of various trades, arts, and sciences. The gains accruing from to communicate and essays their combined labour were employed for the relief of the distressed. In great famines, thousands were rescued from starvation. [Note 23] In a scarcity at the beginning of the essay timeline twelfth century, a monastery in the neighbourhood of Cologne distributed in one day fifteen hundred alms, consisting of bread, meat, and vegetables. To Communicate And Essays 3rd Edition! About the same time St.

Bernard founded his monastery of Citeaux, which, though situated in the waste district described above, was able at length to sustain two thousand poor for berlin wall essay questions, months, besides extraordinary alms bestowed on to communicate and essays, others. The monks offered their simple hospitality, uninviting as it might be, to high as well as low; and to those who scorned their fare, they at least could offer a refuge in misfortune or danger, or after casualties. Duke William, ancestor of the Conqueror, was hunting in the woods about timeline, Jumieges, when he fell in writing and essays 3rd edition with a rude hermitage [Note 24]. Berlin! Two monks had made their way through the to communicate 3rd edition forest, and thesis on e-governance with immense labour had rooted up some trees, levelled the ground, raised some crops, and 3rd edition put together their hut. William heard their story, not perhaps in the best humour, and flung aside in contempt the barley bread and water which they offered him. Presently he was brought back wounded and insensible: he had got the worst in an encounter with a boar. On coming to himself, he accepted the hospitality which he had refused at first, and built for them a monastery.

Doubtless he had looked on them as trespassers or squatters on his domain, though with a religious character and object. The Norman princes were as good friends to the wild beasts as the narrative monks were enemies: a charter still exists of the Conqueror, granted to the abbey of Caen [Note 25], in which he stipulates that its inmates should not turn the woods into tillage, and reserves the 3rd edition game for himself. Contrast with this savage retreat and its rude hospitality the the jacket gary different, though equally Benedictine picture of the sacred grove of Subiaco, and the spiritual entertainment which it ministers to all comers, as given in the late pilgrimage of Bishop Ullathorne: The trees, he says, which form the venerable grove, are very old, but their old age is vigorous and healthy. Their great grey roots expose themselves to view with all manner of curling lines and wrinkles on them, and the rough stems bend and twine about to communicate 2 paragraphs, with the vigour and ease of essay gigantic pythons . Of how many holy solitaries have these trees witnessed the meditations! And then they have seen beneath their quiet boughs the irruption of mailed men, tormented by the thirst of writing to communicate plunder and the passion of blood, which even a sanctuary held so sacred could not stay. And then they have witnessed, for thesis on e-governance, twelve centuries and more, the greatest of the Popes, the Gregories, the Leos, the Innocents, and the Piuses, coming one after another to refresh themselves from their labours in a solitude which is steeped with the inspirations and redolent with the writing to communicate 2 paragraphs 3rd edition holiness of St. Benedict. Resume! [Note 26] What congenial subjects for his verse would the sweetest of all poets have found in scenes and histories such as the foregoing, he who in his Georgics has shown such love of a country life and country occupations, and of the themes and trains of thought which rise out of the country!

Would that Christianity had a Virgil to describe the to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays old monks at their rural labours, as it has had a Sacchi or a Domenichino to paint them! How would he have been able to set forth the adventures and the hardships of the missionary husbandmen, who sang of the Scythian winter, and thesis on e-governance the murrain of the writing 2 paragraphs 3rd edition cattle, the stag of Sylvia, and the forest home of Evander! How could he have pourtrayed St. Paulinus or St. Serenus in his garden, who could draw so beautiful a picture of the old Corycian, raising amid the thicket his scanty pot-herbs upon security papers the nook of land, which was not good for to communicate 3rd edition, tillage, nor for pasture, nor for vines! How could he have brought out the poetry of those simple labourers, who has told us of that old man's flowers and fruits, and of the satisfaction, as a king's, which he felt in those innocent riches! He who had so huge a dislike of cities, and great houses, and high society, and sumptuous banquets, and narrative essay the canvass for office, and the hard law, and writing to communicate the noisy lawyer, and the statesman's harangue,#8212;he who thought the country proprietor as even too blessed, did he but know his blessedness, and who loved the valley, winding stream, and wood, and the hidden life which they offer, and the deep lessons which they whisper,#8212;how could he have illustrated that wonderful union, of prayer, penance, toil, and literary work, the true otium cum dignitate, a fruitful leisure and a meek-hearted dignity, which is exemplified in the Benedictine!

That ethereal fire which enabled the Prince of Latin poets to take up the Sibyl's strain, and to adumbrate the glories of a supernatural future,#8212;that serene philosophy, which has strewn his poems with sentiments which come home to the heart,#8212;that intimate sympathy with the sorrows of human kind and creative college with the 2 paragraphs 3rd edition action and passion of human nature,#8212;how well would they have served to illustrate the for college patriarchal history and office of the monks in the broad German countries, or the deeds, the words, and the visions of a St. Odilo or a St. Aelred! What a poet deliberately chooses for the subject of his poems must be in its own nature poetical. A poet indeed is to communicate 3rd edition but a man after all, and in his proper person may prefer solid beef and pudding to all the creations of his own fine frenzy, which, in his character of poet, are his meat and drink. But no poet will ever commit his poetical reputation to the treatment of subjects which do not admit of narrative poetry.

When, then, Virgil chooses the writing country and rejects the town, he shows us that a certain aspect of the thesis on e-governance town is uncongenial with poetry, and that a certain aspect of the country is congenial. Repose, intellectual and moral, is that quality of country life which he selects for his praises; and effort, and bustle, and 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition excitement is that quality of a town life which he abhors. Herein then, according to Virgil, lies the poetry of soto St. Benedict, in the secura quies et nescia fallere vita, in writing 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition the absence of anxiety and fretfulness, of berlin wall schemes and scheming, of hopes and to communicate and essays fears, of doubts and disappointments. Such a life,#8212;living for the day without solicitude for the morrow, without plans or objects, even holy ones, here below; working, not (so to say) by the piece, but as hired by the hour; sowing the gary soto ground with the certainty, according to writing 3rd edition the promise, of reaping; reading or writing this present week without the consequent necessity of reading or writing during the next; dwelling among one's own people without distant ties; taking each new day as a whole in itself, an addition, not a complement, to the past; and doing works which cannot be cut short, for wall questions, they are complete in every portion of them,#8212;such a life may be called emphatically Virgilian. They, on the contrary, whose duty lies in what may be called undertakings , in science and system, in 3rd edition sustained efforts of the intellect or elaborate processes of action,#8212;apologists, controversialists, disputants in the schools, professors in the chair, teachers in the pulpit, rulers in the Church,#8212;have a noble and meritorious mission, but not so poetical a one.

When the bodily frame receives an injury, or is seized with some sudden malady, nature may be expected to set right the evil, if left to itself, but she requires time; science comes in to shorten the process, and is violent that it may be certain. This may be taken to illustrate St. Benedict's mode of counteracting the miseries of life. He found the world, physical and social, in ruins, and his mission was to restore it in the way, not of science, but of essay nature, not as if setting about to writing to communicate 3rd edition do it, not professing to do it by soto essay, any set time or by writing, any rare specific or by any series of strokes, but so quietly, patiently, gradually, that often, till the work was done, it was not known to be doing. It was a restoration, rather than a visitation, correction, or conversion. The new world which he helped to creative college create was a growth rather than a structure. Silent men were observed about the country, or discovered in the forest, digging, clearing, and building; and other silent men, not seen, were sitting in the cold cloister, tiring their eyes, and keeping their attention on writing 2 paragraphs 3rd edition, the stretch, while they painfully deciphered and copied and re-copied the manuscripts which they had saved.

There was no one that contended, or cried out, or drew attention to what was going on; but by degrees the woody swamp became a hermitage, a religious house, a farm, an berlin essay, abbey, a village, a seminary, a school of learning, and a city. Roads and bridges connected it with other abbeys and cities, which had similarly grown up; and what the to communicate haughty Alaric or fierce Attila had broken to pieces, these patient meditative men had brought together and made to live again. Resume Objective! And then, when they had in the course of many years gained their peaceful victories, perhaps some new invader came, and to communicate and essays with fire and sword undid their slow and persevering toil in an hour. The Hun succeeded to the Goth, the social security Lombard to the Hun, the Tartar to the Lombard; the Saxon was reclaimed only that the Dane might take his place. Down in the dust lay the labour and civilization of centuries,#8212;Churches, Colleges, Cloisters, Libraries,#8212;and nothing was left to them but to begin all over again; but this they did without grudging, so promptly, cheerfully, and tranquilly, as if it were by some law of nature that the writing and essays restoration came, and they were like the flowers and shrubs and fruit trees which they reared, and which, when ill-treated, do not take vengeance, or remember evil, but give forth fresh branches, leaves, or blossoms, perhaps in greater profusion, and with richer quality, for the very reason that the old were rudely broken off. If one holy place was desecrated, the monks pitched upon another, and by this time there were rich or powerful men who remembered and loved the past enough to wish to have it restored in the future. Thus was it in berlin wall questions the case of the monastery of Ramsey after the ravages of the Danes. A wealthy Earl, whose heart was touched, consulted his Bishop how he could best promote the divine glory: the Bishop answered that they only were free, serene, and unsolicitous, who renounced the and essays world, and that their renunciation brought a blessing on their country. By their merit, he said, the the jacket gary essay anger of the Supreme Judge is abated; a healthier atmosphere is granted; corn springs up more abundantly; famine and to communicate 3rd edition pestilence withdraw; the state is thesis on e-governance better governed; prisons are opened; the fetters unbound; the shipwrecked relieved. He proceeded to advise him, as the 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition best of courses, to give ground for narrative, a monastery, and to build and writing and essays 3rd edition endow it.

Earl Alwin observed in reply, that he had inherited some waste land in narrative the midst of writing to communicate marshes, with a forest in the neighbourhood, some open spots of good turf, and others of creative college meadow; and he took the Bishop to see it. It was in fact an island in the fens, and as lonely as religious men could desire. Writing And Essays 3rd Edition! The gift was accepted, workmen were collected, the pious peasants round about gave their labour. Twelve monks were found from resume objective for college another cloister; cells and a chapel were soon raised. Materials were collected for a handsome church; stones and cement were given; a firm foundation was secured; scaffolding and to communicate 2 paragraphs machinery were lent; and in course of time a sacred edifice and two towers rose over the desolate waste, and objective renewed the writing to communicate past;#8212;a learned divine from France was invited to preside over the monastic schools [Note 27]. Here then I am led, lastly, to speak of the intros literary labours of the writing to communicate 2 paragraphs 3rd edition Benedictines, but I have not room to do more than direct attention to the peculiar character of their work, and must leave the subject of their schools for on e-governance, some future opportunity. Here, as in other respects above noticed, the unity of monachism shows itself. What the Benedictines, even in their latest literary developments, have been, in St. Maur in the seventeenth century, and at Solesme now, such were the monks in their first years. One of the chief occupations of the writing 3rd edition disciples of St.

Pachomius in essay timeline Egypt was the transcription of books. It was the sole labour of the writing 2 paragraphs 3rd edition monks of St. Martin in Gaul. The Syrian solitaries, according to St. Chrysostom, employed themselves in making copies of the Holy Scriptures. Berlin Essay! It was the occupation of the monks of St. Equitius and of Cassiodorus, and of the nunnery of St. Csarius. We read of one holy man preparing the skins for writing, of 3rd edition another selling his manuscripts in order to gain alms for the poor, and essay of an writing and essays 3rd edition, abbess writing St.

Peter's Epistles in letters of gold. St. David had shown the same reverence to St. John's Gospel. Abbot Plato filled his own and berlin essay other monasteries with his beautifully written volumes [Note 28]. During the to communicate short rule of Abbot Desiderius at Monte Cassino, his monks wrote out St.

Austin's fifty Homilies, his Letters, his Comment upon the Sermon on the Mount, upon resume admissions St. Paul and upon Genesis; parts of St. Jerome and St. Ambrose, part of St. Bede, St. Leo's Sermons, the Orations of and essays 3rd edition St. Gregory Nazianzen; the Acts of the Apostles, the Epistles and the Apocalypse; various histories, including that of St. Gregory of Tours, and of Josephus on the Jewish War, Justinian's Institutes, and many ascetic and other works; of the Classics, Cicero de Natur Deorum, Terence, Ovid's Fasti, Horace, and Virgil.

Maurus Lapi, a Camaldolese, in thesis the fifteenth century, copied a thousand volumes in writing to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays less than fifty years. Jerome, a monk in an Austrian monastery, wrote so great a number of books that, it is said, a wagon with six horses would scarcely suffice to draw them. Gary! Othlon, in the eleventh century, when a boy, wrote so diligently that he nearly lost his sight. That was in to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition France; he then went to resume objective Ratisbon, where he wrote nineteen missals, three books of the Gospel, two books of Epistle and Gospel, and many others. Many he gave to his friends, but the to communicate 3rd edition list is too long to finish. The Abbot Odo of Tournay used to exult, according to his successor, in the number of creative college intros writers which the Lord had given him. Had you gone into his cloister, you might have seen a dozen young men sitting in perfect silence, writing at to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition, tables constructed for the purpose. All Jerome's Commentaries on the Prophets, all the works of St. Gregory, all that he could find of Austin, Ambrose, Isidore, Bede, and the Lord Anselm, Abbot of college essay Bec, and afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury, he caused to to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition be diligently transcribed. [Note 29]

These tranquil labourers found a further field in the illumination and social papers binding of the transcribed volumes, as they had previously been occupied in the practice necessary for the then important art of writing 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition calligraphy. It was not running hand that the monks had to learn; for it was no ephemeral expression of their own thoughts which their writing was to berlin wall essay questions convey, but the formal transcript, for the benefit of posterity, of the words of writing to communicate and essays 3rd edition inspired teachers and Doctors of the Church. They were performing what has been since the printer's work; and it is said that from the English monks is derived the small letter of the modern Roman type. In France the abbeys of Fontenelle, Rheims, and Corbie were especially famed for beauty of penmanship in the age of Charlemagne [Note 30], when literature was in social security papers its most depressed state. Books intended for presents, such as that which the mother of Leo the Ninth presented to St. Hubert, and, much more, if intended for sacred uses, were enriched with gold and silver plates and 2 paragraphs 3rd edition precious stones. Here was a commencement of the cultivation of the fine arts in security papers those turbulent times,#8212;a quiet, unexciting occupation, which went on inside the monasteries, whatever rivalries or heresies agitated Christendom outside of them, and which, though involving, of course, an to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays, improvement in the workmanship as time went on, yet in the case of creative college essay intros every successive specimen, whatever exact degree of skill or taste each exhibited, had its end in itself, as though there had been no other specimen before or after. Writing 3rd Edition! Brower, in his work on the Antiquities of Fulda, gives us a lively picture of the various tranquil occupations which were going on at one time within the monastic walls. As industrious bees, he says, their work never flagging, did these monks follow out their calling. Some of them were engaged in narrative timeline describing, here and there upon writing to communicate and essays 3rd edition the parchment, the wall special letters and characters which were to be filled in; others were wrapping or binding the manuscripts in handsome covers; others were marking out in red the remarkable sentences or the heads of the chapters. Some were writing fairly what had been thrown together at random, or had been left out in the dictation, and were putting every part in fair order.

And not a few of them excelled in painting in all manner of colours, and in 2 paragraphs drawing figures. [Note 31] He goes on to refer to an old manuscript there, which speaks of the objective for college monks as decorating their church, and of their carpenters' work, sculpture, engraving, and 3rd edition brass work. I have mentioned St. Dunstan in an earlier page, as called to political duties, which were out of keeping with the traditionary spirit of his Order; here, however, he shows himself in social research papers the simple character of a Benedictine. He had a taste for the arts generally, especially music. He painted and embroidered; his skill in smith's work is recorded in the well-known legend of his combat with the evil one. And, as the monks of Hilarion joined gardening with psalmody, and Bernard and his Cistercians joined field work with meditation, so did St. Dunstan use music and painting as directly expressive or suggestive of devotion.

He excelled in writing, painting, moulding in wax, carving in wood and 2 paragraphs and essays bone, and in work in gold, silver, iron, and brass, says the writer of his life in Surius. And he used his skill in musical instruments to charm away from himself and others their secular annoyances, and to creative college intros rouse them to the thought of heavenly harmony, both by the sweet words with which he accompanied his airs, and by the concord of those airs themselves. [Note 32] And then he goes on to mention how on one occasion, when he had hung his harp against the wall, and the wind brought out from its strings a wild melody, he recognized in it one of the writing and essays 3rd edition antiphons in the Commune Martyrum, Gaudete in C#339;lis, etc., and used it for his own humiliation. As might be expected, the college essay intros monasteries of the South of Europe would not be behind the to communicate North in accomplishments of this kind. Those of St. Gall, Monte Cassino, and Solignac, are especially spoken of as skilled in the fine arts.

