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The Lady of Shalott by Alfred Lord …
Caitlyn Jenner Breaks Up With Donald Trump in Long Essay. #8220;This half-baked idea puts all of our service members in harm#8217;s way,#8221; Jenner says in open letter. Longtime Republican Caitlyn Jenner supported Donald Trump#8217;s bid for president in 2016 and has stuck with him through controversies such as the Muslim travel ban and the repeal of the Affordable Care Act, along with the ongoing Russia scandal. But Trump#8217;s announcement-via-twitter on Wednesday that he plans to ban transgender Americans from serving in the U.S. military seems to be the last straw for the former Olympian. Hours after tweeting her displeasure with the president#8217;s decision, Jenner penned what amounts to a political #8220;Dear John#8221; letter, declaring that her #8220;allegiance is essay of shallot, with them and our country, not you.#8221; #8220;Studies estimate there are as many as 15,000 transgender people already serving this country and for those brave people fighting for our nation, Trump#8217;s early morning tweets must be devastating,#8221; Jenner said in a letter posted Wednesday afternoon to her official website. #8220;I believe every American should be outraged by mywritingpaper the disrespect shown to those people wearing our country#8217;s uniform.#8221; #8220;Furthermore,#8221; Jenner continued, #8220;this half-baked idea puts all of our service members in harm#8217;s way. Does President Trump intend to just pull 15,000 people out of essay about of shallot, every critical position to which they are currently assigned? That would disrupt core military missions around the world and needlessly endanger our troops.#8221; Jenner went on to cite the honorable service of transgender soldiers, noting studies that indicate #8220;transgender people are more likely to essay in english enlist in essay the lady, the military than the general population,#8221; as well as the using quotations in literary, #8220;approximately 134,000 transgender veterans in the U.S. today.#8221; She also noted the work by the Pentagon to ensure transgender people can serve openly.
Jenner continued: #8220;There is absolutely no reason to essay about of shallot undo all that work because President Trump decided to send a few tweets this morning.#8221; She concluded her letter with a tribute to her father. #8220;William Jenner landed on Omaha Beach in WWII, and his bravery and service to his country has always inspired me and helped make me the person I am today,#8221; Jenner said. #8220;America#8217;s 15,000 trans service members and 134,000 veterans are much braver than you, Mr. Trump; my allegiance is the gleaners painting essay, with them and our country, not you.#8221; 9 Movies to Remind You How Bad US Health Care Used to Be - And Might Be Again (Photos) The Republicans are continuing their attempt at repealing the Affordable Care Act, also known as Obamacare, with the Senate voting to essay about the lady of shallot push a repeal bill to floor debate. The bill looks to using essays roll back a number of the protections put in place by the ACA to protect Americans from issues like being denied coverage for pre-existing conditions or hitting lifetime limits on the lady of shallot, care. But people hated American health care so much before 2010, Hollywood made plenty of essay plan, movies, TV shows and about the lady documentaries about it. Essay In English! Here's a list of essay of shallot, films that are a helpful reminder of how American health care used to be in timeline, the pre-2010 world. Everyone remembers Jack Nicholson’s obsessive-compulsive jerk of a writer, Melvin. Essay About Of Shallot! What's easy to forget is he uses his substantial wealth to bail out timeline, a waitress (Helen Hunt) from her son’s high medical bills for his asthma.
She notes how she gets screwed by — guess who — her HMO when a doctor hired by Melvin shows up to about the lady of shallot give her son actual, competent medical care. Greed bad, kindness good. That’s the moral of “Last Holiday,” in which Queen Latifah goes on an expensive vacation after learning she has a brain tumor that will kill her. Of course, her insurance won’t cover risky life-saving surgery. In Literary Essays! Latifah makes friends with almost everyone she meets at the hotel and about they learn from her example. And then it turns out the tumor diagnosis was a mistake, so everyone wins. Taking on essay timeline, the Food and Drug Administration rather than insurance companies, “Dallas Buyers Club” focuses on how federal foot-dragging kept life-saving drugs out of the essay about the lady of shallot, hands of AIDS patients in the 1980s. Narrative Essay! Matthew McConaughey fights for about the lady of shallot the right to essay take an unapproved drug and wins, and learns to be less of about the lady, a terrible person along the way. Getting the quotations in literary essays, flipside of the healthcare debate, “Critical Care” is about of shallot, all about the level of care you receive when you have good insurance. Focusing on a man in a vegetative state, James Spader finds himself playing a doctor who wonders if it’s ethically cool to just keep people alive (and maybe suffering) because it’s profitable.
Everyone knows Walter White (Bryan Cranston) becomes Heisenberg, a meth-making Albuquerque kingpin, but they might not remember why: medical bills. Walt receives a cancer diagnosis that he fears will bankrupt his family, and meth is the gleaners painting essay, a way for him to the lady leave them enough money to survive before he goes. With issues like pre-existing conditions on their way back, it seems likely lots of people will be searching for extracurricular ways to pay their medical bills, and gofundme campaigns can only go so far. Documentarian Michael Moore picks apart the healthcare system and on leadership development plan highlights the people it leaves behind. That includes 9/11 first responders in New York. The film digs into the history and essay about issues of the U.S. employer-based insurance system -- a lot of which will come back under the Republican bill -- and quotations in literary compares it to essay the lady of shallot alternatives like those in Cuba, Canada and the United Kingdom. A John Grisham David v. Goliath legal story, “The Rainmaker” sees Matt Damon and Danny DeVito take an extremely evil insurance company to court. The extremely evil insurer denies coverage to a couple whose son is dying of leukemia, but Damon and DeVito eventually wallop it in court. The reality of fighting insurance companies in court in the future will likely be less uplifting.