Monte Cassino excelled in thesis on e-governance illumination and in mosaic, the Camaldolese in painting, and the Olivetans in wood-inlaying [Note 33]. While manual labour, applied to these artistic purposes, ministered to writing 2 paragraphs and essays devotion, on the other hand, when applied to the transcription and multiplication of books, it was a method of instruction, and on e-governance that peculiarly Benedictine, as being of a literary, not a scientific nature. Systematic theology had but a limited place in ecclesiastical study prior to the eleventh and twelfth centuries; Scripture and the Fathers were the received means of education, and these constituted the very text on which the pens of the monks were employed. And thus they would be becoming familiar with that kind of to communicate and essays knowledge which was proper to their vocation, at the same time that they were engaged in what was unequivocally a manual labour; and, in providing for the religious necessities of posterity, they were directly serving their own edification. And this again had been the wall essay practice of the monks from the to communicate 2 paragraphs 3rd edition first, and is included in the unity of their profession. St.

Chrysostom tells us that their ordinary occupation in his time was to sing and pray, to read Scripture, and to transcribe the sacred text. Security Research! [Note 34] As the works of the early Fathers gradually became the literary property of the Church, these, too, became the subject-matter of the reading and the writing of the monks. For him who is going on to perfection, says St. Benedict in his Rule, there are the lessons of the Holy Fathers, which lead to its very summit. And Essays! For what page, what passage of the Old or New Testament, coming as it does with divine authority, is not the very exactest rule of life? What book of the Holy Catholic Fathers does not resound with this one theme, how we may take the shortest course to our Creator? But I need not here insist on this characteristic of monastic study, which, especially as regards the social research papers study of Scripture, has been treated so fully and so well by Mr. Maitland in his Essays on the Dark Ages. The sacred literature of the monks went a step further. To Communicate And Essays! They would be naturally led by their continual perusal of the Scriptures and the Fathers to essay attempt to compare and adjust these two chief sources of theological truth with each other.

Hence resulted the writing to communicate and essays 3rd edition peculiar character of the religious works of what may be especially called the Benedictine period, the five centuries between St. Gregory and St. Anselm. The age of the Fathers was well nigh over; the thesis age of the Schoolmen was yet to come; the ecclesiastical writers of the intervening centuries employed themselves for 2 paragraphs 3rd edition, the most part in arranging and digesting the patristical literature which had come down to them; they either strung together choice passages of the Fathers in caten , as a running illustration of the inspired text, or they formed them into a comment upon it. The Summ Sententiarum of the same centuries were works of a similar character, while they also opened the way to the intellectual exercises of the security research papers scholastic period; for and essays 3rd edition, they were lessons or instructions arranged according to the jacket gary a scheme or system of doctrine, though they were still extracted from the works of the writing and essays Fathers, and though the matter of those works suggested the divisions or details of the system. Essay! Moreover, such labours, as much as transcription itself, were Benedictine in their spirit, as well as in to communicate 2 paragraphs 3rd edition their subject-matter; for where there was nothing of gary original research, nothing of brilliant or imposing result, there would be nothing to dissipate, elate, or absorb the mind, or to violate the simplicity and tranquillity proper to the monastic state. The same remark applies to a further literary employment in which the Benedictines allowed themselves, and which is the last I shall here mention, and that is the compilation of chronicles and and essays 3rd edition annals, whether ecclesiastical, secular, or monastic. So prominent a place does this take in their literature, that the author of the Asceticon , in the fourth volume of Dom Francois's Bibliothque des Ecrivains Bndictins, does not hesitate to point to thesis on e-governance the historical writings of his Order as constituting one of its chief claims, after its Biblical works, on the gratitude of posterity. This, he says, is the praise especially due to the monks, that they have illustrated Holy Scripture, rescued history, sacred and profane, from the barbarism of the times and have handed down to posterity so many lives both of to communicate and essays Saints and college intros of Bishops. [Note 35] Here again is a fresh illustration of the writing to communicate 2 paragraphs Benedictine character; for first, those histories are of the most simple structure and most artless composition, and next, from the circumstance of their being commonly narratives of contemporary events, or compilations from a few definite sources of information which were at hand, they involved nothing of that laborious research and excitement of mind which is on e-governance demanded of the writer who has to record a complex course of history, extending over many centuries and countries, and who aims at and essays, the discovery of truth, in the midst of deficient, redundant, or conflicting testimony.

The men who wrote history, says Mr. Dowling, speaking of the times in question, did not write by rule; they only put down what they had seen, what they had heard, what they knew. Very many of them did what they did as a matter of moral duty. The result was something sui generis ; it was not even what we call history at college intros, all. It was, if I may so speak, something more, an actual admeasurement rather than a picture; or, if a picture, it was painted in a style which had all the minute accuracy and homely reality of the most domestic of the Flemish masters, not the lofty hyperbole of the Roman school, nor the obtrusive splendour, not less unnatural, of the Venetian. In a word, history, as a subject of writing 3rd edition criticism, is an art, a noble and beautiful art ; the historical writings of the middle ages is nature . [Note 36] Mention is the jacket gary soto made in this passage of the peculiarity in and essays 3rd edition monastic historiography, that it proceeded from the papers motive of writing 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition religious duty. This must always have been the case in soto essay consequence of the monastic profession; however, we have here, in addition to the presumption, actual evidence, and not on one occasion only, of the importance which the Benedictine Order attached to these notices and memorials of past times. In the year 1082, for instance, the Abbot Marquand of New Corbie, in writing Saxony, seems to have sent an order to all churches and thesis on e-governance monasteries subject to and essays his rule to send to him severally the chronicles of their own places. Abbot Wichbold repeated the order sixty years later, and Abbot Thierry in 1337 addressed to the provosts and rectors subject to him a like injunction [Note 37]. Wall Essay! Again, in 1481 the to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition Abbot of Erfurdt addressed a letter to the Fathers of the Reform of Bursfeld, with the view of persuading them to timeline take part in a similar work.

If you were to agree among yourselves, he says, and make a statute to the effect that every Prelate is under an obligation to compose annals and histories of his monastery, what could be better, what more useful, what more interesting, whether for knowing or for reading? [Note 38] It is easier to conjecture what those literary works would be, in which a Benedictine would find himself at liberty to engage, than to pretend to point out those from which his vocation would debar him; yet Mabillon, equally with de Ranc, implied that all subjects do not come alike to him. Here we are recalled to writing 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition the well-known controversy between these two celebrated men. The Abbot of thesis on e-governance La Trappe, the Cistercian de Ranc, writing to his own people, put forth some statements on the subject of the studies proper to a monk, which seemed to reflect upon the learned Maurists. Mabillon, one of them, replied, in a learned vindication of himself and his brethren. The Abbot had maintained that study of whatever kind should be kept in strict subordination to manual labour, and should not extend to any books except the Scriptures and the ascetic treatises of the Fathers. Mabillon, on the other hand, without denying the writing 2 paragraphs 3rd edition necessity of manual labour, to which the Maurists themselves devoted an hour a day, seemed to thesis on e-governance allow to the Benedictine the free cultivation of the intellect, and an unlimited range of studies. When they explained themselves, each combatant would appear to have asserted more than he could successfully maintain; yet after all there was a considerable difference of writing 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition view between them, which could not be removed. Social Security Papers! The critical question was whether certain historical instances, which Mabillon urged in his favour, were to be considered exceptions or not to the rule of St. Benedict. I have certainly maintained in an earlier page of this Essay that such instances as Alcuin, Paschasius, or Lanfranc are no fair specimens of the Benedictine profession, and 2 paragraphs and essays must not be taken to represent the monks generally. Lest, however, in thesis on e-governance saying this, I may be thought to be evading the testimony of history, as adduced by to communicate and essays 3rd edition, a writer, authoritative at security research papers, once by writing 3rd edition, his learning and as spokesman of the great Congregation of St.

Maur, I think it well to essay extract in my behalf some of his own admissions, which seem to me fully to bear out what I have been laying down above about the spirit and mission of his Order. For instance, he frankly concedes, or rather maintains, that the scholastic method of teaching theology and philosophy is foreign to the profession of a Benedictine, as such. Why, he asks, need we cultivate these sciences in the way of disputation? Why not as positive sciences, explaining questions and resolving doubts as they occur? Why is it not more than enough for religious pupils to be instructed in the more necessary principles of the 2 paragraphs and essays science, and thereby to make progress in the study of the Scriptures and the Fathers? What need of this perpetual syllogizing in form, and resume sharp answers to innumerable objections, as is the custom in the schools? Elsewhere he contrasts the mode of teaching a subject, as adopted by the early Fathers, with that which the Schoolmen introduced. The reasonings of the Fathers, he says, are so full, so elegantly set forth, as to writing 2 paragraphs 3rd edition be everywhere redolent of the sweetness and essay timeline vigour of Christian eloquence, whereas scholastic theology is absolutely dry and sterile. Elsewhere he says that in the study of Holy Scripture consists the entire science of monks. Again, he says of Moral Theology, As monks are rarely destined to the cure of souls, it does not seem necessary that they should give much time to the science of Morals.

And though of course he does not forbid them the study of history, which we have seen to be so congenial to their calling, yet he observes of this study, when pursued to its full extent, It seems to cause much dissipation of writing to communicate mind, which is prejudicial to that inward compunction of on e-governance heart, which is so especially fitting to the holy life of a monk. Again, observing that the examination of ancient MSS. was the special occupation of the and essays 3rd edition Maurists in his time, he says, They who give themselves to this study have the more merit with God, in that they have so little praise with men. Moreover, it obliges them to devote the more time to solitude, which ought to creative college essay be their chief delight. I confess it is a most irksome and unpleasant labour; however, it gives much less trouble than transcription, which was the most useful work of our early monks. Elsewhere, speaking of the celebrated Maurist editions of the Fathers, he observes, Labour, such as this, which is undergone in silence and in to communicate quietness, is especially compatible with true tranquillity of mind and the mastery of the passions, provided we labour as a duty, and not for glory. [Note 39] I trust the reader will be so good as to thesis keep in mind that I am all along speaking of the Benedictine life historically , and as I might speak of any other historical fact ; not venturing at all on what would be the to communicate 2 paragraphs extreme presumption of any quasi-doctrinal or magisterial exposition of it, which belongs to those only who have actually imbibed its tradition. This being clearly understood, I think I may interpret Mabillon to mean that (be the range of studies lawful to a monk what it may) still, whatever literary work requires such continuous portions of time as not to admit of being suspended at a moment's notice, whatever is thesis so interesting that other duties seem dull and heavy after it, whatever so exhausts the power of attention as to incapacitate for attention to other subjects, whatever makes the mind gravitate towards the and essays creature, is inconsistent with monastic simplicity.

Accordingly, I should expect to intros find that controversy was uncongenial to the Benedictine, because it excited the mind, and metaphysical investigations, because they fatigued it; and, when I met such instances as St. Paschasius or St. Anselm, I should deal with them as they came and to communicate and essays 3rd edition as I could. Moreover, I should not look to a Benedictine for any elaborate and systematic work on the history of doctrine, or of heresy, or for any course of patristical theology, or any extended ecclesiastical history, or any philosophical disquisitions upon history, as implying a grasp of narrative timeline innumerable details, and the labour of using a mass of phenomena to the elucidation of a theory, or of bringing a range of multifarious reading to bear upon one point; and that, because such efforts of mind require either an energetic memory devoted to matters of time and place, or, instead of the writing to communicate 2 paragraphs 3rd edition tranquil and plodding study of one book after another, the presence of a large library, and the distraction of a vast number of books handled all at once, not for perusal, but for reference. Perhaps I am open to the jacket essay the charge of refining, in attempting to illustrate the writing and essays principle which I seem to myself to detect in on e-governance the Benedictine tradition; but the writing 3rd edition principle itself which I have before me is clear enough, and is expressed in the advice which is given to us by a sacred writer: The words of the wise are as goads, and nails deeply fastened in; more than these, my son, require not : of essay questions making many books there is no end, and much study is an 2 paragraphs 3rd edition, affliction of the flesh.

To test the truth of this view of the Benedictine mission, I cannot do better than appeal as a palmary instance to the Congregation of St. Maur, an intellectual school of Benedictines assuredly. Now what, in matter of social research fact, is the character of its works? It has no Malebranche, no Thomassin, no Morinus; it has no Bellarmine, no Suarez, no Petavius; it has no Tillemont or Fleury,#8212;all of whom were more or less its contemporaries; but it has a Montfaucon, it has a Mabillon, it has a Sainte Marthe, a Coustant, a Sabbatier, a Martene,#8212;men of writing to communicate and essays 3rd edition immense learning and literary experience; it has collators and publishers of MSS. and college essay intros of inscriptions, editors of the text and of the versions of Holy Scripture, editors and biographers of the Fathers, antiquarians, annalists, paleographists,#8212;with scholarship indeed, and criticism, and theological knowledge, admirable as often as elicited by the particular subject on which they are directly employed, but conspicuously subordinate to it. If we turn to other contemporary Congregations of St. Benedict we are met by the same phenomenon. Their labours have been of the writing and essays same modest, patient, tranquil kind. The first name which occurs to me is that of berlin questions Augustine Calmet, of the to communicate and essays 3rd edition Congregation of St. Vanne. His works are biblical and antiquarian;#8212;a literal Comment on Scripture with Dissertations, a dictionary of the Bible, a Comment on the Benedictine Rule, a history of Lorraine.

I cast my eyes round the Library, in essay which I happen at writing and essays, the moment to be writing; what Benedictine authors meet them? There is Ceillier, also of the Congregation of St. Thesis On E-governance! Vanne; Bertholet, of the same Congregation; Cardinal Aguirre of Salamanca; Cressy of Douai; Pez of Mlk on the Danube; Lumper of St. George in the Hercynian Forest; Brockie of the Scotch College at Ratisbon; Reiner of the English Congregation. Their Works are of the same complexion,#8212;historical, antiquarian, biographical, patristical,#8212;calling to mind the line of study traditionally pursued by a modern ecclesiastical congregation, the Italian Oratory. I do not speak of to communicate Ziegelbauer, Francois, and other Benedictines, who might be added, because they have confined themselves to Benedictine Antiquities, and every Order will write about objective admissions, itself.

And so of the Benedictine Literature from first to last. Ziegelbauer, who has just been mentioned, has written four folio volumes on the subject. Now one of them is devoted to a catalogue and to communicate an account of Benedictine authors;#8212;of these, those on Scripture and Positive Theology occupy 110 pages; those on history, 300; those on scholastic theology, 12; those on polemics, 12; those on moral theology, 6. This surprising contrast may be an exaggeration of the fact, because there is much of repetition and digression in the jacket soto his survey, and his biographical notices vary in length; but, after all allowances for such accidental unfairness in the list, the result must surely be considered as strikingly confirmatory of the account which I have been giving. But I must cut short an investigation which, though imperfect for the illustration of 2 paragraphs and essays its subject, is already long for the patience of the reader. All human works are exposed to vicissitude and decay; and that the great Order of which I have been writing should in the lapse of creative intros thirteen centuries have furnished no instances of that general law is the less to writing to communicate and essays be expected, in questions proportion to the extent of its territory, the independence of writing to communicate 2 paragraphs its separate houses, and the local varieties of its constitution. To say that peace may engender selfishness, and berlin essay humility become a cloak for writing, indolence, and a country life may be an epicurean luxury, is only to enunciate the over-true maxim, that every virtue has a vice for its first cousin.

Usum non tollit abusus ; and creative college the circumstance that Benedictine life admits of writing 2 paragraphs 3rd edition being corrupted into a mode of living which is not Benedictine, but its very contradictory, cannot surely be made an argument against its meritorious innocence, its resolute cheerfulness, and its strenuous tranquillity. We are told to be like little children; and where shall we find a more striking instance than is here afforded us of that union of simplicity and berlin essay reverence, that clear perception of the unseen, yet recognition of the mysterious, which is the characteristic of the first years of human existence? To the monk heaven was next door; he formed no plans, he had no cares; the ravens of his father Benedict were ever at his side. 2 Paragraphs And Essays! He went forth in his youth to his work and to his labour until the evening of life; if he lived a day longer, he did a day's work more; whether he lived many days or few, he laboured on to the end of them. He had no wish to see further in advance of his journey than where he was to berlin wall essay make his next stage.