The infamous Jigsaw killer targets the guy who denied him insurance coverage for an experimental cancer treatment. Painting! Jigsaw’s revenge: Make the guy who decides who lives and who dies for a living do it in a much more hands-on, gory way. At the the lady, end of the movie, another family he decided not to cover gets to choose whether to melt the insurance guy with acid. Guess which option they pick. On Sound Pollution In English! Denzel Washington plays a man whose son needs a heart transplant, but a technicality means his insurance won't cover it.
He takes an emergency room hostage, but, since everyone knows how evil insurance companies are, he manages to befriend everyone there. About The Lady Of Shallot! And then his son gets his operation, and mywritingpaper John saves the healthcare system. Essay About! As Trump-threatened repeal vote looms, here#8217;s a look back at how Hollywood covered the essay on leadership development plan, problems of the pre-Obamacare healthcare industry. Essay Of Shallot! The Republicans are continuing their attempt at repealing the Affordable Care Act, also known as Obamacare, with the Senate voting to push a repeal bill to floor debate. The bill looks to roll back a number of the protections put in place by the ACA to protect Americans from issues like being denied coverage for pre-existing conditions or hitting lifetime limits on care. But people hated American health care so much before 2010, Hollywood made plenty of movies, TV shows and development plan documentaries about it.
Here's a list of films that are a helpful reminder of how American health care used to essay about of shallot be in the gleaners, the pre-2010 world.
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The Lady Of Shalott: An analysis - UK …
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The internalism-externalism (I-E) debate lies near the center of contemporary discussion about epistemology. The basic idea of internalism is that justification is solely determined by factors that are internal to a person. Externalists deny this, asserting that justification depends on additional factors that are external to essay, a person. A significant aspect of the I-E debate involves setting out development plan, exactly what counts as internal to a person. The rise of the I-E debate coincides with the rebirth of epistemology after Edmund Gettier’s famous 1963 paper, “Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?” In that paper, Gettier presented several cases to about, show that knowledge is the gleaners not identical to essay about of shallot, justified true belief. Essay Development? Cases of this type are referred to essay about the lady, as “Gettier cases,” and they illustrate “the Gettier problem.” Standard Gettier cases show that one can have internally adequate justification without knowledge. The introduction of the Gettier problem to using quotations in literary, epistemology required rethinking the connection between true belief and knowledge, and the subsequent discussion generated what became the I-E debate over the nature of justification in an account of essay, knowledge. Internalists maintained that knowledge requires justification and that the nature of this justification is completely determined by a subject’s internal states or reasons.
Externalists denied at least one of these commitments: either knowledge does not require justification or the in english nature of about the lady of shallot, justification is not completely determined by internal factors alone. On the latter view, externalists maintained that the facts that determine a belief’s justification include external facts such as whether the on sound in english belief is caused by the state of affairs that makes the belief true, whether the belief is counterfactually dependent on the states of affairs that makes it true, whether the belief is produced by a reliable belief-producing process, or whether the belief is objectively likely to be true. The I-E discussion engages a wide range of epistemological issues involving the nature of rationality, the ethics of belief, and skepticism. The simple conception of the essay about of shallot I-E debate as a dispute over whether the facts that determine justification are all internal to a person is complicated by several factors. First, some epistemologists understand externalism as a view that knowledge does not require justification while others think it should be understood as an externalist view of justification. Second, there is an important distinction between having good reasons for one’s belief (that is, propositional justification) and basing one’s belief on the good reasons one possesses (that is, doxastic justification). This distinction matters to the nature of the internalist thesis and consequently the I-E debate itself. The Gleaners Painting Essay? Third, there are two different and prominent ways of understanding what is internal to a person. This bears on the nature of the internalist thesis and externalist arguments against internalism. This section explores these complications. The traditional analysis of knowledge is that knowledge is justified true belief.
As Socrates avers in the Meno , knowledge is essay of shallot more than true belief. Superstitious beliefs that just turn out to be true are not instances of knowledge. On Leadership Plan? In the Theatetus Socrates proposes that knowledge is essay true belief tied down by an account. Socrates’ proposal is the beginning of what epistemologists refer to as the justified true belief (JTB) account of knowledge. A true belief tied down by an account can be understood as a true belief for which one has adequate reasons . On the JTB account having adequate reasons turns a true belief into knowledge.
The JTB account was demolished by Gettier’s famous 1963 article. As explained in the introduction Gettier cases demonstrate that knowledge is more than justified true belief. Suppose that Smith possesses a good deal of evidence for the belief that someone in in literary essays, his office owns a Ford. Smith’s evidence includes such things as that Smith sees Jones drive a Ford to work every day and that Jones talks about the the lady joys of owning a Ford. It turns out, however, that (unbeknownst to Smith) Jones is deceiving his coworkers into believing he owns a Ford. At the same time, though, someone else in narrative timeline, Smith’s office, Brown, does own a Ford. So, Smith’s belief that someone in his office owns a Ford is both justified and true. Essay About? Yet it seems to most people that Smith’s belief is not an instance of knowledge. The Gettier problem led epistemologists to rethink the connection between knowledge and true belief. An externalist position developed that focused on causal relations or, more generally, dependency relations between one’s belief and the facts as providing the the gleaners essay key to turning true belief into knowledge (see Armstrong 1973).
It is unclear from this move alone whether externalism should be understood as the view knowledge does not require justification or that justification should be understood externally. Some externalists advocate the view that knowledge doesn’t require justification but that nonetheless justification is epistemically important (see Sosa 1991b). Other externalists hold that knowledge does require justification but that the nature of the justification is amenable to an externalist analysis (see Bergmann 2006). A significant aspect of the issue of how one should understand externalism is whether the term ‘justification’ is essay a term of logic or merely a place-holder for a necessary condition for essays, knowledge. If ‘justification’ is a term of logic then it invokes notions of consistency, inconsistency, implication, and coherence. On this conception of essay about the lady of shallot, justification an externalist analysis of the nature of justification is implausible.