He ploughed and sowed, he prayed, he meditated, he studied, he wrote, he taught, and then he died and went to heaven. He made his way into the labyrinthine forest, and he cleared just so much of space as his dwelling required, suffering the high solemn trees and the deep pathless thicket to close him in. And when he began to build, his architecture was suggested by the scene,#8212;not the scientific and 2 paragraphs 3rd edition masterly conception of a great whole with many parts, as the Gothic style in a later age, but plain and college essay intros inartificial, the adaptation of received fashions to his own purpose, and an addition of chapel to chapel and a wayward growth of cloister, according to writing to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays the occasion, with half-concealed shrines and unexpected recesses, with paintings on the wall as by a second thought, with an absence of display and a wild, irregular beauty, like that of the woods by creative essay, which he was at first surrounded. And when he would employ his mind, he turned to Scripture, the book of books, and there he found a special response to the peculiarities of writing to communicate 3rd edition his vocation; for there supernatural truths stand forth as the trees and flowers of Eden, in a divine disorder, as some awful intricate garden or paradise, which he enjoyed the more because he could not catalogue its wonders. Next he read the Holy Fathers, and there again he recognized a like ungrudging profusion and careless wealth of precept and of consolation. And when he began to resume objective for college compose, still he did so after that mode which nature and writing revelation had taught him, avoiding curious knowledge, content with incidental ignorance, passing from subject to subject with little regard to thesis on e-governance system, or care to penetrate beyond his own homestead of thought,#8212;and writing, not with the sharp logic of disputants, or the subtle analysis of philosophers, but with the one aim of reflecting in his pages, as in a faithful mirror, the words and works of the Almighty, as they confronted him, whether in Scripture and the Fathers, or in that mighty maze of deeds and events, which men call the world's history, but which to him was a Providential Dispensation. Here the beautiful character in life and death of St. Bede naturally occurs to the mind, who is, in his person and his writings, as truly the pattern of a Benedictine as is St. Thomas of a Dominican; and with an extract from the letter of Cuthbert to Cuthwin concerning his last hours, which, familiarly as it is known, is writing always pleasant to read, I break off my subject for the jacket soto, the present. He was exceedingly oppressed, says Cuthbert of St. Bede, with shortness of writing and essays 3rd edition breathing, though without pain, before Easter Day, for about a fortnight; but he rallied, and the jacket gary soto was full of joy and gladness, and gave thanks to writing to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition Almighty God day and night and every hour, up to Ascension Day; and he gave us, his scholars, daily lectures, and passed the the jacket rest of the day in singing the Psalms, and the night too in joy and thanksgiving, except the scanty time which he gave to sleep.

And as soon as he woke, he was busy in writing 2 paragraphs his customary way, and he never ceased with uplifted hands giving thanks to God. I solemnly protest, never have I seen or heard of any one who was so diligent in thanksgiving. He sang that sentence of the blessed Apostle Paul, 'It is a dreadful thing to fall into the hands of the essay Living God,' and many other passages of Scripture, in which he warned us to shake off the slumber of the to communicate 2 paragraphs soul, by anticipating our last hour. Narrative Timeline! And he sang some verses of his own in writing to communicate and essays 3rd edition English also, to resume objective for college the effect that no one could be too well prepared for his end, viz., in calling to mind, before he departs hence, what good or evil he has done, and how his judgment will lie. And he sang too the antiphons, of which one is, 'O King of writing 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition Glory, Lord of Angels, who this day hast ascended in triumph above all the heavens, leave us not orphans, but send the promise of the Father upon for college admissions us, the Spirit of Truth, alleluia.' And when he came to the words, 'leave us not orphans,' he burst into tears, and wept much. He said, too, 'God scourgeth every son whom He receiveth,' and, with St. Ambrose, 'I have not so lived as to be ashamed to have been among you, nor do I fear to die, for to communicate and essays, we have a good Lord.' In those days, besides our lectures and the Psalmody, he was engaged in two works; he was translating into English the Gospel of wall essay St. John, as far as the writing to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays words, 'But what are these among so many,' and some extracts from the college Not [Note 40] of Isidore. On the writing to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition Tuesday before Ascension Day he began to suffer still more in his breathing, and his feet were slightly swollen. However, he went through the day, dictating cheerfully, and he kept saying from time to time, 'Take down what I say quickly, for I know not how long I am to last, or whether my Maker will not take me soon.' He seemed to us to be quite aware of the time of his going, and he passed that night in giving of thanks, without sleeping.

As soon as morning broke, that is on the Wednesday, he urged us to make haste with the writing which we had begun. We did so till nine o'clock, when we walked in procession with the on e-governance Relics of the Saints, according to the usage of that day. But one of our party said to writing 2 paragraphs and essays him, 'Dearest Master, one chapter is resume objective still wanting; can you bear our asking you about writing to communicate 2 paragraphs 3rd edition, it?' He answered, 'I can bear it; take your pen and be ready, and write quickly.' At three o'clock he said to me, 'Run fast, and call our priests, that I may divide among them some little gifts which I have in essay intros my box.' When I had done this in writing to communicate and essays 3rd edition much agitation, he spoke to on e-governance each, urging and writing to communicate 2 paragraphs 3rd edition entreating them all to make a point of creative essay intros saying Masses and prayers for him. Thus he passed the day in joy until the evening, when the above-named youth said to him, 'Dear Master, there is yet one sentence not written;' he answered, 'Write quickly.' Presently the youth said, 'Now it is to communicate and essays written;' he replied, 'Good, thou hast said the truth; consummatum est ; take my head into thy hands, for it is very pleasant to me to sit facing my old praying place, and thus to call upon my Father.' And so, on the floor of his cell, he sang, 'Glory be to Father, Son, and Holy Ghost,' and, just as he had said 'Holy Ghost,' he breathed his last, and went to the realms above. It is remarkable that this flower of the Benedictine school died on the same day as St. Philip Neri,#8212;May 26; Bede on Ascension Day, and Philip on the early morning after the feast of wall essay questions Corpus Christi. It was fitting that two saints should go to writing 2 paragraphs heaven together, whose mode of going thither was the same; both of them singing, praying, working, and guiding others, in joy and exultation, till their very last hour. 1. Owing to the temporary suspension of the Atlantis , the article on the Dominican Order was not written. 2. Essay! Helyot, Hist. Mon.

Ziegelbauer, Litt. Hist. Soame's Mosheim, vol. Writing To Communicate! ii., p. 26. Brockie. College Intros! Prf. ad Regul. Buckingham's Bible in the Middle Ages, p. 81, etc., etc. 3. Butler, June 22. 4. Thomassin, Disc. Eccl., t. i., p. 705.

Calmet, Reg. To Communicate! Ben., t. ii., p. 25. Resume For College! Mabillon, Acta Sc. iv., p. 1, prf., p. xxx. Annal., t. i., prf., § 19. 6. Mabillon, Act Benedict., t. iv., p. Writing To Communicate! 1, p. xxxvii. 7. History of Civilization, vol. ii., p. 65, Bohn; and so Ampre. 10. Dial., i. 1. Vid . Essays, vol. ii., p. 284.

Me ver primm dulces ante omnia Mus #8230; Accipiant, c#339;lique vias et sidera monstrent , etc., etc. Sin, has ne possim natur accedere partes, Frigidus obstiterit circm prcordia sanguis, Rura mihi et rigui placeant in vallibus amnes , etc. Felix, qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas , etc. Fortunatus et ille , Deos qui novit agrestes, etc. 12. Voyage Littraire. Vid . also Calmet, Lorraine, t. i., p. Research! 1043.

Moreri, art. To Communicate 2 Paragraphs And Essays 3rd Edition! S. Research Papers! Hubert. To Communicate 3rd Edition! Gallia Christ., t. iii. p. 966. Mabillon, Annal. Bened., t. ii., pp. 16, 441, 606. Bucherii, Gest. Tungr. etc., t. Resume Objective! i., p. 153. Helyot, Ordres Mon., t. vi., p. 296. 13.

Vol. i., p. 237, etc. 14. Hallam, Middle Ages, vol. iii., p. 436. Forsyth, Antiqu., vol. i., pp. 37, 44, 179. Turner, Anglo-Sax., vol. ii., p. 167. Murdoch's Mosheim, vol. ii., p. 21, etc. Guizot, Hist. Civil., vol. ii., p. 75, Bohn. 15. Neander, Memorials, pp.

436, 451, 473, Bohn. Rader, Bavaria Sacra. Calles, Arm. Germ., t. i., pp. 200, 276, 317, 318. Guizot, Civil., vol. ii., p 134. Whitaker's Cornwall, vol. ii., p. 196. Fosbroke, Antiq. p. 16. 16.

Meyrick's Willibald, p. 68. Bavaria Sacra, p.119. Petri, Suevia Eccles., p. 96. Calles Ann. Germ., t. And Essays 3rd Edition! i., p. 191. 17. Research! Butler's Lives, Aug. To Communicate And Essays! 20. 18. Apud. Mabillon Act. Bened. Social Security Research Papers! 19. Thomass. To Communicate And Essays! Disc. Eccl. t. iii., p. 513. 20. Objective For College! P. 93. The passage seems taken from writing and essays Bede. 21. Bede, Hist. Eccles., i. 26. William of Malmesb. Ponfic. Angl. 23. Eccl. Hist., vol. vii., p. Thesis! 331, Bohn. 24. Duchesne, Script. Writing To Communicate 3rd Edition! North., p. 236. Resume Objective Admissions! 25. Turner, Middle Ages, vol. v., p. 89. 27. Writing 2 Paragraphs And Essays 3rd Edition! Vid . Turner, Anglo-Saxons, vol. Creative Essay! iii., p. 468. To Communicate 2 Paragraphs And Essays! 28. Pallad, c. 39.

Cassian, Inst., iv., 12. Calmet, Reg., t. ii., p. 150. Thomassin, Disc. Eccl., t. iii., p. 505. Essay Questions! Ziegelbaum, Hist. Litt. Bened., t. ii., p. Writing To Communicate 3rd Edition! 510. Thesis On E-governance! 29. 2 Paragraphs And Essays! Annal.

Camald., t. vii., p. The Jacket Gary Soto Essay! 300: vid . other instances in to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition Maitland's Dark Ages, and Buckingham's Bible in the Middle Ages, who, however, is deficient in social security research papers references. 30. Guizot's Hist. Civil., vol. To Communicate 2 Paragraphs! ii., p. 236, Bohn. 32.

Vid , also Whitaker's Cornwall, vol. i., p. 167, and the whole chapter. Resume Objective For College Admissions! 33. Meehan's Marchese, p. xxiv. 34. Hist. Litter. de St. Writing! Maur. 1770, p. 21. 35. P. 379. Printing, another tranquil work, was introduced into Italy by the Benedictines of Subiaco.

Vid . Dr. Ullathorne's Pilgrimage. 36. Introd. Gary Soto Essay! Eccles. Hist., p. 56. 37. Ziegelbaur, t. ii., p. 401. 38. Ibid ., t. i., p. Writing 2 Paragraphs! 424. For lists of monastic histories, vid . Mr. For College Admissions! Dowling, Introd.

E. H., p. 260; the Asceticon as above, § 26. Ziegelbaur, t. Writing 2 Paragraphs And Essays! ii., p. 398. Balmez., Prot. and Cath., p. 195. 39. Stud. Monast., ed. 1732; t. i., pp. 52, 135; t. ii., p. 2; t. i., pp 145, 147, 191, 64. 40. The Bollandists have not been able to determine which of St. Isidore's works is here intended.

Not means Musical Notes, according to Du Cange. According to Leb#339;uf in Ampre, Hist. Litter. t. iii., p. Thesis! 253, the word means penmanship. Newman Reader #151; Works of John Henry Newman. Copyright © 2007 by The National Institute for Newman Studies. Writing! All rights reserved .

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Historiographic Metafiction Essay. The frontiers of a book are never clear-cut: beyond the title, the first lines, and the last full-stop, beyond its internal configuration and its autonomous form, it is to communicate 2 paragraphs caught up in a system of references to other books, other texts, other sentences: it is a node within a network. -Foucault What we tend to call postmodernism in literature today is usually characterized by admissions, intense self-reflexivity and overtly parodic intertextuality. In fiction this means that it is usually metafiction that is equated with the postmodern. Given the scarcity of precise definitions of this problematic period designation, such an equation is often accepted without question. What I would like to argue is writing to communicate 3rd edition that, in the interests of precision and consistency, we must add something else to this definition: an equally self-conscious dimension of history. Berlin Wall Essay! My model here is writing 2 paragraphs postmodern architecture, that resolutely parodic recalling of the history of architectural forms and functions. The theme of the 1980 Venice Biennale, which introduced postmodernism to the architectural world, was “The Presence of the Past.

” The term postmodernism, when used in fiction, should, by analogy, best be reserved to describe fiction that is at narrative essay timeline once metafictional and historical in its echoes of the texts and contexts of the past. To Communicate 2 Paragraphs And Essays 3rd Edition! In order to distinguish this paradoxical beast from traditional historical fiction, I would like to label it “historiographic metafiction. ” The category of novel I am thinking of includes One Hundred Years of Solitude, Ragtime, The French Lieutenant’s Woman, and The Name of the Rose. All of these are popular and familiar novels whose metafictional self-reflexivity (and intertextuality) renders their implicit claims to historical veracity somewhat problematic, to say the least. 3 LINDA HUTCHEON In the wake of recent assaults by literary and philosophical theory on creative college modernist formalist closure, postmodern American fiction, in particular, has sought to open itself up to history, to what Edward Said (The World) calls the “world. ” But it seems to have found that it can no longer do so in any innocent way: the certainty of direct reference of the historical novel or even the nonfictional novel is gone.

So is the to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition certainty of for college admissions self-reference implied in the Borgesian claim that both literature and the world are equally fictive realities. To Communicate! The postmodern relationship between fiction and history is an even more complex one of interaction and essay questions, mutual implication. Historiographic metafiction works to to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays, situate itself within historical discourse without surrendering its autonomy as fiction. And it is a kind of seriously ironic parody that effects both aims: the intertexts of history and fiction take on parallel (though not equal) status in the parodic reworking of the textual past of both the “world” and literature. The Jacket Soto Essay! The textual incorporation of these intertextual past(s) as a constitutive structural element of postmodernist fiction functions as a formal marking of historicity-both literary and “worldly.

” At first glance it would appear that it is to communicate and essays 3rd edition only its constant ironic signaling of difference at the very heart of similarity that distinguishes postmodern parody from medieval and Renaissance imitation (see Greene 17). For Dante, as for E. L. Doctorow, the narrative essay texts of literature and those of and essays 3rd edition history are equally fair game. For College! Nevertheless, a distinction should be made: “Traditionally, stories were stolen, as Chaucer stole his; or they were felt to be the common property of a culture or community … These notable happenings, imagined or real, lay outside language the way history itself is supposed to, in a condition of pure occurrence” (Gass 147). Today, there is a return to the idea of to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition a common discursive “property” in the embedding of both literary and historical texts in fiction, but it is intros a return made problematic by overtly metafictional assertions of both history and literature as human constructs, indeed, as human illusions-necessary, but none the less illusory for all that. The intertextual parody of historiographic metafiction enacts, in a way, the views of certain contemporary historiographers (see Canary and Kozicki): it offers a sense of the presence of the to communicate 2 paragraphs 3rd edition past, but this is a past that can only be known from its texts, its traces-be they literary or historical. Clearly, then, what I want to call postmodernism is a paradoxical cultural phenomenon, and it is also one that operates across many traditional disciplines. In contemporary theoretical discourse, for instance, we find puzzling contradictions: those masterful denials of mastery, totalizing negations of totalization, continuous attest4 HISTORIOGRAPHIC METAFICTION ings of narrative essay timeline discontinuity. Writing 2 Paragraphs 3rd Edition! In the postmodern novel the conventions of both fiction and historiography are simultaneously used and social security, abused, installed and subverted, asserted and denied. And the double (literary/historical) nature of this intertextual parody is one of the major means by which this paradoxical (and defining) nature of postmodernism is textually inscribed. Perhaps one of the reasons why there has been such heated debate on the definition of postmodernism recently is that the implications of the doubleness of this parodic process have not been fully examined.

Novels like The Book of Daniel or The Public Burning-whatever their complex intertextual layering-can certainly not be said to writing 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition, eschew history, any more than they can be said to ignore either their moorings in social reality (see Graff 209) or a clear political intent (see Eagleton 61). Historiographic metafiction manages to satisfy such a desire for “worldly” grounding while at the same time querying the very basis of the authority of that grounding. As David Lodge has put it, postmodernism short-circuits the gap between text and world (239-4 0 ) . Thesis! Discussions of postmodernism seem more prone than most to confusing self-contradictions, again perhaps because of the paradoxical nature of the subject itself. Charles Newman, for instance, in his provocative book The Post-Modern Aura, begins by writing 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition, defining postmodern art as a “commentary on the aesthetic history of whatever genre it adopts” (44). This would, then, be art which sees history only in aesthetic terms (57). However, when postulating an American version of postmodernism, he abandons this metafictional intertextual definition to call American literature a “literature without primary influences,” “a literature which lacks a known parenthood,” suffering from the “anxiety of non-influence” (87). As we shall see, an examination of the novels of the jacket gary essay Toni Morrison, E. L. And Essays 3rd Edition! Doctorow, John Barth, Ishmael Reed, Thomas Pynchon, and creative college, others casts a reasonable doubt on such pronouncements. On the writing to communicate and essays 3rd edition one hand, Newman wants to argue that postmodernism at large is resolutely parodic; on the other, he asserts that the thesis on e-governance American postmodern deliberately puts “distance between itself and writing to communicate and essays 3rd edition, its literary antecedents, an obligatory if occasionally conscience-stricken break with the past” (172). Newman is not alone in his viewing of postmodern parody as a form of ironic rupture with the past (see Thiher 214), but, as in berlin wall essay, postmodernist architecture, there is and essays 3rd edition always a paradox at the heart of that “post”: irony does indeed mark the difference from the for college admissions past, but the writing 3rd edition intertextual echoing simultaneously works to affirm-textually and hermeneutically-the connection with the social research past. When that past is the literary period we now seem to label as 5 LINDA HUTCHEON modernism, then what is writing 2 paragraphs and essays both instated and then subverted is the notion of the work of art as a closed, self-sufficient, autonomous object deriving its unity from the the jacket soto formal interrelations of its parts. In its characteristic attempt to retain aesthetic autonomy while still returning the text to the “world,” postmodernism both asserts and then undercuts this formalistic view.

But this does not necessitate a return to writing 2 paragraphs, the world of the jacket gary soto “ordinary reality,” as some have argued (Kern 216); the “world” in which the text situates itself is the “world” of discourse, the “world” of texts and intertexts. This “world” has direct links to the world of empirical reality, but it is not itself that empirical reality. It is a contemporary critical truism that realism is really a set of conventions, that the representation of the writing to communicate 2 paragraphs 3rd edition real is college intros not the same as the real itself. What historiographic metafiction challenges is both any naive realist concept of representation and any equally naive textualist or formalist assertions of the total separation of to communicate and essays 3rd edition art from the world. The postmodern is selfconsciously art “within the archive” (Foucault 92), and that archive is both historical and literary. In the light of the work of writers such as Carlos Fuentes, Salman Rushdie, D. M. Thomas,John Fowles, Umberto Eco, as well as Robert Coover, E. L. Doctorow, John Barth, Joseph Heller, Ishmael Reed, and other American novelists, it is hard to berlin questions, see why critics such as Allen Thiher, for instance, “can think of no such intertextual foundations today” as those of Dante in Virgil (189)’ Are we really in the midst of a crisis of faith in writing, the “possibility of historical culture” (189)? Have we ever not been in such a crisis? To parody is not to destroy the past; in security research papers, fact, to parody is both to enshrine the to communicate 3rd edition past and to question it. And this is the postmodern paradox. The theoretical exploration of the essay “vast dialogue” (Calinescu, 169) between and among literatures and histories that configure postmodernism has, in part, been made possible by Julia Kristeva’s early reworking of the Bakhtinian notions of polyphony, dialogism, and heteroglossia-the multiple voicings of a text.

Out of these ideas she developed a more strictly formalist theory of the irreducible plurality of texts within and behind any given text, thereby deflecting the critical focus away from the notion of the subject (here, the author) to the idea of 2 paragraphs textual productivity. Kristeva and social security research papers, her colleagues at Tel Quel in the late sixties and early seventies mounted a collective attack on the founding subject (alias: the “romantic” cliche of the author) as the writing and essays original and originating source of berlin wall essay fixed and fetishized meaning in the text. And, of course, this also put into question the entire notion of the “text” as an autonomous entity, with immanent meaning. 6 HISTORIOGRAPHIC METAFICTION In America a similar formalist impulse had provoked a similar attack much earlier in to communicate and essays 3rd edition, the form of the New Critical rejection of the “intentional fallacy” (Wimsatt). Nevertheless, it would seem that even though we can no longer talk comfortably of authors (and sources and influences), we still need a critical language in which to discuss those ironic allusions, those re-contextualized quotations, those double-edged parodies both of genre and of specific works that proliferate in modernist and college intros, postmodernist texts. This, of course, is where the concept of intertextuality has proved so useful. As later defined by Roland Barthes (Image 160) and writing to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition, Michael Riffaterre (142-43), intertextuality replaces the challenged authortext relationship with one between reader and text, one that situates the locus of textual meaning within the history of resume objective admissions discourse itself. 2 Paragraphs And Essays 3rd Edition! A literary work can actually no longer be considered original; if it were, it could have no meaning for its reader. It is thesis on e-governance only as part of prior discourses that any text derives meaning and significance. Not surprisingly, this theoretical redefining of aesthetic value has coincided with a change in the kind of art being produced. Postmodernly parodic composer George Rochberg, in the liner notes to writing and essays 3rd edition, the Nonesuch recording of his String Quartet no.

3 articulates this change in these terms: “I have had to abandon the notion of ‘originality,’ in which the personal style of the artist and his ego are the for college admissions supreme values; the to communicate 3rd edition pursuit of the one-idea, uni-dimensional work and gesture which seems to have dominated the esthetics of security research papers art in writing 2 paragraphs and essays, the aoth century; and the received idea that it is college essay necessary to divorce oneself from the past. “In the visual arts too, the works of Shusaku Arakawa, Larry Rivers, Tom Wesselman, and others have brought about, through parodic intertextuality (both aesthetic and historical), a real skewing of any “romantic” notions of subjectivity and creativity. To Communicate And Essays! As in thesis on e-governance, historiographic metafiction, these other art forms parodically cite the intertexts of both the “world” and art and, in so doing, contest the boundaries that many would unquestioningly use to separate the two. In its most extreme formulation, the result of such contesting would be a “break with every given context, engendering an infinity of new contexts in a manner which is absolutely illimitable” (Derrida 185). While postmodernism, as I am defining it here, is perhaps somewhat less promiscuously extensive, the to communicate and essays notion of parody as opening the text up, rather than closing it down, is an the jacket, important one: among the many things that postmodern intertextuality challenges are both closure and single, centralized meaning. Its willed and willful provisionality rests largely upon its acceptance of the inevitable textual infiltration of prior discursive 7 LINDA HUTCHEON practices. Typically contradictory, intertextuality in postmodern art both provides and undermines context. In Vincent B. Leitch’s terms, it “posits both an uncentered historical enclosure and an abysmal decentered foundation for language and textuality; in so doing, it exposes all contextualizations as limited and limiting, arbitrary and confining, self-serving and authoritarian, theological and 2 paragraphs and essays, political.

However paradoxically formulated, intertextuality offers a liberating determinism” (162). Essay! It is perhaps clearer now why it has been claimed that to use the to communicate 2 paragraphs term intertextuality in criticism is not just to avail oneself of a useful conceptual tool: it also signals a “prise de position, un champ de reference” (Angenot 122). But its usefulness as a theoreticalframework that is both hermeneutic and formalist is the jacket essay obvious in to communicate and essays 3rd edition, dealing with historiographic metafiction that demands of the reader not only the recognition of textualized traces of the literary and historical past but also the awareness of what has been done-through irony-to those traces. The reader is forced to acknowledge not only the inevitable textuality of our knowledge of the past, but also both the value and the limitation of that inescapably discursive form of knowledge, situated as it is social security research papers “between presence and absence” (Barilli). Writing And Essays 3rd Edition! halo Calvina’s Marco Polo in objective, Invisible Cities both is and is not the historical Marco Polo. How can we, today, “know” the Italian explorer? We can only do so by to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition, way of texts-including his own (Il Milione) , from soto, which Calvino parodically takes his frame tale, his travel plot, and his characterization (Musarra 141). Roland Barthes once defined the to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays intertext as “the impossibility of thesis living outside the infinite text” (Pleasure 36), thereby making intertextuality the very condition of textuality.

Umberto Eco, writing of his novel The Name of the Rose, claims: “1 discovered what writers have always known (and have told us again and again): books always speak of other books, and every story tells a story that has already been told” (20). The stories that The Name of the Rose retells are both those of literature (by Arthur Conan Doyle, Jorge Luis Borges, James Joyce, Thomas Mann, T.S. Eliot, among others) and those of to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition history (medieval chronicles, religious testimonies). This is the creative intros parodically doubled discourse of postmodernist intertextuality. However, this is 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition not just a doubly introverted form of aestheticism: the theoretical implications of this kind of historiographic metafiction coincide with recent historiographic theory about the thesis on e-governance nature of history writing as narrativization (rather than representation) of the past and about the nature of the writing 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition archive as the textualized remains of history (see White, “The Question”).

8 HISTORIOGRAPHIC METAFICTION In other words, yes, postmodernism manifests a certain introversion, a self-conscious turning toward the form of the act of writing itself; but it is also much more than that. It does not go so far as to “establish an explicit literal relation with that real world beyond itself,” as some have claimed (Kirernidjian 238). Its relationship to the “worldly” is still on the level of objective discourse, but to claim that is to claim quite a lot. After all, we can only “know” (as opposed to “experience”) the world through our narratives (past and present) of it, or so postmodernism argues. The present, as well as the 3rd edition past, is always already irremediably textualized for us (Belsey 46), and the overt intertextuality of historiographic metafiction serves as one of the thesis textual signals of 2 paragraphs this postmodern realization. Readers of a novel like Kurt Vonnegut’s Slaughterhouse-Five do not have to proceed very far before picking up these signals. The author is identified on the title page as “a fourth-generation German-American now living in easy circumstances on Cape Cod (and smoking too much), who, as an American infantry scout hors de combat, as a prisoner of war, witnessed the thesis on e-governance fire-bombing of Dresden, Germany, ‘The Florence of the Elbe,’ a long time ago, and survived to and essays 3rd edition, tell the tale. This is a novel somewhat in the telegraphic schizophrenic manner of tales of the admissions planet Tralfamadore, where the flying saucers come from. Peace.

” The character, Kurt Vonnegut, appears in the novel, trying to erase his memories of the war and writing to communicate 3rd edition, of Dresden, the destruction of which he saw from “Slaughterhouse-Five,” where he worked as a POW. The novel itself opens with: “All this happened, more or less. The war parts, anyway, are pretty much true” (7). Counterpointed to resume for college admissions, this historical context, however, is the (metafictionally marked) Billy Pilgrim, the optometrist who helps correct defective vision-including his own, though it takes the planet Tralfamadore to give him his new perspective. Billy’s fantasy life acts as an allegory of the author’s own displacements and postponements (i. e. , his other novels) that prevented him from writing to communicate and essays, writing about Dresden before this, and thesis, it is the 2 paragraphs 3rd edition intratexts of the novel that signal this allegory: Tralfamadore itself is from Vonnegut’s The Sirens of resume objective for college admissions Titan, Billy’s home in Illium is from Player Piano, characters appear from Mother Night and God Bless You, Mr. Rosewater. The intertexts, however, function in similar ways, and their provenience is again double: there are actual historical intertexts (documentaries on Dresden, etc.), mixed with those of and essays 3rd edition historical fiction (Stephen Crane, Celine). But there are also structurally and thematically connected allusions: to Hermann Hesse’s Journey to the East and to various works of science fiction.

Popular 9 LINDA HUTCHEON and high-art intertexts mingle: Valley of the Dolls meets the poems of security papers William Blake and Theodore Roethke. All are fair game and all get re-contextualized in order to and essays 3rd edition, challenge the imperialistic (cultural and political) mentalities that bring about the Dresdens of history. Thomas Pynchon’s V. Berlin Questions! uses double intertexts in a similarly “loaded” fashion to formally enact the author’s related theme of the entropic destructiveness of and essays 3rd edition humanity. College Essay! Stencil’s dossier, its fragments of the and essays texts of history, is an amalgam of literary intertexts, as if to remind us that “there is no one writable ‘truth’ about history and experience, only a series of versions: it always comes to us ‘stencillized'” (Tanner 172). And it is always multiple, like V’s identity. Patricia Waugh notes that metafiction such as Slaughterhouse-Five or The Public Burning “suggests not only that writing history is a fictional act, ranging events conceptually through language to form a world-model, but that history itself is invested, like fiction, with interrelating plots which appear to interact independently of human design” (48-49). Historiographic metafiction is particularly doubled, like this, in its inscribing of both historical and literary intertexts. Its specific and general recollections of the for college forms and contents of writing 2 paragraphs history writing work to thesis on e-governance, familiarize the unfamiliar through (very familiar) narrative structures (as Hayden White has argued [“The Historical Text,” 49-50]), but its metafictional selfreflexivity works to render problematic any such familiarization.

And the reason for the sameness is that both real and imagined worlds come to us through their accounts of them, that is, through their traces, their texts. The ontological line between historical past and writing and essays 3rd edition, literature is not effaced (see Thiher 190), but underlined. The past really did exist, but we can only “know” that past today through its texts, and gary essay, therein lies its connection to the literary. If the discipline of history has lost its privileged status as the purveyor of truth, then so much the better, according to this kind of modern historiographic theory: the loss of the illusion of transparency in historical writing is a step toward intellectual self-awareness that is matched by metafiction’s challenges to writing 2 paragraphs and essays, the presumed transparency of the language of realist texts. When its critics attack postmodernism for berlin wall being what they see as ahistorical (as do Eagleton, Jameson, and Newman), what is being referred to as “postrnodern” suddenly becomes unclear, for surely historiographic metafiction, like postmodernist architecture and painting, is overtly and resolutely historical-though, admittedly, in an ironic and problematic way that acknowledges that history is not the transparent record of any sure “truth. ” Instead, such fiction 10. HISTORIOGRAPHIC METAFICTION corroborates the views of philosophers of history such as Dominick LaCapra who argue that “the past arrives in the form of texts and textualized remainders-memories, reports, published writings, archives, monuments, and so forth” (128) and that these texts interact with one another in complex ways.

This does not in any way deny the value of history-writing; it merely redefines the conditions of writing to communicate 2 paragraphs value in somewhat less imperialistic terms. Lately, the tradition of narrative history with its concern “for the short time span, for the individual and the event” (Braudel 27), has been called into question by the Annales School in France. But this particular model of narrative history was, of course, also that of the realist novel. Historiographic metafiction, therefore, represents a challenging of the (related) conventional forms of fiction and history through its acknowledgment of their inescapable textuality. As Barthes once remarked, Bouvard and Pecuchet become the ideal precursors of the postmodernist writer who “can only imitate a gesture that is always anterior, never original. Gary Soto Essay! His only power is to mix writings, to counter the ones with the others, in such a way as never to rest on any of them” (Irnage 146). Writing! The formal linking of history and fiction through the thesis common denominators of intertextuality and 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition, narrativity is usually offered not as a reduction, as a shrinking of the scope and value of fiction, but rather as an expansion of these.

Or, if it is seen as a limitation-restricted to the always already narrated-this tends to be made into gary the primary value, as it is in Lyotard’s “pagan vision,” wherein no one ever manages to be the first to narrate anything, to be the writing to communicate and essays origin of even her or his own narrative (78). Lyotard deliberately sets up this “limitation” as the opposite of what he calls the capitalist position of the writer as original creator, proprietor, and entrepreneur of her or his story. Much postmodern writing shares this implied ideological critique of the thesis assumptions underlying “romantic” concepts of author and text, and it is parodic intertextuality that is the major vehicle of that critique. Perhaps because parody itself has potentially contradictory ideological implications (as “authorized transgression,” it can be seen as both conservative and revolutionary [Hutcheon 69-83]), it is a perfect mode of criticism for writing to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays postmodernism, itself paradoxical in its conservative installing and then radical contesting of conventions. Historiographic metafictions, like Gabriel Garcia Marquez’s One Hundred Years of essay Solitude, Gunter Grass’s The Tin Drurn, or Salman Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children (which uses both of the former as intertexts), employ parody not only to restore history and memory in the face of the distortions of the “history of forgetting” (Thiher 11 LINDA HUTCHEON 202), but also, at the same time, to put into question the authority of any act of writing by locating the writing to communicate 2 paragraphs 3rd edition discourses of both history and fiction within an ever-expanding intertextual network that mocks any notion of either single origin or simple causality. When linked with satire, as in the work of narrative Vonnegut, V. Vampilov, Christa Wolf, or Coover, parody can certainly take on more precisely ideological dimensions. Here, too, however, there is no direct intervention in to communicate and essays 3rd edition, the world: this is writing working through other writing, other textualizations of security papers experience (Said Beginnings 237). In many cases intertextuality may well be too limited a term to describe this process; interdiscursivity would perhaps be a more accurate term for the collective modes of and essays 3rd edition discourse from which the postmodern parodically draws: literature, visual arts, history, biography, theory, philosophy, psychoanalysis, sociology, and the list could go on. One of the effects of this discursive pluralizing is that the (perhaps illusory but once firm and soto essay, single) center of both historical and writing to communicate and essays 3rd edition, fictive narrative is dispersed. Margins and narrative, edges gain new value.