However, if ‘justification’ is merely a place-holder for a condition in using quotations essays, an account of knowledge then the nature of justification might be amenable to an externalist analysis. Externalists have defended both views. Some argue that ‘justification’ is a term of logic and so their position is essay about the lady of shallot best understood as the view that justification is not required for knowledge. However, other externalists have argued that ‘justification’ is not a term of logic but a term that occurs in biographical essay, connection with knowledge talk and so is amenable to an externalist account. Many internalists, by essay about, contrast, claim that justification is necessary for knowledge and that the notion of justification may be (partially) explicated by the concepts of consistency, implication, and coherence. b. Justification and Well-foundedness. There is a significant difference between merely having good reasons for the gleaners, one’s belief that the Bears will win the Super Bowl and basing one’s belief on those reasons. Mike Ditka may have excellent reasons for believing the Bears will win; they have a superior defense and an excellent running back. Nevertheless Ditka may believe that the Bears will win based on wishful thinking. In this case it’s natural to make a distinction in one’s epistemic evaluation of Ditka’s belief. Ditka’s belief is justified because he has good reasons for it.
But Ditka’s believing the claim as he does is not justified because he bases his belief on wishful thinking and not the the lady of shallot good reasons he has. This marks the distinction between propositional and doxastic justification. Other epistemologists refer to the same distinction as that between justification and well-foundedness (see Conee Feldman 2004). This leads to a second area of complication in the I-E debate. Internalists claim that every condition that determines a belief’s justification is using quotations essays internal, but causal relations are typically not internal. Since basing one’s belief on reasons is a causal relation between one’s belief and essay of shallot, one’s reasons, internalists should not claim that every factor that determines doxastic justification is internal (see 1c below for further discussion of this). Accordingly, internalism should be understood as a view about propositional justification. Moreover, given that one cannot know unless one bases one’s belief on good reasons this implies that internalists will understand the on leadership justification condition in an account of knowledge as composed of about, two parts: propositional justification and some causal condition (typically referred to as “the basing relation”).
This considerably complicates the I-E debate because there’s not a straightforward disagreement between internalist and externalist views of doxastic justification, since externalists typically avoid dissecting the justification condition. Common forms of externalism build in a causal requirement to justification, for example, one’s belief that p is essay prompts produced by a reliable method. Essay About Of Shallot? Nevertheless it is important to essay on sound, get the nature of the the lady internalist thesis straight and only then determine the nature of the externalist objections. The distinction between propositional and doxastic justification allows us to bring into focus different notions of internal states . Internalism is best understood as the thesis that propositional justification, not doxastic justification, is completely determined by one’s internal states. But what are one’s internal states? One’s internal states could be one’s bodily states, one’s brain states, one’s mental states (if these are different than brain states), or one’s reflectively accessible states. The two most common ways of understanding internalism has been to take internal states as either reflectively accessible states or mental states. Biographical? The former view is known as accessibilism and it has been championed by Roderick Chisholm and Laurence BonJour (see also Matthias Steup (1999)).
The latter view is known as mentalism and it has been defended by essay about of shallot, Richard Feldman and Earl Conee. On an accessibilist view every factor that determines whether one’s belief is propositionally justified is reflectively accessible. Since the causal origins of one’s beliefs are not, in general, reflectively accessible they do not determine whether one’s belief is propositionally justified. But whether or not one’s belief that p and one’s belief that q are contradictory is reflectively accessible. Since contradictory beliefs cannot both be justified one can ascertain by reflection alone whether pairs of on sound in english, beliefs lack this devastating epistemic property. One should note that the above claim that the causal origins of one’s beliefs are not, in general, reflectively accessible is an anti-Cartesian claim. Arguably, Descartes thought that one could always discover the causal origins of one’s beliefs. On the essay about Cartesian view causal relations that hold between beliefs and experiences and using, beliefs are reflectively accessible. Many scholars, however, believe this view is false.
Stemming from Freud’s work many now think that one does not have the kind of access Descartes thought one had to the causal origins of one’s beliefs. About The Lady? Given this an accessibilist view about doxastic justification—that is, propositional justification + the essay on leadership development plan causal origins of one’s belief—is not feasible. Accessibilists should only essay about the lady require that every factor that determines whether one’s belief is propositionally justified is reflectively accessible. There are varieties of accessibilist views depending on how one unpacks what states count as reflectively accessible. Are these states that one is able to reflectively access now or states that one may access given some time? If accessibilism is narrative timeline not restricted to current mental states then it needs to explain where the cut off is between states that count towards determining justificatory status and those that don’t count.
Richard Feldman has a helpful article on this topic in which he defends the about strong thesis that it is essay on leadership development only one’s current mental states that determine justificatory status (Feldman 2004b). Another dimension apropos accessibilism is whether the justificatory status of one’s belief needs to be accessible as well. If it does then one’s inability to determine whether or not one’s belief that p is justified demonstrates that p is not justified for one. BonJour (1985, chapter 2), for instance, is commonly cited as defending this strong kind of accessibilism. This strong version of accessibilism is often taken to be the about the lady purest form of internalism since internalism is not uncommonly associated with a commitment to higher-order principles such as one knows that p only if one knows that one knows that p. Robert Nozick (1981, p. 281) takes internalism to be the thesis that knowledge implies knowledge of all the preconditions of knowing. The other prominent view of internal states is that they are mental states. Essay In English? This view is known as mentalism (see Conee Feldman 2004b). Mentalism, like accessibilism, is a view about propositional justification, not doxastic justification. One’s mental states completely determine the justificatory status of one’s beliefs. Essay About The Lady? Mentalism is connected to accessibilism since according to the Cartesian tradition one can determine which mental states one is in by reflection alone.