The “ex-centric”-as both off-center and de-centeredgets attention. That which is “different” is valorized in writing 2 paragraphs, opposition both to for college admissions, elitist, alienated “otherness” and also to the uniformizing impulse of mass culture. And in American postmodernism, the “different” comes to be defined in particularizing terms such as those of nationality, ethnicity, gender, race, and sexual orientation. Intertextual parody of writing canonical classics is one mode of reappropriating and reformulating-with significant changes-the dominant white, male, middle-class, European culture. Berlin Wall Essay! It does not reject it, for writing 2 paragraphs 3rd edition it cannot. On E-governance! It signals its dependence by its use of the canon, but asserts its rebellion through ironic abuse of it. As Edward Said has been arguing recently (“Culture”), there is a relationship of mutual interdependence between the histories of the writing to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition dominators and the dominated. American fiction since the sixties has been, as described by Malcolm Bradbury (186), particularly obsessed with its own pastliterary, social, and historical. Perhaps this preoccupation is (or was) tied in part to a need to fmd a particularly American voice within a culturally dominant Eurocentric tradition (D’haen 216). The United States (like the rest of North and South America) is a land of immigration.

In E. L. Doctorow’s words, “We derive enormously, of course, from Europe, and that’s part of what Ragtime is social security papers about: the means by which we began literally, physically to lift European art and architecture and bring it over here” (in Trenner 58). This is also part of what American historiographic metafiction in general is “about. 2 Paragraphs 3rd Edition! ” Critics have discussed at length the parodic 12 HISTORIOGRAPHIC METAFICTION intertexts of the work of Thomas Pynchon, including Conrad’s Heart ofDarkness (McHale 88) and creative college essay intros, Proust’s first-person confessional form (Patteson 37-38) in V. In particular, The Crying of Lot 49 has been seen as directly linking the literary parody ofJacobean drama with the selectivity and subjectivity of what we deem historical “fact” (Bennett). Here the postmodern parody operates in to communicate, much the same way as it did in the literature of the seventeenth century, and in both Pynchon’s novel and the plays he parodies (John Ford’s ‘Tis Pity She’s a Whore, John Webster’s The White Devil and The Duchess of Malfi, and Cyril Tourneur’s The Revenger’s Tragedy, among others), the intertextual “received discourse” is firmly embedded in a social commentary about the loss of relevance of traditional values in contemporary life (Bennett). Just as powerful and even more outrageous, perhaps, is the parody of Charles Dickens’ A Christmas Carol in Ishmael Reed’s The Terrible Twos, where political satire and parody meet to attack white Euro-centered ideologies of domination. Its structure of “A Past Christmas” and “A Future Christmas” prepares us for its initial Dickensian invocations-first through metaphor (“Money is narrative essay timeline as tight as Scrooge” [4]) and then directly: “Ebenezer Scrooge towers above the Washington skyline, rubbing his hands and greedily peering over his spectacles” (4).

Scrooge is 2 paragraphs and essays not a character, but a guiding spirit of berlin essay questions 1980 America, one that attends the inauguration of the writing to communicate president that year. The novel proceeds to update Dickens’ tale. However, the rich are still cozy and comfortable (“Regardless of how high inflation remains, the thesis on e-governance wealthy will have any kind of writing 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition Christmas they desire, a spokesman for Neiman-Marcus announces” [5]); the poor are not. This is the 1980 replay of “Scrooge’s winter, ‘as mean as ajunkyard dog” (32). The “Future Christmas” takes place after monopoly capitalism has literally captured Christmas following a court decision which has granted exclusive rights to Santa Claus to one person and one company. One strand of the complex plot continues the Dickensian intertext: the narrative essay American president-a vacuous, alcoholic, ex-(male) model-is reformed by a visit from St.

Nicholas, who takes him on a trip through hell, playing Virgil to his Dante. There he meets past presidents and other politicians, whose punishments (as in the Inferno) conform to writing to communicate 2 paragraphs 3rd edition, their crimes. Made a new man from thesis on e-governance, this experience, the president spends Christmas Day with his black butler, John, and John’S crippled grandson. Though unnamed, this Tiny Tim ironically outsentimentalizes Dickens’: he has a leg amputated; he is black; his parents died in a car accident. In an attempt to save the nation, the writing 2 paragraphs 3rd edition president goes on essay intros televi13 LINDA HUTCHEON sian to and essays 3rd edition, announce: “The problems of American society will not go away … by invoking Scroogelike attitudes against the poor or saying humbug to the old and to the underprivileged” (158). But the final echoes of the Dickens intertext are ultimately ironic: the president is declared unfit to serve (because of social his televised message) and is hospitalized by the business interests which really run the writing 2 paragraphs and essays government. None of Dickens’ optimism remains in this bleak satiric vision of the future. Similarly, in Yellow Back Radio Broke-Down, Reed parodically inverts Dostoevsky’s “Grand Inquisitor” in order to subvert the authority of social, moral, and literary order.

No work of the berlin essay Western humanist tradition seems safe from postmodern intertextual citation and and essays, contestation today: in Heller’s God Knows even the sacred texts of the Bible are subject to social security research, both validation and demystification. It is significant that the intertexts ofJohn Barth’s LETTERS include not only the British eighteenth-century epistolary novel, Don Quixote, and other European works by H. G. Wells, Mann, and 2 paragraphs and essays, Joyce, but also texts by Henry David Thoreau, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Edgar Allan Poe, Walt Whitman, and social research, James Fenimore Cooper. The specifically American past is as much a part of defining “difference” for contemporary American postmodernism as is the European past. The same parodic mix of authority and transgression, use and abuse characterizes intra-American intertextuality. For instance, Pynchon’s V. and Morrison’s Song of Solomon, in writing 2 paragraphs and essays, different ways, parody both the structures and thesis, theme of the recoverability of history in writing 2 paragraphs, William Faulkner’s Absalom, Absalom!. Similarly, Doctorow’s Lives of the Poets (1984) both installs and subverts Philip Roth’s My Life as a Man and wall essay questions, Saul Bellow’s Herzog (Levine 80). The parodic references to to communicate 2 paragraphs 3rd edition, the earlier, nineteenth-century or classic American literature are perhaps even more complex, however, since there is a long (and related) tradition of the wall interaction of fiction and history in, for to communicate 2 paragraphs 3rd edition example, Hawthorne’s use of the conventions of romance to connect the historical past and the writing present. And indeed Hawthorne’s fiction is a familiar postmodern intertext: The Blithedale Romance and Barth’s The Floating Opera share the same moral preoccupation with the berlin wall essay questions consequences of writers taking aesthetic distance from life, but it is the difference in writing to communicate 3rd edition, their structural forms (Barth’s novel is research more self-consciously metafictional [Christensen 12]) that points the reader to the real irony of the conjunction of the ethical issue. Writing 2 Paragraphs! The canonical texts of the American tradition are both undermined and yet drawn upon, for parody is the paradoxical postmodern way of coming to on e-governance, terms with the past. University/College: University of Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter.

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Top 10 Things Job-Seekers Need to Know about writing and essays Submitting and Posting Your Resume Online. by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. In the early days of Internet job searching, e-resumes, or electronic resumes, were distinguished from the jacket gary soto, traditional print resumes. Today, since most resumes are transmitted electronically, the writing 3rd edition, term “e-resume” is the jacket gary, not used much anymore. Online resume submission has become so pervasive that “resume” is nearly synonymous with “electronic resume.” Job-seekers today submit their resumes via e-mail, post or submit them on to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition Internet job boards, or publish them on their own Web page. To learn more about the many forms of the jacket gary, resumes used online, see our accompanying article, Your E-resume’s File Format Aligns with its Delivery Method. In the meantime, stay right here to learn the to communicate 3rd edition, 10 things you truly must know about social security research papers submitting and to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays posting your resume online. 1. You absolutely MUST have a version of your resume that is optimized for online posting and submission. A job-seeker simply cannot succeed these days with just the objective for college admissions, traditional formatted resume intended to be printed out writing 2 paragraphs and essays, as a visually pleasing marketing piece. The formatted “print” resume is still important, but it can no longer be the only resume tool in berlin wall essay, your kit. More than 90 percent of employers place resumes directly into searchable databases and writing 2 paragraphs 3rd edition an equal percentage of employers prefer to receive resumes by e-mail.

More than 80 percent of berlin wall questions, Fortune 500 companies post jobs on their own Web sites — and expect job-seekers to respond electronically. Thus, you need at least one other version of your resume that can go directly into a keyword-searchable database with no obstacles. Formatting that needs to to communicate be removed before the thesis, resume can be placed in a database is an example of such an obstacle. Sending your resume in text-based format directly in the body of an e-mail message removes all barriers to an employer’s placing your resume right into a searchable databases. And Essays! Some employers still prefer the formatted document version of wall, your resume attached to an e-mail message (so they have the and essays 3rd edition, option to print it out, for example), while others won’t open attachments because of concerns about viruses and incompatibilities among word-processing programs. The formatted “print” resume is still vital because the berlin wall essay, employer may wish to visually review your resume, especially once the database search has narrowed down the candidates, and the formatted, print version will be more reader-friendly than the text-based version. You’ll also want to have a print version of your resume on hand for networking, to take to interviews and career fairs and for writing and essays 3rd edition the rare occasions when employers request resumes in old-school ways — by mail or fax. At the bare minimum, you need a formatted, print version of your resume and timeline a text-based (ASCII) e-resume. To cover every contingency, you might also want to have a Portable Document Format (PDF) version, and a Web-based (HTML) version.

The nuances of these versions are explained in our article, Your E-resume’s File Format Aligns with its Delivery Method. 2. Your resume must be loaded with keywords. Much of job-hunting today revolves around the writing 2 paragraphs, mysterious world of on e-governance, keywords. Employers’ dependence on keywords to 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition find the berlin wall essay questions, job candidates they want to writing interview has come about in recent years because of technology. Inundated by resumes from job-seekers, employers have increasingly relied on creative college intros placing resumes in writing 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition, keyword-searchable databases, and narrative timeline using software to search those databases for specific keywords that relate to job vacancies. Most Fortune 1000 companies, in fact, and writing 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition many smaller companies now use these technologies. In addition, most employers search the databases of third-party job-posting and resume-posting boards on the Internet. The bottom line is berlin wall questions, that if you apply for a job with a company that searches databases for keywords, and your resume doesn’t have the writing to communicate 2 paragraphs, keywords the company seeks for the person who fills that job, you are pretty much out of the jacket gary soto, luck. Read more about the importance of keywords in our article Tapping the Power of Keywords to Enhance Your Resume’s Effectiveness and 2 paragraphs and essays how you can identify the essay, best keywords in Resources for Identifying Keywords and writing 2 paragraphs Researching Keywords in social, Employment Ads.

Consider using our Resume Keywords Worksheet. 3. Writing! Your resume must be accomplishments-driven. Accomplishments are the points that really help sell you to an employer — much more so than everyday job duties. The Jacket Gary Essay! In fact, there’s a direct relationship between keywords and accomplishments in that keywords can be tied to accomplishments rather than job duties, so a good way to make the leap from keyword to a nice, contextual bullet point is to to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition take each keyword you’ve identified as critical to the job and list an accomplishment that tells how you’ve used the skill represented by that keyword. For more about maximizing your accomplishments in an e-resume, see our article, For Job-Hunting Success: Track and college intros Leverage Your Accomplishments and consider using our Accomplishments Worksheet. 4. Technically speaking, a resume for online posting and submission is not too difficult to 3rd edition create. It’s surprisingly easy to berlin wall questions create an e-resume once you get the hang of it. There’s more than one way to create a text-based e-resume, but the most common method involves saving your word-processed (usually Word) resume in text (.txt) format, re-opening it in a text editor program, such as Wordpad, Notepad, or Text Wrangler, TextEdit for Mac OS, and then making a few adjustments in writing to communicate and essays 3rd edition, it.

One good resource that can walk you through this process include this part of How to Upload or Email a Resume from Susan Ireland. Even a Web-based HTML resume is narrative essay, not that hard to craft. Learn everything you need to know in our article, A Web-Ready Resume Can Be a Major Advantage in Your Job Search. 5. Writing 3rd Edition! Text-based resumes are the ugly ducklings of the resume world, but you can dress them up a bit. Job-seekers and resume writers have strived for years to develop ways to essay intros make resumes visually appealing and graphically interesting — through font choices, bold and italic type, rule lines, bullets, centering, indents, and writing 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition more — only to have all that formatting thrown out the window in the e-resume world. Text-based resumes are the antitheses of the gorgeous documents that job-seekers hand to on e-governance employers at interviews and to communicate career fairs. The fact is that most online resumes aren’t intended to essay be visually attractive because their main function is not to be seen but to be searched in keyword-searchable databases. Still, they may be seen at some point. To Communicate! Employers may see the resume you’ve posted on an online job board.

Their primary interest is whether the content of narrative, your resume (indicated largely by keywords) shows you to be qualified for the opening you’ve applied for and/or for which the employer is searching the database. But once the match has been made, the employer may actually look at your resume. So, even though — without formatting — you can’t make it look as fetching as your print version, you can still ensure that it looks decent. For example, you can use keyboard characters, such as equal signs (=====), plus signs (++++++) and tildes ( ) to make rule lines. You can use asterisks (*****), hyphens (—–), lower-case letter o’s (ooooo), and carats () to make bullets. You can use UPPER CASE for emphasis in headings.

See how some of these techniques are used in this sample text chronological resume. Now, one type of e-resume that is to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition, meant to look good is the HTML or Web-based resume. This type of resume resides on a Web page, in part, so it can be seen, so it should be visually pleasing. While it’s not too difficult to make an HTML resume look attractive, the more you know about narrative essay Web design, the better you can make the resume look. You can also transform your Web resume into 2 paragraphs 3rd edition, a Web portfolio that extensively shows off your skills and creative essay accomplishments. If you’re not confident of your skills, you might want to enlist a Web designer or resume writer in this process.

A number of services have emerged in recent years that enable you to writing to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition create Web-based and multimedia resumes that usually reside on a service’s site. See examples of these in our article New Web-Based Twists On Resumes: Best Ways to Construct a Resume? 6. Text resumes are highly versatile. Once you have a text-based resume, you can do a lot with it, including: Post it in essay, its entirety on many job boards. Paste it piece-by-piece into 2 paragraphs and essays, the profile forms of job boards, such as, that have a rigid setup and don’t allow resumes to be posted as is. Paste it into the body of an e-mail and the jacket gary send it to employers. Convert it to a Web-based HTML resume. 7. You must tailor the use of your resume to each employer’s or job board’s instructions. As you might have guessed from what you’ve read so far in writing to communicate, this article, there is no universally accepted way to submit your e-resume to an employer. Some employers want your resume as an attachment, usually as a Word document.

Others want your resume as text pasted into the body of an e-mail message. Still others want you to paste your resume into essay intros, an online form. If you absolutely cannot find out an employer’s preference, the following is a fairly safe bet: A formatted, “print” resume in writing 2 paragraphs and essays, document (.doc because some older versions of Word cannot open .docx files)) form sent as an attachment to an e-mail message to the employer. And here’s a bit of common sense: Can you imagine how many resumes employers receive with files entitled “resume.doc”? Use your name as part of the file name for your resume. Example: JaySmithResume.doc. A text-based e-resume stripped of most formatting and pasted directly into the same e-mail message into which your print resume is objective for college admissions, attached. Since the employer has this text-based resume, he or she can choose whether or not to open the attached version, based on compatibility, virus protection, and company policy on opening attachments. For a truly complete e-mailable, electronic package, add a text-based cover letter stripped of formatting and pasted directly into the same e-mail message into which your print resume is attached. Pat Kendall and Susan Whitcomb note in a book about online resumes that your cover letter can contain verbiage that points out the options you’re providing: “I have attached an to communicate and essays, MS Word version of my resume, as well as pasted a plain-text version below. (If the plain-text version is sufficient for your database, it is research, not necessary to download the formatted attachment.)”

The same lack of universality goes for job boards. To Communicate And Essays 3rd Edition! Some enable you to berlin paste your resume into a form in any format, but the board automatically converts it to text. Others require that the resume be in 3rd edition, text format to objective for college admissions begin with before you can paste it into the form. These variations underscore the importance of having a text-based e-resume. While researching this article, the Quintessential Careers staff experimented with posting resumes to several sites.

We learned that a text-based e-resume is not only vital for boards with a text-resume requirement — but also extremely helpful when the boards convert any resume to text. Just because a job board turns your resume into text doesn’t mean it will look decent; it’s better to have a text resume to begin with so you know it will look appropriate when pasted in. Also note that some job boards/employers limit the number of words or the size of the file that you can paste into any one field. 8. Take advantage of job-board features to writing to communicate 3rd edition protect yourself and get the most out of posting your e-resume on the boards. Most reputable job boards have features that enable you to protect your own privacy and creative essay confidentiality, control who sees your resume, mask the identity if your current employer (so your employer doesn’t know you’re looking), and easily edit and delete your resume or change it from active to inactive. These privacy and confidentiality issues are more important than ever given news reports about identity theft of resume information. To Communicate! A good article to help you protect yourself is Privacy Tips for Online Job Seekers. Many boards also enable you to create multiple profiles for yourself so you can look for intros various types of jobs. Some permit you to submit a list of your top skills.

Resume submission forms generally have questions in to communicate and essays 3rd edition, addition to a place to submit the actual resume. Some questions are mandatory; others are optional. When a question is optional, consider whether it is to your advantage to answer it. Answering questions about salary or location requirements, for example, may be too limiting. 9. A few finishing touches can increase your e-resume’s effectiveness. Here are a few tips from the experts for resume objective for college getting more out of your e-resume: Use the “Properties” feature in MS Word to boost the writing to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays, keyword searchability of your attached Word resume. Resume Objective For College Admissions! This feature, found under Word’s File menu, enables you to insert keywords, comments, and a link to your Web-based resume if you have one. To Communicate! You can use the “Comments” field to enter geographic and relocation preferences. A similar trick applies to using HTML commands called meta tags in creating a Web-based resume.

The “description” command, for example, gives you up to essay intros 150 characters to provide a description of your document. Make sure you use words that highlight your e perience and writing skills. The “keywords” command gives you limited spa e to enter critical eywords. Be sure to use keywords that you think employers and recruiters might use in searching for the position you are seeking — and the jacket essay make sure those keywords are also listed at least once (perhaps in writing 2 paragraphs and essays, a “key accomplishments” section) in your resume. Read more about meta tags and helping your Web resume to be found in creative intros, search engines in our article, Resume Found: Keys to Successful Search Engine Registration. Do some test runs of the formatted print resume you intend to writing to communicate and essays send to employers as an attachment by narrative essay sending it to the computers of a few friends to see if the formatting remains consistent from computer to writing 2 paragraphs and essays computer. Try to find testers who each have different versions of Windows, as well as a tester or two using Mac OS. Use a specific subject line in your e-mail when transmitting your e-resume. Gary Essay! The subject line might include the reference n. Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives.

Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about writing 2 paragraphs 3rd edition storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career. Resume Objective For College Admissions! Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at Writing To Communicate 2 Paragraphs! Check out Dr. Hansen on creative college intros GooglePlus. I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is your key source for to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition all things career-change related.

You’ll find some great free career-change tools and resources. Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in your current career for a long time, but you do not have to go through the process alone or [] Quintessential Careers: Career and on e-governance Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and writing to communicate and essays Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and scoops for job-seekers, compiled by the staff of berlin, Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an archive of our previous blog posts. Please check out the new and writing to communicate and essays 3rd edition improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and Careerists. Interview Advice Job [] The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers. The Quintessential Directory of the jacket soto essay, Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer’s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to writing to communicate 2 paragraphs 3rd edition go straight to the career and employment section of the [] Quintessential Careers: I am a Career Coach or Counselor. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer’s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and research employment section of the []

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2016 Resume Trends – The New, The Now #038; What You Must Know. #1 Thing Recruiters Want You To Know About Getting A Job AppDynamics. To Communicate And Essays 3rd Edition! How To Land A Job At Northside Hospital. 3 Tips For Getting A Job At Medidata Solutions. The Secret To Networking When You Don#039;t Have Any Time. Essay! 3 Ways Emotionally Intelligent Leaders Make The Most Of Online Collaboration. An interesting study was published by Microsoft in May of this year about how our attention spans have changed over the past several years. In 2000 we had a 12-second attention span, and in 2013 a mere eight-second attention span. We now, as a whole, have a one-second-shorter attention span than a goldfish. Isn’t that interesting? Ok, shocking is probably more like it—and also not very comforting to know when you’re job searching and trying your hardest to get a hiring manager/employer/recruiter…someone…to pay attention to your resume. So what exactly does this shortened attention span mean for your job search—and more specifically, your resume?

It means trends and times are changing and so should your resume. Writing 2 Paragraphs! Here is my top-ten list of berlin questions, resume trends for 2016, which, as you’ll notice, will be largely impacted on this year’s findings. 2016 Resume Trend #1: Get In, Tell Your Story, And Get Out. Writing And Essays 3rd Edition! Make every word count when you’re writing. Creative Essay Intros! In an article like this one I’ve chosen to use bold subtitles for writing, those who like to thesis on e-governance scan or skim an article to get the main points but don’t want to dig in deeper for the details. I’ve also provided my opinion and to communicate 2 paragraphs 3rd edition the extra details for those who like context and social research papers an explanation to go with the points in bold. Consider doing the same with your resume. Use short, tweet-sized sentences to communicate key accomplishments, your branding statements, facts you don’t want the employer to miss. Ideally, you want critical information CALLED OUT on writing to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays the resume. Social Security Research! 2016 Resume Trend #2: Be A Ruthless Editor. Create a master resume and then go back and edit it until you have a leaner draft.

Then go back and cut even more out. When you write your resume ask yourself, “Is this critical to 2 paragraphs my story or what I’m trying to convey to the employer?” If it isn’t, cut it out. Save the discarded content in a master file so you have it if you decide later you really do need it. However, consider yourself a ruthless editor, evaluate every word, every sentence for questions, how you can make it shorter and more concise—then slash and trash what you don’t need. Writing And Essays! 2016 Resume Trend #3: Write For Scanners/Skimmers.

Write for scanners and skimmers. You know the people who go through and only read the headlines of articles and newspapers or scroll through articles and only read the bolded bullet points to get the general gist of what it’s saying? This reason is papers exactly why newspapers and news articles start with a great headline, give the writing to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays, most critical facts/details first, and then gradually fill in social security research papers the not-so-critical details further down in the story. They know you want the important information first and to communicate 3rd edition don’t want to wait for it. Do the same in wall questions your resume.

Start with your branding statement and make it answer the decision maker’s questions: “Why should I care?” or “What’s in it for me?” When time is of the essence, answering these questions first gives readers exactly what they need to know up front; then they can choose to keep on reading for any details. I think the strategy of using a profile summary or career summary is now history. Instead, I think it should include a personal-brand snapshot. Give the writing to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition, reader newsworthy information in short, effective statements so they can get the narrative timeline, facts and move on. 2016 Resume Trend #4: Use A Formula To Help Flesh Out Your Story. In resume writing we call them CAR or SAR statements. I’ve also seen the acronym PARI. Essentially, you’re sharing a challenge/situation/problem, the action you took to address it, and what the result was. Ideally you want to frame the result by sharing how it positively impacted your employer or client. These are the writing to communicate 2 paragraphs, kinds of statements that make impact and tell a story but also give the reader context. The Jacket! Remember to keep it short; mercilessly edit it down to the least common denominator.

In resume writing it’s also a wise practice to writing 2 paragraphs 3rd edition lead with the result/impact to intros the client or employer because this is usually quantifiable. Here is a quick example of writing to communicate 2 paragraphs, what I mean by creative a S.A.R. statement: Situation/Challenge/Problem: Company operated at a loss of to communicate 2 paragraphs 3rd edition, $960,000 in 2014. Action: Personally vetted by CEO for berlin wall questions, company turnaround. Cut costs by 30%, revamped hiring practices to reduce turnover, overhauled budget and spending practices. Result/Impact: Delivered $650,000 profit in 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition 2015. Now you can take the essay, content from the to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays, answers to on e-governance these three questions and put together a great bullet point for to communicate and essays 3rd edition, your resume. Gary Essay! Fill in each with your own experiences and expertise. 2016 Resume Trend #5: Neuroscience Says Pictures Win. Writing To Communicate! Ninety percent of information transmitted to gary soto the brain is visual, and and essays 3rd edition visuals are processed 60,000X faster in wall essay questions the brain than text. (Sources: 3M Corporation and Zabisco) and writing 2 paragraphs 40% of people will respond better to visual information than plain text. (Source: Zabisco). Use graphs, charts, and visual presentations whenever possible to share content with your audience. If it’s quantifiable you can almost always create a visual to communicate it.

On social media platforms, images or photos are shared or liked more than text. In this article they share research that states photos on Facebook are shared 75% more than articles, links or text. Although this isn’t research on resumes in particular, it does speak to how much our brains and eyes are drawn to visual stimuli. I wrote an article this autumn on what employers see when you apply on papers LinkedIn. The content was revelatory for many job seekers and received great praise for 2 paragraphs 3rd edition, its insightfulness. Be that as it may, when I created an infographic of the same content within the article and posted it on narrative timeline LinkedIn it was shared significantly more than the article itself. Writing To Communicate 2 Paragraphs And Essays 3rd Edition! The article was published by LinkedIn on several of its channels, but was shared only four times and viewed 700. The infographic was never published on any of LinkedIn’s channels, yet it was shared 53+ times and has been viewed 2,000+ times.

Evidence that visual content gets more attention. 2016 Resume Trend #6: Personal Branding IS Visual TOO. In resume writing (and the job search business in general) we tend to get hung up on the idea that our brand is all about the words we use—and it is. Social Security! As career expert Deb Dib calls it, your personal brand is your “why buy ROI”. However, it’s also communicated visually—not just in words but with word pictures and with images. Writing To Communicate 2 Paragraphs And Essays! Certain colors have specific meanings to your personal brand! Check out this video from thesis on e-governance to writing to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays find out what your personal branding color is and social research consider that it may be time to include your color brand in your resume: As a side note that’s not resume related, your LinkedIn profile is also a good place to incorporate visual branding and to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition your personal brand color. 2016 Resume Trend #7: Bite-Sized Sentences. Funny how twitter causes us to narrative essay communicate our thoughts in 140 characters or fewer.

Even Twitter knows our attention spans are waning in the digital age. Our brains have adapted to new ways of 2 paragraphs, absorbing content and interacting with the Internet. Now you’re forced to thesis keep your point short and sweet. For a superfluous person like me who loves the details, I used to get so mad at 3rd edition, Twitter for making me convey my thoughts in such short, bite-sized portions, but it really has become the necessity of social security research, our society. With ever-decreasing attention spans, writing tweet-sized resume sentences is a sound strategy. And it’s not a trend I see fading away in the coming years either. The next time you write a sentence for your resume, see how many characters are included.

And then see if you can get it down to 140 characters or fewer without losing impact. Consider what is essential and what is critical. Ditch the essential and run with the to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition, critical. 2016 Resume Trend #8: Money, Money, Money. How you made it, generated it, contributed to, saved, or helped someone else in the process—it’s all about the almighty dollar. A great example for security papers, a direct contributor is how their actions impacted the bottom-line profitability of the company. For an executive assistant it may be how her initiative and foresight allowed her boss to writing to communicate save money or increase billable hours. Creative Essay! Whatever you do, find the connection to dollars and share it. If nothing you did in some way affected costs savings or revenue generation, find the bleeding need your target company/audience has and communicate how what you’ve done in the past has stopped the bleeding! 2016 Resume Trend #9: Infographic Resumes.

Infographic resumes are growing in popularity! Don’t believe me? Just search them on Pinterest. Does an infographic resume replace a traditional resume? No. Does it work for everyone? No. In some situations—and for to communicate 2 paragraphs 3rd edition, many job seekers—there is a time and on e-governance place to writing to communicate 3rd edition use an infographic resume. Thesis On E-governance! I’ll let you in on a little secret too—you can make your own!

There is a plethora of sites you can use to design your own infographic resume, including Visme, Visually, Venngage, Piktochart,, and I’m confident you could use these sites to create graphics to incorporate into your resume too. There are some important points you need to consider when you’re evaluating whether an writing to communicate 2 paragraphs, infographic resume is right for you. They’re not for every industry or position. However, they can work very well for industries like marketing, sales, technology, social media, graphic design or telecomm. You may find that innovative companies, smaller organizations, or start-ups are even drawn to infographic resumes. I can see infographic resumes being a great tool when tapping into the hidden job market as you’re bypassing traditional HR departments. A January 2015 survey stated 68% of people would look at the jacket gary soto essay, an infographic resume, 32% said it depends . Interestingly enough, not one person said they wouldn’t look at one. 2016 Resume Trend #10: Say Goodbye To ATS. The demise of applicant tracking software is upon us.

Employers are discovering that computer software systems may be great at scanning keywords on a resume, but they’re not so great at discerning talent, loyalty, dedication, hard work, and most importantly FIT. While I understand ATS has its usefulness (there’s no way an HR representative can feasibly read thousands of resumes that pour in every day) their practicality and validity are waning. Resumes, which used to function as your “first impression” to an employer, are now quickly becoming the second or third thing an employer will see about you. With the rise of social media sites such as LinkedIn, website resumes, portfolios, video resumes, and job-search strategies allowing job seekers to tap into the hidden job market and bypass sending a resume as a first introduction, the human eye is quickly becoming the #1 gatekeeper. Keep these trends in mind when you sit down to write your resume, and to communicate 2 paragraphs you’ll be ten steps ahead of your competition. Having a hard time writing your own resume? Let’s chat! Visit my website, call my office at gary, 1.800.991.5187, or connect with me on LinkedIn to discuss how I help busy job seekers create interview-winning resumes, cover letters, and to communicate 3rd edition LinkedIn profiles that cut their job search time by on e-governance 50% or more and secure interviews in two weeks or less. To Communicate 2 Paragraphs! I’d love to creative college essay know what you think the most important resume trends for 2016 will be!

Share your thoughts! In the writing and essays, meantime, let’s network! Feel free to send me an invitation to resume connect on LinkedIn. To Communicate And Essays! Jessica Holbrook Hernandez, CEO of narrative timeline, Great Resumes Fast is an expert resume writer, career and personal branding strategist, author, and presenter. Want to work with the best resume writer? If you would like us to personally work on writing to communicate your resume, cover letter, or LinkedIn profile—and dramatically improve their response rates—then check out berlin essay our professional and executive resume writing services at or contact us for 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition, more information if you have any questions.

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essay thesis ideas You’ve spent quite a bit of time in your English classes writing argumentative essays, and writing you’ve even gotten pretty good at writing on the jacket gary soto essay, the topics your instructor assigns. But when it comes to choosing your own argumentative essay topics, you draw a blank. It’s not that there aren’t any good topics to choose from, but you start over-thinking it, wondering if each topic is too cliche, overdone, or just not good enough. To Communicate 3rd Edition! Chances are, all you need to resume objective for college admissions, do is relax and find a topic you’re passionate about writing to communicate 2 paragraphs and, of course, one that is debatable. Why Pick Debatable Argumentative Essay Topics? Photo by resume for college, David Hume Kennedy via Gerald R. Ford Library. The name of the writing 3rd edition, essay says it all– argumentative . Thesis On E-governance! It would be a lot easier to write an writing to communicate and essays, essay on something that people generally agree on, but that’s not really the the jacket gary essay, point of an argumentative essay. It’s important to choose debatable argumentative essay topics because you need opposing points that you can counter with your own points. The world isn’t black and white–there are a lot of gray areas, which is good because that means there are a lot of topics you can choose from.

I have listed 50 argumentative essay topics below, phrased as questions, to help get you started. 2 Paragraphs! I’ve separated the topics into five categories–legal, moral, social, media and family–and included a helpful link for each topic. Feel free to use the topics for your own essay, or as inspiration to create your own original topic. 10 Legal Argumentative Essay Topics. Argumentative essay topics about legal matters are a popular choice. These types of topics can include laws that you would want to narrative essay, create, change or completely abolish. They can also discuss certain benefits or negative aspects of existing laws. You don’t have to to communicate and essays 3rd edition, get super technical with legal argumentative essays, but be sure to narrative essay timeline, do your research on what the current laws about your chosen topic actually say. After all, you don’t want to suggest a changing a law that’s already been changed in the way you want. Should cigarettes and 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition other tobacco products be outlawed? Should prostitution be legal?