To the extent that mentalism is the gleaners painting essay distinct from accessibilism it allows that some non-reflectively accessible mental states can determine whether one’s belief is propositionally justified. A defender of a mentalist view needs to explain which mental states determine justificatory status. Do all mental states—hopes, fears, longings—determine propositional justification or just some mental states, such as beliefs and essay about the lady of shallot, experiences? Moreover, a defender of mentalism needs to clarify whether both current and non-current mental states can determine justificatory status. A non-current mental state is a mental state that you do not currently host. For instance, you believed a moment ago that 186 is greater than 86 but currently you are not thinking about the gleaners painting essay this. One of the advantages of mentalism is that it upholds a clear internalist thesis—justification is determined by one’s mental states—without appealing to essay about, the problematic notion of access. Many understand the notion of access to using quotations, be a thinly disguised epistemic term (see, for instance, Fumerton (1995) p. About Of Shallot? 64). To have access to some fact is just to know whether or not that fact obtains.
This is problematic for an accessibilist because he analyzes justification in terms of access and then use the notion of justification to partially explicate knowledge. In short, if ‘access’ is an epistemic term then any analysis of knowledge that rests upon facts about access will be circular. The mentalist escapes this problem. One’s mental states determine justification, and one does not explicate what one’s mental states are by on leadership development plan, appeal to the problematic notion of access. However, mentalism does face the objection that since it eschews the essay about the lady notion of mywritingpaper, access it is not a genuine form of essay about of shallot, internalism (see Bergmann 2006 for essay prompts, a further examination of this issue). Before we press on to other issues in the I-E debate let us take stock of what has been considered. Internalism is the view that all the factors that determine propositional justification are either reflectively accessible states (that is, accessibilism) or mental states (that is, mentalism).
Internalists also hold that doxastic justification, which is propositional justification and a basing requirement, is necessary for knowledge. We can think of internalism as the view that all the factors that determine justification apart from a basing requirement are internal. Let us call these justification determining factors, minus the basing requirement, the J-factors. Externalists about justification deny that the J-factors are all internal. If, however, we view externalism merely as a negative thesis then we lose sight of its distinctly philosophical motivation. Essay Of Shallot? Externalists’ positive views are grounded in essay, the intuition that the natural relations between one’s beliefs and the environment matter to a belief’s justification. Essay About The Lady? If, for example, a subject’s belief that there is a tiger behind the tall grass is caused by the fact that there is a tiger there this fact seems significant to determining the justificatory status of that belief, even though this fact may not be reflectively accessible to one. At a certain level of generality, externalism is best viewed as stressing the justificatory significance of dependency relations between one’s belief and the environment. This section examines prominent reasons for internalism. I will discuss three motivations for internalism: the appeal to the Socratic/Cartesian project; the appeal to deontology; and the appeal to natural judgment about cases.
These three motivations are conspicuous in arguments for internalism. After giving each reason I shall consider externalist responses. One common strategy internalists employ is to emphasize that epistemic justification requires having good reasons for one’s beliefs. As both Socrates and Descartes stressed it’s not rational to believe p without possessing a good reason for using quotations essays, believing p. The Lady Of Shallot? Suppose I believe that the Telecom’s stock will drastically fall tomorrow. It’s reasonable to ask why I think that’s true. Clearly it’s wrong to repeat myself, saying “I believe that’s true because it is true.” So it seems I must have a reason, distinct from narrative essay timeline, my original belief, for thinking that Telecom’s stock will fall. Also I cannot appeal to essay about, the causal origins of that belief or to in literary, the reliability of the specific belief process. Those sorts of facts are beyond my ken. Whatever I can appeal to will be something I am aware of. Moreover, I can’t merely appeal to another belief, for example, Karen told me that Telecom’s stock will fall. I need a good reason for thinking that Karen is good indicator about these sorts of things.
Apart from that supporting belief it’s not rational to essay the lady, believe that Telecom’s stock will fall. So rationality requires good reasons that indicate a belief is true. The appeal to the Socratic/Cartesian project is a way to motivate the claim that it is a basic fact that rationality requires good reasons. This requirement conflicts with externalism since externalism allows for on sound, the possibility that one’s belief is justified even though one has no reasons for that belief. To draw out this commitment let us expand on the above example. Essay About Of Shallot? Suppose that my belief that Telecom’s stock will fall is based on essay my beliefs that Karen told me so and that Karen is a reliable indicator of these things. But not every belief of mine is supported by other beliefs I have. About The Lady? These kinds of beliefs are called basic beliefs , beliefs that are not supported by other beliefs.
Consider your belief that there’s a cube on the table. What reason do you have for this belief? It might be difficult to say. Yet internalism requires that you have some reason (typically, the content of one’s experience) that supports this belief if that belief is narrative essay timeline rational. Externalists think that that is just too tall of an order. In fact one of the early motivations for externalism was to handle the justification of basic beliefs (see Armstrong 1973). In general, externalists think that basic beliefs can be justified merely by of shallot, the belief meeting some external condition. One complication with this, though, is that some externalists think a basic belief require reasons but that reasons should be understood in essay timeline, an externalist fashion (see Alston (1988)). I shall ignore this complication because on Alston’s analysis justification depends on factors outside one’s ken.
So, to the extent that one is moved by the internalist intuition, one will think that externalism falls. About? It allows for justification without good reasons. One should also note that this appeal to the Socratic/Cartesian project supports accessibilism. A related argument used to support internalism appeals to the inadequacy of externalism to answer philosophical curiosity (see Fumerton 2006). If we take up the Socratic project, then we are interested in determining whether our most basic beliefs about reality are likely to be true. It seems entirely unsatisfactory to note that if one’s beliefs meet some specified external condition then the beliefs are justified; for the natural question is in literary whether one’s belief has met that external condition. This suggests that to the extent that we are interested in essay the lady, whether our beliefs are epistemically justified internalism is the essay only game in the lady of shallot, town.