Do the benefits of medical marijuana justify its legality? Is the drinking age appropriate (should it be lower, higher, or stay the on e-governance, same)? Should nuclear weapons be outlawed worldwide? Should the United States put more restrictions on writing and essays, gun ownership and use? At what age should girls have access to birth control without the consent of resume objective, their parents?

Does outlawing controlled substances only create a larger black market? Should corporations be granted personhood? In what situations, if any, does a woman have a right to an abortion? 10 Moral Argumentative Essay Topics. Moral argumentative essay topics are some of the easiest to get carried away with.

They can cover a variety of moral dilemmas, from writing 2 paragraphs and essays, animal testing to the death penalty. These topics tend to be very debatable because everyone has different opinions–and justifications for those opinions–on what they think is right or wrong. If you’re talking about human or animal rights, and it’s something you’re very passionate about, it’s tempting to let your emotions take over. While it’s good to be passionate in an argumentative essay, remember to keep your thoughts focused and organized. It’s definitely worth your time to create an objective for college admissions, outline so you don’t stray off topic. Photo by John Snape via flickr. Is animal testing necessary? Should consumers buy items from countries that endorse child labor? Do patients have a right to die via physician-assisted suicide? Should children’s beauty pageants be banned? Are nude photographs appropriate in museums that are open to the public?

Should schools and writing to communicate 2 paragraphs businesses give more incentives for people to do volunteer work? Are atheists less moral than theists? Does freedom of speech give people the right to use hate speech? Do people who commit heinous crimes deserve the death penalty? Do pre-employment drug tests infringe on personal privacy rights? 10 Social Argumentative Essay Topics. Social argumentative essay topics tend to overlap with legal and college essay intros moral topics, but deal more about how individuals act within society and what kinds of pressures society puts on individuals or groups of people.

This is a pretty broad category, so there are a lot of to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays, topics to choose from and even more that you could create on college intros, your own. If you get stuck on which topic to write about, consider something that personally affects you or someone close to writing to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays, you. This should make writing about that topic come more naturally. Just be sure to rely on facts and not on personal anecdotes, which are more appropriate to the narrative essay realm. Is there too much pressure on essay, teenagers to go to college? At what age should citizens be allowed to to communicate, vote in the United States? Should more rights be given to immigrants? Can heterosexual men and women truly be friends with no hopes or expectations of anything more? In what case(s) could it be considered fair for a company to not hire a candidate who smokes cigarettes?

Should the United States make English the official national language? Should women wear less revealing clothing in order to curb men’s catcalling? Do prisoners deserve the narrative essay, right to vote? Should there be a legal curfew for minors? Can online dating replace meeting a person in real life? 10 Advertising and writing 2 paragraphs Media Argumentative Essay Topics. Advertising and the media have become nearly inseparable from society as a whole. Essays written on these topics can include how media (television, news, movies, magazines, social media, etc.) affects society, and what should be allowed to creative intros, be seen or heard through media and advertisements. Inspiration to 2 paragraphs 3rd edition, create your own advertising or media argumentative essay topics isn’t hard to essay intros, find. Writing To Communicate 2 Paragraphs 3rd Edition! Just turn on a television and don’t change the channel when the creative college, commercials come on.

Pay close attention to writing, all things electronic, and you’ll be sure to find something debatable about questions what you see. Photo by to communicate 2 paragraphs 3rd edition, Rod Allday via Wikimedia Commons. Should sex be allowed to be portrayed on prime time television? Where should networks draw the line for violence on television? Should news shows talk about celebrities?

Do journalists have a duty to eliminate as much bias as possible? Is it acceptable for companies to advertise in schools? In what situations should advertisements for alcohol and tobacco products be allowed? Should warnings and side effects be made more clear in advertisements? Is print advertising obsolete? Do TV shows and movies have the responsibility of being more diverse?

Are public service announcements effective? 10 Family Argumentative Essay Topics. Argumentative essay topics covering family life and values are abundant. That’s because every family is different. Rules in families vary on a case-by-case basis, contrary to laws that govern a state or nation. Because each family is different, it’s hard to the jacket soto essay, generalize in writing to communicate 3rd edition, these types of essays. However, if you look into research on child development and creative psychology, marital psychology, and personal stories from 2 paragraphs, parents and social security research papers their children, you can get enough information to writing to communicate and essays 3rd edition, make an argument for any of the topics below (or for a topic of your own). Photo by Eric Ward via Wikimedia Commons. Final Thoughts on Choosing Argumentative Essay Topics. As you can see, there are a lot of debatable argumentative essay topics you can choose from (way more than are on this list). For more ideas, read 20 Persuasive Essay Topics to Help You Get Started.

Once you’re ready to berlin wall essay, come up with a thesis, check out these Argumentative Thesis Statement Examples. When you are picking your topic, keep in mind that it’s much easier to and essays 3rd edition, write about something that you already have interest in–even if you don’t know a whole lot about thesis it. Researching the topic will allow you to learn more about writing and essays what fascinates you, and essay questions if you pick something you actually like , writing the essay will be more enjoyable. If you’ve wrapped up your argument, but you think there may be a few holes in writing 3rd edition, your logic, send your essay over to the Kibin editors. They’ll help give you the winning edge in whatever you’re debating. Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the Author.

Eden Meirow is a self-employed freelance writer with a passion for English, history and education. Resume For College Admissions! You can find her on Google+. Thank you for these! I appreciate that you divided the topics into type! Awesome! Glad you found what you were looking for. #128578; Hello Naomi, what will be a good Hook for Argumentative essay about 2 paragraphs 3rd edition anti immigrants. I want prove them wrong and show them posative side from gary essay, immigrants, thanks for the help. Hi Abdul–I’m not sure *who you’re proving wrong?

However, if you are writing a pro-immigrant essay, I would suggest starting with an emotional hook. A hook that makes the writing to communicate 2 paragraphs 3rd edition, story of immigration a HUMAN story is a compelling story. Thank you for the help and the quick feedback! Please give me an example. Is the hook on the title or on the body? Thanks. The hook is the first sentence of your intro paragraph. Hey, I have an arguementative assay due and I have NOOO idea what to do it on can u help? Btw I’m 14 so it needs to be school appropriate.?

Hiya– so I think the objective admissions, important thing would be to writing to communicate 2 paragraphs, choose a topic that you are actually interested in. At 14, and security sorry if I’m stereotyping you due to your age, perhaps a good argument would be to discuss the effects of video games on writing to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition, young people. Here is a great resource to help you: I looked @ the ideas but I’m still not sure. What would be a good resource for supporting the essay, opinion that physician-assisted suicide is morally wrong? I’m having a hard time choosing a new topic for my argumentative essay. I was writing on how smoking should be outlawed but my professor told me she couldn’t help me on this and it was a hard topic to argue about.

Can you please help. It sounds like your teacher wants you to get more specific than that topic (which, to be fair, is pretty broad). A more specific version might be: In what case(s) could it be considered fair for a company to writing 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition, not hire a candidate who smokes cigarettes? Or you could argue that more cities should enact smoking bans which disallow smoking in our near public places (look at the jacket gary essay laws in writing and essays, California and college essay intros Colorado for example). I need to write an argumentative research paper about 3000 words. Do you have any suggestions for a topic that I can find so much things to write about? I hope that one of the 50 above topics will get you thinking about what you want to write about. My biggest piece of advice is to communicate definitely choose a topic that you care about, otherwise you are really going to struggle getting 3000 words down. Think about the topics that get you fired up during your regular day-to-day life–maybe you can turn one of those topics into an argument.

Speaking of the jacket gary, 3k words, here’s a good post on making an writing 2 paragraphs, essay longer (without adding useless fluff): I’m sorry to hear that. Maybe you’ll find this post to be helpful in your quest for the perfect topic: Same I have to do that. I need to write 3 essays and I 5 days to do it need HELP and I’m 15. Hi Dyson–eep that’s a lot of essays in a short amount of time.

You’re going to want to stay organized. Check out this post with 7 different outline templates that you could use: Thank you for that it really helps me. You’re welcome. Research! Thanks for reading! Hi, I was hoping to get some advice on writing to communicate 2 paragraphs, an argumentative essay. My argument is broad and about Self-harm and Suicide, how can I find a specific direction to follow it I only have 2 days to write a 6 page essay.

Do you have any tips or advice to help me specify my topic or where to the jacket, even start? Can you please help? Hi i need to write 7-10 page argumentive essay and writing to communicate 2 paragraphs i don’t have any idea can you help me what is it good to write about? contact me.I do help students write their essay. I will appreciate. sweet! Thanks for the comment. Hi there. My name is Lisa. Timeline! Do you need any help with your homework? I am available for help and I will be glad to help.

Contact me for non-plagiarized, well formatted researched work, and always on time. Thank you in advance. I have to writing to communicate 2 paragraphs 3rd edition, right a research essay that will end up over the course be a 7 to 8 page essay and I can not think of a topic it has to thesis, be arguable…. Have any idea what topic would be good? The 50 topics in this post should lead you to something good. Writing To Communicate 3rd Edition! The trick is to berlin questions, choose a topic that you are interested in so that you have a chance to possibly even *enjoy the process of 3rd edition, researching and writing. Remember, an arguable topic means that you could conceivably argue both sides (or more than one side). This post covers writing an argumentative thesis statement and also has more topic ideas: This is literally the same thing i’m going thru for english 202. On E-governance! It has to end up being 7 to 8 pages and it has to be a argumentative research essay. Year 10 800 words essays and these wont make enough.

Don’t despair. You can do it. #128578; Hi Naomi. I am looking for help in writing to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition, formulating a thesis (a good argument) for narrative essay timeline, a 3000 word research paper on the following ” Discuss the social and cognitive consequences on bilingualism and multilingualism” . Any assistance rendered would be greatly appreciated. Writing To Communicate 2 Paragraphs! Thank you #128578;

A basic framework for your thesis statement will outline the points that you want to defend throughout your paper. It may look something like this: The social and thesis on e-governance cognitive consequences of bilingualism and to communicate and essays 3rd edition multilingualism include CONSEQUENCE 1, CONSEQUENCE 2, and gary soto CONSEQUENCE 3. Or maybe you want to writing to communicate 2 paragraphs, take it a step further and argue that biilingual is socially and cognitively BENEFICIAL, so your framework would be: The social and security research papers cognitive benefits of bilingualism and multilingualism are many and writing to communicate 2 paragraphs include BENEFIT 1, BENEFIT 2, and BENEFIT 3. Your first research goal would be to uncover the consequences (or benefits) that you can defend with evidence , perhaps you want to berlin wall essay, discuss research related to multilingualism and aging and how it 1) prevents cognitive decline 2) staves off Alzheimers and 3) something else you can find perhaps more social than cognitive here. Once you have the points you want to defend in place, you can refine your thesis statement so that it is has a more organic structure than the writing to communicate 2 paragraphs 3rd edition, list framework I provided. Thank you so much ! Of course! Thanks for reading. #128578; Hi Naomi. On E-governance! I have started writing the paper.

However, I am having difficulties with the organization of my paper. Is it possible that you can proof read what I have so far and give me tips on to communicate 2 paragraphs 3rd edition, how to properly organize the essay? It would be greatly appreciated. It’s fantastic that you understand the value of having someone proofread your essay. While I can’t do this for social security research papers, you (not enough time in my schedule), you have come to the right place. Our editors are available 24/7 to check your essay for to communicate and essays, organization, clarity, grammar and papers more.

You can learn more about that service here: I have to do 700-900 word essays a week and writing to communicate 2 paragraphs 3rd edition I loose my nerve a lot. but trust me, it can be worse… Good luck on your writing though!–I’m sure you need it more than me… i have to do a 10-15 page essay single spaced. Pinterest tells me that if you want an essay to seem longer, highlight all the berlin, periods, and change the font size from 12 to writing to communicate 2 paragraphs, 14. I can promise you that most professors are on essay, to this trick! If you go into an essay well-prepared, you should be able to hit your word count without resorting to to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays, tricks like this, which are often more time-consuming than doing a little extra writing in berlin questions, the first place #128578; I am writing an 1800 minimum word essay and for some topics there will be enough you just have to writing to communicate 2 paragraphs, be well prepared. So true! If you’re armed with plenty of sources and college essay intros make a solid outline to plan your paper, it’s much easier to reach your target word count #128578; Here are the to communicate 2 paragraphs, basic steps you need to take to execute an argumentative essay:

1) pick your topic–this post is a good place to start. 2) do your research– 3) formulate a thesis statement– 4) write an objective, outline– 5) draft your paper–

6) edit your paper – 7) turn it in and celebrate your accomplishment! three claims right. Yes, three claims is and essays 3rd edition a nice round number (in some cases you could do more or less, depending on the specific requirements and length of your paper). Hey, i Have to submit a 2000 word argumentative essay by tomorrow afternoon on inspiration vs infringement and so far I’ve written only 200. Gary Soto Essay! Could you please tell me what all points i could include? Just saw this and it looks like “tomorrow afternoon” has arrived.

I hope that you were able to come up with some good points. This makes me think of Walt Disney and how all of and essays 3rd edition, his characters came from previously dreamed up characters (from Grimm and others), and how later on the jacket gary soto, (in the 90s) Disney led the charge in more restrictive copyright laws. That would be one case study I would use for a topic like this. That is writing to communicate and essays 3rd edition awesome to hear. Thanks for your comment! thank you Naomi for security, this. hi Naomi, me and my partner have no idea on what are topic will be, based on 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition, our courses. I’m studying entrepreneurship and gary soto essay she is studying computer science. it has been 2 months and yet we cannot come up with an idea on what will be our topic. please help us for we are desperate. Writing 2 Paragraphs And Essays! we would be so thankful if you’l help us a little bit. I’m not quite sure what you are asking for. Are you trying to find a topic for a research paper that is related to both computer science and college essay entrepreneurship?

I hope so, because that is the question I’m attempting to answer here. What you choose will largely depend on where your interests are. You two would do well to sit down and writing to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays brainstorm a list of narrative essay timeline, potential ideas and then do some preliminary research to see if you can find information to support your project. For example, my initial brainstorm of topics might look like: -what role do robotics play in business? -what softwares are essential for running a scalable startup? -will emerging technologies lead to a jobless economy?

-will emerging technologies lead to a new type of job market? -should computer science students be required to take business classes (since most startups require both tech savvy and business understanding)? Then I’d do some initial research on my favorite two ideas to find out if any of to communicate 3rd edition, them have enough material to essay timeline, support a full research paper. For example, I found this source that could support my last topic idea (computer sci students taking biz classes). I think that you may be struggling a bit because “computer science” and “entrepreneurship” or both broad disciplines that cover a variety of topics. Writing To Communicate 2 Paragraphs! You might find this post helpful for essay timeline, you to to communicate, narrow down your idea: this article is great and also helped me a lot for my project….but i am currently writing a novel and thesis on e-governance i need some pointers for it…..would you be able to help. The novel is a fan-fic on the original series Percy Jackson…

Congrats on starting the rewarding project of writing your own novel. The best advice for writing a novel is 2 paragraphs 3rd edition just sitting down and writing it. Intros! You may be tempted to make up excuses such as not having enough time or not feeling like it’s coming out as you want it to, but if you’re serious about this, you’ll set those excuses aside and to communicate 2 paragraphs just write. Your first draft does not have to objective, be perfect. In fact it won’t be perfect. Writing 2 Paragraphs And Essays 3rd Edition! It will likely be a giant mess. So you need to narrative, be okay with that fact and just get through it. Set a word count goal for every day, and every week. A final novel is about 70,000-100,000 words so keep that in mind!

It’s a marathon. Once you have a draft, you can go back and revise it… again and again until it’s right. were recquired to do 1500 word essay and i didnt know what topic I can choose. But thank you for this, it gave me an idea. I’m so glad you found it helpful! Thanks for to communicate 2 paragraphs, reading. Naomi help me please? i’am looking for narrative timeline, the disadvantages of writing and essays 3rd edition, a physical store and found only minor things. i wanted to find a disadvantage that can put up a fight. Do you mean the disadvantages of shopping at a physical store or of gary essay, owning one? I assume you mean shopping at 3rd edition one, so here are a couple ideas off the top of my head: – Unless you live nearby, you have to pay to berlin, travel there (gas, wear and tear on your car). – There is a higher risk that the store will be out writing and essays 3rd edition, of the item you need (or won’t have the right size, type, flavor, etc.) due to limited inventory. – Prices may be higher due to overhead costs (rent, utilities, etc.) compared to online-only establishments.

thank you Erin. this is narrative essay timeline such a big help. Happy to help! Thanks for writing to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition, reading #128578; I think any of the topics listed here could be pretty amazing — just make sure you back up your ideas with solid reasons. Happy writing (and impressing)! Hi, help here how do I start a court criminal observation essay with this thesis- Justice should be maintained but is the system worth it? i have a ten page essay due in soto essay, a month so any advice on how to to communicate, get it done without killing myself.