Externalist Response One early externalist response was to note that internalists focus on essay pollution in english conditions they use to about the lady, determine justificatory status but that this is using quotations in literary conceptually distinct from conditions that actually do determine justificatory status. An adequate definition of albinos may be entirely useless for finding actual albinos (see Armstrong 1973, p. 191). In a similar manner it’s at least conceptually possible that one’s analysis of the nature of essay the lady of shallot, justification is not a useful tool for determining whether or not one’s beliefs are justified. What this shows is that internalists need an additional argument from the fact that we can appeal to only internal factors to determine justification to the conclusion that only internal facts determine justification. Another early response to this internalist tactic is to the gleaners painting essay, argue that internalism fails to meet its own demands.
Alvin Goldman (1980) presents an argument of about of shallot, this kind, claiming that there is no definite and acceptable set of internalistic conditions that determine what cognitive attitude a subject should have given her evidence. Goldman argues for this conclusion by biographical essay, supposing that there is some set of internalistic conditions and then contenting that there no acceptable way to accommodate this set of conditions within the constraints laid down by of shallot, internalists. On Leadership? For instance, Goldman reasons that one internalistic constraint is that the essay about correctness of in literary essays, these conditions be reflectively accessible. But, if the correctness of this procedure depends on its ability to get one to the truth more often than not, then since that property isn’t reflectively accessible, internalists shouldn’t understand the correctness of the procedure to consist in its ability to be a good guide to the truth. Goldman then argues that other accounts of the the lady of shallot correctness of this procedure likewise fail. Narrative Timeline? So it is not possible for internalism to meet its own severe restrictions. For a similar argument see Richard Foley (1993). b. Deontology (The Ethics of Belief) A prominent source of support for internalism is the allegedly deontological character of justification (see Plantinga (1993), chapter 1; this section relies heavily on Plantinga’s discussion). Essay The Lady Of Shallot? The language of ‘justified’ ‘unjustified’ invokes concepts like rightness wrongness, blameless blameworthy, and dutifulness neglect. Narrative Essay Timeline? Facts about justification are set in the larger context of one’s duties, obligations, and requirements.
Descartes, for instance, explains that false belief arises from the improper use of one’s own will. There is the lady of shallot a two-fold implication to this. First, if one governs one’s believing as one ought then one is justified in one’s believings. Second, if one maintains proper doxastic attitudes one will have (by and on sound, large) true beliefs. Locke, like Descartes, connects justification with duty fulfillment. Locke maintains that though one may miss truth, if one governs one’s doxastic attitudes in about of shallot, accord with duty then one will not miss the the gleaners painting essay reward of truth ( Essay , IV, xvii, 24). The argument from the about deontological character of justification to internalism proceeds as follows. Justification is narrative timeline a matter of essay the lady of shallot, fulfilling one’s intellectual duties but whether or not one has fulfilled one’s intellectual duties is entirely an internal matter. Essay Development? One fulfills one’s intellectual duties when one has properly taken into account the evidence one possesses. If Smith scrupulously analyzes all the relevant information about Telecom’s stock prices and draws the conclusion that Telecom’s prices will soar then Smith’s belief is essay the lady of shallot justified. If it later comes to light that the essay pollution information was misleading this doesn’t impugn our judgment about Smith’s belief at that time.
Smith was intellectually virtuous in his believing and essay of shallot, drew the appropriate conclusion given the evidence he possessed. In contrast if Jones is an epistemically reckless stock broker who does not study the essay market before he makes his judgments, but happens to hit on the true belief that Telecom’s stock prices will fall then we do not count his belief as justified since he ignored all the relevant evidence. Jones should have believed otherwise. The cases of essay about the lady, Smith and Jones support the claim that fulfilling one’s intellectual duty is entirely a matter of what one is able to determine by reflection alone. Both Smith and Jones are able to determine that their evidence indicates Telecom’s stock will soar. The Gleaners Painting Essay? Smith appropriately believes this and Jones does not. Since externalists would require some other non-reflectively accessible condition externalism is essay wrong. One should note that this argument supports accessiblism, not mentalism. Externalist Response Externalists have responded to mywritingpaper mywritingpaper, this line of argument in two ways. First, some externalists deny that facts about duties, rights, or blameworthiness are relevant to the lady of shallot, the sense of justification necessary for knowledge. Second, other externalists deny that the deontological character of justification supports accessibilism.
Arguments of the first kind fall into two groups: (a) arguments that a necessary condition for narrative prompts, rights, duties, or blameworthiness is not met with respect to belief and (b) arguments that facts about deontology are not relevant to determining epistemic facts. The most common argument for (a) is that beliefs are outside of an individual’s control, and so it does not make sense to about, consider an individual blameworthy for a belief. This is the issue of doxastic voluntarism. Sosa (2003) and using quotations, Plantinga (1993) present arguments for (b). The basic idea in these cases is that an individual may be deeply epistemically flawed but nonetheless perfectly blameless in his or her belief. About The Lady? An individual may, for instance, be “hardwired” to accept as valid instances of affirming the consequent; nonetheless, a person’s belief in A on the basis of development, if A then B and B is not justified. Michael Bergmann (2006, chapter 4) presents an argument of the second type that the deontological character of justification does not support accessibilism. Essay Of Shallot? The basic idea of in english, Bergmann’s argument is that an appeal to the deontological character of justification only supports the essay the lady of shallot requirement that the person not be aware of any reasons against the belief. It does not support the stronger requirement that the essay person be aware of positive reasons for the belief. Bergmann then argues the weaker requirement is consistent with externalism. A different strategy to the lady of shallot, support internalism is to appeal to mywritingpaper mywritingpaper, natural judgment about cases.
I shall consider two famous thought experiments designed to elicit internalist intuitions: BonJour’s Clairvoyant cases, specifically the case of Norman (BonJour 1980) and the new evil demon problem (Lehrer Cohen 1983 Cohen 1984). About The Lady? I shall present the two cases and then offer an externalist response. As Sosa (1991a) explains the two cases are related in that each is the mirror image of the other. Essay On Leadership? In the about the lady of shallot Norman case there is reliability without internal evidence while in mywritingpaper, the new evil demon problem there is internal evidence without reliability. In BonJour’s (1980) article he presents four clairvoyant cases to illustrate the fundamental problem with externalism. Subsequent discussion has focused mainly on the case of Norman.
BonJour describes the Norman case as follows: Norman, under certain conditions that usually obtain, is a completely reliable clairvoyant with respect to certain kinds of subject matter. He possesses no evidence or reasons of any kind for or against the general possibility of the lady of shallot, such a cognitive power, or for the gleaners painting, or against the thesis that he possesses it. One day Norman comes to believe that the President is in New York City, though he has no evidence either for or against his belief. In fact the essay the lady of shallot belief is essay on leadership plan true and results from his clairvoyant power, under circumstances in which it is completely reliable. (p. 21) Intuitively it seems that Norman’s belief is not justified.
Norman doesn’t have any reasons for thinking that the President is in New York City. Norman just finds himself believing that. Were Norman to reflect on his belief he would come to see that that belief is unsupported. Yet in the situation imagined Norman’s belief is the product of a reliable process. Norman is not aware of this fact. But nonetheless on some externalist analyses Norman’s belief is justified because it is produced by a reliable process. The Norman case is used to illustrate a general problem with externalism. Externalists hold that the justification of basic beliefs requires only that the specified external condition is met (excluding the complication with Alston’s view, mentioned above).
Yet where the the lady of shallot subject lacks any internally accessible reason for narrative essay, thinking the belief is true it seems irrational for essay about of shallot, the subject to maintain that belief. Rationality requires good reasons. The original evil demon problem comes from Descartes. In the Meditations Descartes entertains the possibility that he is deceived by a powerful demon in believing that (for example,) he has hands. Descartes concludes that he needs to rule out this possibility by providing good reasons for mywritingpaper mywritingpaper, thinking that he is not deceived in this way and essay about, that he can take the evidence of his senses at face value. Most epistemologists think Descartes concedes too much by requiring that he rule out this possibility in biographical narrative essay, order to know that he has hands on the basis of the evidence he possesses. The new evil demon problem is about of shallot different from Descartes’ evil demon problem. This problem does not require that one rule out the possibility of massive deception in order to mywritingpaper, have knowledge. Rather the problem is intended to the lady, illustrate the inadequacy of quotations essays, externalism. The new evil demon problem was originally developed against reliabilism, the view that a belief’s justification consists in the reliability of the essay about the lady process that produced it. Biographical Prompts? The problem is that there are possible individuals with the same evidence as we possess but whose evidence is not truth indicative.
For instance we can conceive of about, individuals that have been placed in essay development plan, Matrix scenarios in which their brains are stimulated to have all the same experiences we have. When we seem to see a tree, normally a tree is present. However, when these individuals in a Matrix scenario seem to see a tree, there is no tree present. Their experiences are systematically misleading. Nevertheless since they possess just the same evidence that we have, the justificatory status of their beliefs is exactly the same as ours. If our beliefs are justified then so are their beliefs, and if their beliefs are not justified then our beliefs aren’t justified. This intuition reflects the key internalist claim that two individuals that are alike mentally are alike with respect to justification. There’s no difference in justification unless there’s some relevant mental difference.
Externalists are committed to denying this symmetry. Essay About The Lady? Since the individuals in the Matrix world fail to meet the relevant external condition their beliefs are unjustified, but since our beliefs meet the external condition our beliefs are justified. The Externalist Response. Both the Norman case and the new evil demon problem have led to significant modifications to externalism. At a very general level the basic externalist move is mywritingpaper mywritingpaper that relative to our world Norman’s belief is unjustified and an individual’s belief in the Matrix world is justified. In our world clairvoyance is not a reliable belief-forming method. A clairvoyant’s belief that, for example, today is their lucky day is not caused by the relevant fact. Furthermore, a clairvoyant’s belief is not objectively likely to essay about, be true.
The externalist thinks that justification tracks these actual facts and so accordingly our judgment of Norman’s belief is that it is unjustified. Similarly in the new evil demon problem justification tracks the the gleaners essay actual facts. Since our perceptual beliefs meet the external condition they are justified. About Of Shallot? When we consider possible individuals with the same perceptual evidence that we have, we rightly consider their beliefs justified. Granted that their beliefs do not meet the external condition in that world , but in our world such beliefs do meet the external condition. Alvin Goldman (1993) develops this externalist response to painting, the Norman case.
Goldman argues that Norman’s belief is not justified because relative to our list of epistemic virtues and vices clairvoyant beliefs are unjustified. Goldman argues that justification is relative to actual intellectual virtues, where the virtues are understood in a reliabilist fashion. This is a departure from Goldman’s earlier view in which the reliability of a belief forming process in a world determined the justificatory status of the belief. On that view Goldman is saddled with the consequence that Norman’s beliefs is justified and the beliefs of the of shallot people in the Matrix world are unjustified. On his (1993) view a belief’s justification is determined by the reliability of using in literary, processes in our world. Essay? Goldman is not saddled with those counterintuitive results but can instead maintain the internalist’s intuition without surrendering externalism.
For other instances of essay timeline, this relativization move see Sosa (1991a) and Bergmann (2006). The following is an the lady of shallot examination of three prominent reasons for externalism—the argument from the truth connection, the argument from ordinary knowledge ascriptions, and essay timeline, the argument from the implausibility of radical skepticism. About? Also included are the main internalist responses. A very powerful argument for externalism is that epistemic justification is essay pollution essentially connected to truth. Epistemic justification differs from prudential or moral justification. One can be prudentially justified in believing that one’s close friend is essay about a good chap. On Sound Pollution In English? One is prudentially justified in essay about, believing that this is true. But it’s possible that one has good epistemic reasons for withholding this belief. So one is not epistemically justified in believing one’s close friend is a good fellow. How should we account for this difference between prudential and epistemic justification?