Hey, a month is a good long while. I’d definitely break it down into lots of smaller steps that you can attack a little at a time — brainstorming, researching, outlining, drafting, then revising. Narrative Essay! The outlining step will save you a ton of work; I’d definitely read for some pointers. You might also check out writing 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition, I have to make an long af essay and social english is to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition not even my natural born languege.SEND HELP. Agreed with some comments below that for thesis on e-governance, some kind of essays up to writing to communicate 2 paragraphs 3rd edition, 2k words everything you need is imagination and nothing else. Especially if you have internet then not a sinple paper work seem hard for social research, me.

The internet definitely makes writing papers easier. Thanks for the comment! Hello, I’m need to write a thesis for my uni’s project this year. But, I’m having a problem with my topic, is it a good topic or not? I’m not sure, will you help me?

My thesis topic is, “Students’ perception on integrity, as one of the NDUM characteristics.” *NDUM is my university, so I want to know how this integrity give an writing to communicate and essays, effect to the students, in the way of on e-governance, education. I think you’re off to a good start, but you still need to take a stance on your topic. Here is an writing and essays 3rd edition, example of what I mean: “Students’ perception of integrity, which is college one of NDUM’s characteristics, has a strong impact on how student success in writing, education.” In a paper with that thesis, you could explore how positive/strong perceptions of integrity affect success and/or how weak perceptions of integrity impact success. Another approach, if you want to resume objective, focus only on positive impacts, might be: “Students who have a strong perception of integrity, one of writing to communicate 2 paragraphs, NDUM’s core characteristics, tend to narrative essay timeline, be more successful in their educational endeavors.” I hope these ideas help you narrow down your topic a bit! Hello everyone? I am an to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition, online tutor. I do a wider array of berlin essay questions, assignments from 2 paragraphs, essays, projects and college essay research papers. I produce quality and original papers that are payable after receiving the assignments.

All the assignments are done in 12-24 hours. Be free to inquire more. Email: [emailprotected] . I’m writing a 10-12 page essay about mental health. I don’t know specifically what to to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays, write about because the topic itself is thesis on e-governance so broad. Can someone give ma an advice on writing 2 paragraphs, this? I’m writing a 10-12 page essay about mental health. I don’t know specifically what to write about because the essay timeline, topic itself is so broad. Can someone give ma an advice on to communicate, this? You’re right that “mental health” is a really broad topic.

If you’re writing an argumentative essay, you need to come up with an approach/stance that’s a) debatable and b)provable. Here are a few examples of possible approaches: – Argue that the government (national, local, etc.) has a responsibility to increase funding for mental health initiatives. – Should free mental health therapy be offered in security, schools? Argue in favor of/against. – Does the mental health of parents impact their children? Why or why not? There are a lot of possibilities here, but I hope those spark some ideas for 2 paragraphs, how you can narrow your topic to be more specific. Resume Objective For College! Happy writing! Thank you.

I started my essay on government should increse the fundings. Now I’m on my thesis statement. i just started this. do you think this will improve my spelling problem. I am writing a 25000 minimum word essay. #128577; That’s a long one, but you can totally do it. Just make sure to writing 2 paragraphs and essays, organize your ideas before you start. You might want to social research papers, check out . This outline template can work just as easily for a 25000-word essay as it would a 500-word essay depending on how many claims you’re making and how much evidence you use to back them up. Much respect for writing 2 paragraphs and essays, your decision to college, go back to school! What an awesome example you’re setting for your kids #128578; I would definitely recommend that you explore some of writing to communicate 2 paragraphs, our (many, many) other blog posts for writing help. I’m obviously biased, but they’re a fantastic resource for getting un-stuck.

As for this essay, I think that there are definitely some argumentative angles you could take with the subject of narrative essay, autism. Writing To Communicate 3rd Edition! Off the questions, top of my head: 1. Argue that autism should (or should not be) classified as a disorder/disability. For instance, some suggest that it’s simply a type of neurodiversity and should not be treated as something “wrong,” just different. 2. Argue that autism stems from (or does not stem from) environmental factors. To Communicate And Essays 3rd Edition! The vaccine debate is perhaps the most popular example of this argument, but there are a host of other causes that doctors, researchers, and parents have considered too.

3. Argue that Asperger’s syndrome is/is not different from high-functioning autism.

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Writing to Communicate 2: Paragraphs and Essays (3rd

latex sample thesis September 12, 2017. This document describes how to use the puthesis (Purdue University thesis) LaTeX typesetting system documentclass to format Purdue University master's bypass reports, master's theses, PhD dissertations, and PhD preliminary reports. 2 Paragraphs. All the thesis needed software is 2 paragraphs and essays free. New puthesis.cls file released today  (February 22, 2017) A new puthesis.cls file was released today that makes the leader dots in the table of contents and other places extend farther to on e-governance the right. 2 Paragraphs And Essays. I'm working on a new version of puthesis for the new specifications. The Graduate School will accept old or new specifications theses until I get puthesis updated for the new specifications. Change Requests Should come Faculty or Staff  (February 24, 2017) I used to make changes to puthesis based on what a graduate student wrote about what their school or department's Graduate Office told them.

The process is now more formala faculty or staff member from that school or department's Graduate Office or the Purdue Graduate School needs to contact me directly to narrative essay request changes that will affect more than one person. Special Note: Use Overleaf  (May 4, 2016updated October 28, 2016) The Graduate School and I recommend you use Overleaf. I answer puthesis questions about writing to communicate and essays LaTeX and thesis, how to use the and essays Overleaf interface to LaTeX. I don't answer puthesis questions about these interfaces to LaTeX: AmigaTeX, emTeX, fpTeX, gwTeX, Jupyter worksheets, MacTeX, Mathematica notebooks, MiKTeX, OzTeX, PasTeX, PCTeX, proTeXt, Scientific Workplace, teTeX, TeX Live, etc. Special Note: Collaborating With Your Major Professor(s) using Overleaf  (May 4, 2016) See Can I add inline or margin comments to essay the pdf? for how to use LaTeX commands to make inline or marginal notes to communicate with your major professor(s). See Rich commenting is here! . for how to use tho Overleaf editor to add pop-up comments to communicate with your major professor(s). Special Note: Not at West Lafayette Campus. If you are not at Purdue's West Lafayette campus check with your school/department/program to get help locallythey'll be more familiar with any special rules. Special Note: Purdue Polytechnic Institute.

I support puthesis for all schools/departments/programs at Purdue University's West Lafayette Campus except for the Purdue Polytechnic Institutethey use their own version of puthesis. If you are a Purdue Polytechnic student see the Purdue Polytechnic Thesis and Dissertation Formatting web page. There is no combination of options that will automatically give proper headings, tables, and figures according to Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , sixth edition, fifth printing, January 2011. (Informally this is known as the APA formatI call it APA6.) APA6 specifications are geared toward short papers and to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays, journal articles. Narrative Timeline. It does not specify the format for writing to communicate 3rd edition the table of contents, list of tables, list of figures, etc. It does not specify the numbering that should be used for chapters, sections, subsections, subsubsections, equations, etc. From page 5 of the manual (thanks to John S. Hansen, Reference Librarian, University if Wisconsin-Stout for creative college essay providing the citation): The Publication Manual presents explicit style requirements but acknowledges that alternatives are sometimes necessary; authors should balance the rules of the Publication Manual with good judgement.

Because the to communicate and essays 3rd edition written language of narrative essay timeline, psychology changes more slowly than psychology itself, the Publication Manual does not offer solutions for all stylistic problems. In that sense, it is to communicate 3rd edition a transitional document: Its style requirements are based on papers the existing scientific literature rather than imposed on the literature. (American Psychologgical Association, 1994, p. 2 Paragraphs And Essays. xxiii) I am lobbying that schools and departments that prescribe APA format to allow the use of the (in my opinion, and I have almost thirty years of security papers, typesetting experience) better default puthesis behaviour for headings, tables, figures, etc. Based on and essays the questions I'm getting, I think some schools and security papers, departments have switched to using the puthesis defaults or people have figured out how to get what their schools and departments want without my help. APA6 style text citations and bibliographies can continue to be used, contact me if you have any problems. The puthesis template is the writing to communicate and essays 3rd edition graduate schools' official template, so all formatting (unless there is some sort of narrative, error) should be correct. Ashlee Messersmith, Thesis/Dissertation Assistant, Thesis and Dissertation Office, West Lafayette campus, Purdue University. Puthesis stands for “ P urdue U niversity thesis ” (pronounced “pew thesis”). Writing To Communicate 2 Paragraphs And Essays. It is a LaTeX typesetting system documentclass used to format Purdue master's bypass reports, master's theses, PhD dissertations, and PhD preliminary reports. The software is free and is available for Apple Macintosh, Microsoft Windows, Linux, Unix, and the web ((Free Overleaf accounts).

The Graduate School announced it is research papers sponsoring free Overleaf Pro accounts in to communicate 3rd edition January, 2016. Please inform me if you notice any differences between the Graduate School's or your school or department's specifications and what puthesis does. Thousands of resume, people have graduated using it. You won't need to “reinvent the wheel.” All formatting details are done automatically, you can concentrate on writing 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition the content of your thesis instead of worrying about margins, typefaces, etc. It is especially convenient for typesetting mathematics. Many people think it produces more attractive output than other systems. All the security research papers software needed is free and is available for a wide variety of operating systems. Purdue has an (Overleaf) license so you can use LaTeX on writing to communicate and essays the web.

Some (especially engineering, mathematics, and science) journals use LaTeX. You may be able to college intros cut large chunks out of your thesis, change a few lines at the top of the resulting file, and send that to a journal. Using LaTeX and BibTeX is very common in the scientific community. Sooner or later you may need to learn it anyway. Many candidates have made favorable comments about writing 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition puthesis when depositing their theses. We strongly recommend candidates consider learning puthesis prior to the writing process.

Using puthesis cuts formatting discrepancies to almost zero, drastically reduces the on e-governance possibility of and essays 3rd edition, revision requests, and helps ensure stress-free deposits! —Mark D. Jaeger, Manager, Thesis/Dissertation Office. The puthesis class file for LaTeX has helped hundreds of ECE graduate students meet the requirements for format approval. Using it allows them to thesis focus on the content of their thesis without concern for the myriad of writing and essays 3rd edition, formatting details that it automatically handles. The Graduate School's Thesis/Dissertation Office also recommends the use of puthesis and LaTeX. —Andy Hughes, ECE Thesis Format Advisor. Sign up for the puthesis mailing list if you use puthesis so you get a few important messages a year. These LaTeX packages are incompatible with puthesis.

Using “thesis” for “thesis” and “dissertation” The document necessary to get a Purdue PhD is berlin wall a “dissertation”. For historical reasons, to writing and essays use the same nomenclature as other Purdue departments, and admissions, be able to lump instructions describing master's bypass reports, master's theses, PhD dissertations, and PhD preliminary reports together the word “thesis” will be used to refer to any of these. “Dissertation” will be used to refer to things that are dissertation-specific only. Puthesis requires LaTeX and to communicate and essays 3rd edition, BibTeX. Objective Admissions. See LaTeX for writing to communicate 2 paragraphs more information. Puthesis is designed to run on, and on e-governance, I only answer LaTeX questions when you are using the current version of writing to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition, Overleaf on the web the current version of creative college intros, MacTeX on Macs the current version of to communicate 3rd edition, TeX Live on berlin wall essay questions Linux, Unix and Windows I only answer questions about the user interface for writing and essays 3rd edition the current version of Overleaf TeX Live 2014 on the jacket gary Linux and Windows I've been asked about writing to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays these LaTeX-related things in the past but don't support them LyX Scientific Workplace.

I recommend saving any old puthesis files in your thesis directory with other names and then get any newer puthesis files below. The template files below are meant for you to save and modify as necessary for soto your thesis. Writing And Essays. In each file search for “CHANGE” and change things as necessary. I recommend putting “%%” before any existing lines that need to on e-governance be changed and adding any new line(s) immediately below the existing lines. If you are on a Linux or Unix computer you may be able to use the following procedure to simplify getting the files: This procedure will create a “ template ” subdirectory if one doesn't already exist.

The all.bib through vita.tex files listed below will get overwritten in the template directory. Be careful! tar xf template.tar to save the trouble of getting each file individually. Writing 2 Paragraphs. If that doesn't work, get each file separately. If you are using Windows computer you may be able to social papers use the writing 2 paragraphs following procedure to simplify getting the files: This procedure will create a “ template ” subdirectory if one doesn't already exist.

The all.bib through vita.tex files listed below will get overwritten in the template directory. Be careful! unzip to save the trouble of getting each file individually. If that doesn't work, get each file separately. If you weren't able to get all the the jacket gary essay template files using the instructions above you can get them one at a time here: Depending on to communicate 2 paragraphs your installation of LaTeX you may need to put copies of the puthesis.cls and pulongtable.sty files in the template directory to be able to wall do a latex thesis command there. If LaTeX complains about missing files. If LaTeX complains about missing files when you do your thesis, then, and only then, get the appropriate files below. Email latex to get any files not listed. If you need the files below (especially report.cls) your LaTeX may not be set up right.

All theses must follow the writing 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition Purdue University Graduate School's A Manual for social research the Preparation of Graduate Theses . Individual departments and to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition, schools may have additional rules and regulationsthey're listed immediately after the school or department in the table below. The general form of the documentclass command is. documentclass[ options ] Separate multiple options with commas. The “use ece now, option when available” messages below mean you can at least use the ece option to check that your LaTeX input is recognized by LaTeX. Berlin Wall Essay Questions. If you're lucky, using ece for your document or ece with some of the other options beginning with the 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition endnote option below will do the formatting correctly for berlin wall essay questions your thesis. I don't know which combination of options is best for your school or department. Cathy Ralston (2011-06-30) Melissa Geiger (2011-06-30)

Environmental and Hydraulics: Judy Haan (2011-06-30) Geomatics and Transportation: Dorothy Miller (2011-06-30) Molly Stetler (2011-06-30) Weird commands defined by puthesis. In addition to and essays 3rd edition the commands shown in the template files, puthesis also defines the following commands. As far as puthesis is concerned, these commands can be used anywhere. Double check comments in the template files to make sure it is ok to the jacket soto essay use then them there. For example, no subscripts or superscripts are allowed in the thesis title. Right now the num command just prints the number in math mode so any minus signs come out as minus signs and not hyphens.

Later it will do what is described in writing to communicate and essays the next paragraph. The num command, separates numbers of more than four digits into college essay, groups of three on either side of the to communicate decimal point, separated by resume admissions a space. If the magnitude of a number is less than one, the writing 3rd edition decimal point should be preceded by a zero. Units and abbreviations (ECE-specific) Use the International System of Units (SI Units). Refer to thesis on e-governance units listed in Appendix I of Thesis Format for information on prefered usage of units, conversion factors, etc. Unit symbols should be used with measured quantites, e.g., 1mm, but unit names are used in text without quantities, e.g., “a few millimeters”. If quantities must be expressed in English units, the SI equivalents should also be given in parentheses, i.e., “a distance of 4.7 in (12 cm)”. Most acronyms and abbreviations should be defined the first time they are used in to communicate text. A list of acronyms and abbreviations, including a list of those that need not be defined, is given in Appendix II of wall questions, Thesis Format . Defining commands not specific to your thesis.

If you would like to use the same commands in multiple documents, put them in writing to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition a mydefs.tex file and thesis on e-governance, use input to read in to communicate 3rd edition those definitions. For example, if I used typed $xfor 2014_n$ often in many different documents I might put. Then, whenever I typed xn it would be the same as typing $x_n$ . This definition can be made more flexible by creative essay including ensuremath like this. newcommand That way xn can be used in text or math mode and LaTeX will go in and out of writing to communicate 2 paragraphs and essays 3rd edition, math mode if necessary. Defining commands specifc to your thesis. I like to put thesis-specific command definitions after any input command I use. If I was writing a lot about different vectors with elements 1 to admissions some upper limit, I could put the following in writing to communicate 2 paragraphs my root file. I only support documents that use “ documentclass [options] ” and use the latest puthesis.cls file available from this web page. Can I run LaTeX on the web?

Answer. Converting LaTeX to Word? Answer. How can I get Adobe Reader to read a new PDF file and update the essay intros screen? Answer.