The natural response is to essay pollution in english, hold that epistemic justification implies that one’s belief is objectively likely to be true whereas prudential justification (or other non-epistemic forms of justification) does not. However, whether one’s belief is objectively likely to be true is not determined by one’s mental states or one’s reflectively accessible states. The objective likelihood of a belief given a body of evidence is a matter of the strength of correlation in the actual world between the truth of the belief and the body of evidence. If one applies some liquid to a litmus paper and it turns red then the objective likelihood that the essay the lady of shallot liquid is acidic is very high. But the narrative essay strong correlation between red litmus paper and acidity is not reflectively accessible.
So, if epistemic justification implies that one’s belief is objectively likely to be true then justification is not determined entirely by one’s internal states. Internalists argue that the problem of the truth connection is a problem for everyone. Epistemic justification is essay about the lady essentially connected to the truth in quotations in literary essays, a way that distinguishes it from, say, prudential justification. But it is exceedingly difficult to note exactly what this connection consists of. Internalists stress that the proposed externalist solution that epistemic justification raises a belief’s objective likelihood of truth isn’t as straightforward as it first appears. The intuition in the new evil demon problem illustrates that epistemic justification does not imply that one’s belief is of shallot objectively likely to be true.
So to generate an argument against internalism from the truth connection one needs to narrative essay timeline, do more than appeal to the intuition of a strong connection between justification and truth. The problem of the truth connection for the lady, internalism is an active area of research. See Lehrer Cohen (1983) for the original discussion of this problem. One of the most powerful motivations for mywritingpaper mywritingpaper, externalism is that we correctly attribute knowledge to the lady of shallot, unsophisticated persons, children, and some animals. These individuals, though, lack internalist justification. The Gleaners Painting? So either knowledge doesn’t require justification or justification should be understood externally.
Grandma knows that she has hands even though she can not rehearse an argument for that conclusion and of shallot, can not even think of essay, anything else to defend the claim that she does have hands. Essay About? Timmy knows that it’s a sunny day and quotations essays, Lassie knows that there’s water in essay about, the bowl. In each case it appears that the subject is justified but lacks any internally accessible reason for the belief. Reflection on these cases, and many others like them, supports the externalist central contention that internalism is too strong. Persons can know without possessing internalistic justification. The main problem with appeal to cases like Grandma, Timmy, and Lassie is that the details of essay, such cases are open to interpretation. About The Lady Of Shallot? Internalists argue that when the cases are properly unpacked either these are not cases of justification or there is internalist justification (see “Internalist Response” immediately below). In an attempt to strengthen the argument for externalism some externalists appeal to mywritingpaper mywritingpaper, non-standard cases.
One non-standard case is the chicken-sexer case. Chicken-sexers are individuals that possess the about of shallot unique ability to reliably sort male from female chickens. As the case is described chicken-sexers do not know how they sort the chickens. They report not being able to offer the mywritingpaper criteria they use to sort the essay the lady of shallot chickens. Nonetheless they are very good at sorting chickens and their beliefs that this is a male , this is a female, etc., are justified even though they lack internalist justification. Another non-standard case is the case of quiz-show knowledge. The case envisions a contestant, call her Sally, on quotations in literary a popular quiz show that gets all the answers right. When a clue is offered Sally rings in with the correct answer. She’s quite good at this. Intuitively Sally knows the answers to the clues; yet from Sally’s perspective the answers just pop into her head.
Moreover, Sally may believe that she does not know the answer. What should we say about this case? Sally is very reliable. Her answers are objectively likely to about, be true. We can fill out the case by stipulating her answers are caused in part by the relevant fact. She learned the narrative essay answer either by direct experience with the relevant fact—she was in Tiananmen Square during the famous protests of 1989—or through a reliable informant. Essay About The Lady Of Shallot? Yet Sally lacks any internal phenomenology usually associated with remembering an answer. The answers just seem to come out narrative, of the blue. Moreover, Sally doesn’t take herself to know the answer. Essay The Lady Of Shallot? Yet given her excellent track record it certainly seems right to say that Sally knows the answer. This is a problematic case for internalists because it appears that no relevant internal condition is present.
The argument advanced by essay, externalists above is a conjunction of two claims: (i) these individuals have knowledge and (ii) no internalist justification is present. Of Shallot? In the cases of Grandma, Timmy, and Lassie one response is to deny that these individuals have knowledge, but that strikes many as incredibly implausible and too concessive to skeptical worries. A much more plausible response is to argue that an internalist justification is development plan present. Essay About The Lady? In the case of Grandma, for instance, she has experiences and memories which attest that she had hands. Though she doesn’t cite that as a reason, it is essay on leadership development nonetheless a good reason for her to believe that she has hands. Essay The Lady Of Shallot? Similar points can be made with respect to using in literary essays, Timmy and Lassie. To the extent that our judgments that Timmy and Lassie have knowledge are resilient we can find appropriate experiences that indicate the truth of their beliefs. In the chicken-sexer case internalists respond by either denying that the subject has knowledge or claiming that there are features of the chicken-sexer’s experience that indicate the sex of the chicken. The quiz-show case is about the lady more interesting.
Given the description of the case it’s difficult to find a reason available to timeline, Sally that will meet internalist strictures. The options for the internalists seem limited. Since it’s not plausible that there’s a relevant internalist justification present, internalists are saddled with the result that Sally lacks knowledge. Essay The Lady? How plausible is this result? Richard Feldman (2005a) argues that it’s not apparent from the case that (for example) Sally even believes the answer. Sally is encouraged to answer and she goes with whatever pops in her head. Moreover, Feldman observes, the contestant seems to lack any stable belief forming mechanism.
Since knowledge entails belief it appears then that Sally lacks knowledge because she lacks belief. Furthermore, as another option, since Sally may take herself not to know the using answer she possesses a reason that undermines her knowledge (see Feldman (2005a) for the role of higher-order knowledge to defeat object-knowledge). The upshot is that the case of quiz show knowledge is indecisive against internalism: either Sally lacks the relevant belief or she possesses a reason that defeats her knowledge. Another main motivation for externalism is its alleged virtues for handling skepticism in at least some of about of shallot, its varieties. Narrative Essay? One powerful skeptical argument begins with the premise that we lack direct access to facts about the external world. For any experiential justification we have for believing some fact about the external world—for example, there’s a magnolia tree—it’s possible to have that same justification even though there’s no such fact. The experience one has is caused by a state of essay the lady of shallot, one’s brain and it is possible that science could develop a method to induce in one that brain state even though there are no magnolia trees for hundreds of miles.
The skeptic continues to argue that since we lack direct access to mywritingpaper mywritingpaper, facts about the external world we lack non-inferential knowledge (or justification) for believing those facts. Essay Of Shallot? The final step of the skeptic’s argument is that we do lack sufficient evidence for inferential knowledge (or inferential justification) for believing those facts. Essay Plan? Here the skeptic argues that the essay about of shallot evidence we possess for mywritingpaper, external world beliefs does not adequately favor commonsense over a skeptical thesis. Any appeal to experiential evidence will not decide the case against the skeptic and the skeptic is happy to enter the fray over whether commonsense beats skepticism with regard to the theoretical virtues, for example, coherence and simplicity. Berkeley, for instance, argued that commonsense decidedly lost the contest against a kind of skeptical thesis (Berkeley Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous ). Internalists find this kind of essay about the lady of shallot, argument very difficult to essay prompts, rebut. Internalists tend to about the lady, focus on mywritingpaper the final step and essay about, argue that even though experience does not imply that skepticism is false it nevertheless makes skepticism much less probable than commonsense.
This response is intuitive but it brings with it a number of controversial commitments. The ensuing debate is too complex to summarize here. The upshot though is that it is no easy task to maintain this intuitive response. Consequently externalists think they have a distinct advantage over internalism. Externalists tend to think internalism lands in skepticism but that we have good reason to suspect skepticism is false. Externalists eagerly point out that their view can handle the skeptical challenge. Externalists typically address the skeptic’s argument by biographical narrative essay prompts, denying that lack of direct access with a fact implies lack of non-inferential knowledge (or justification).
In terms of an early version of essay of shallot, externalism—D.M. Essay Timeline? Armstrong’s causal theory (Armstrong 1973)—if one’s perceptual belief that p is caused by the fact that makes it true then one knows that p. Other externalists unpack the externalist condition differently (for example, reliability or truth-tracking), but the core idea is that a lack of direct access doesn’t preclude non-inferential knowledge. About Of Shallot? Externalists press this virtue against internalist views that are saddled with the claim that lack of direct access implies no non-inferential knowledge (or justification). Essay Development Plan? Assuming that the first and final steps of the skeptical argument are good (a very controversial assumption), internalism would imply that we lack knowledge. Externalists thus see their analysis of knowledge as aligning with commonsense (and against the skeptic) that we possess lots of knowledge. One internalist response to this reason for favoring externalism is to challenge the claim that internalism lands in skepticism. Some internalists develop views that imply one does have direct access to external world facts (see entry on direct realism). Another internalist move is the essay the lady of shallot abductivist response which challenges the claim that we lack inferential knowledge or justification for believing commonsense.
The abductivist response gets its name from Charles Sanders Peirce’s description of abduction as a good form of inductive reasoning that differs from standard inductive inference (for example, enumerative induction—this swam is white, so is the mywritingpaper mywritingpaper next one, so is this one as well, …, so, the general rule that all swans are white). The abductivists argues, to put it very roughly, that commonsense is the best explanation of the available data that we possess. Accordingly, we do possess inferential justification for believing that skepticism is false. A different response to essay of shallot, this alleged virtue of externalism is to argue that externalism yields only a conditional response to skepticism. If externalists maintain that some external condition, E, is sufficient for non-inferential knowledge or justification then we get the result that if E then one has non-inferential knowledge. Mywritingpaper? For instance, if, for example, perception is reliable then we have perceptual knowledge. But, the internalist argues, we are not able to derive the unconditional claim that we have perceptual knowledge. In order to conclude that we would have to know that E obtains, but it seems all the externalist can do is appeal to some other external condition, E1, and argue that if E1 then we know that E obtains. This strategy looks unpromising (see Stroud 1989). 4. The Significance of the I-E Debate. What is the essay I-E debate all about?
Why has the debate garnered so much attention? This section considers several proposals about the significance of the I-E debate. Most everyone sees the I-E debate as metaepistemological. The I-E debate concerns fundamental questions about epistemology: what is nature and goals of epistemological theorizing. The three proposals I examine in this section need not be exclusive. Each proposal reflects facets of the I-E debate. a. Disagreement over essay prompts, the Significance of the Thermometer Model.
D.M. Armstrong introduced the “thermometer model” in epistemology as a way of grasping his externalist theory (see Armstrong 1973). The Lady Of Shallot? The “thermometer model” compares non-inferential knowledge with a good thermometer. A good thermometer reliably indicates the temperature, that is, the temperature readings reliably indicate the actual temperature. On Leadership? In a similar manner non-inferential knowledge is a matter of a belief being reliably true. On the thermometer model a belief that is reliably true need not meet any internalist conditions; if the belief stands in essay the lady of shallot, the right relation to the truth of what is believed then the belief is an in english item of the lady, knowledge. The significance of the thermometer model is whether one should understand non-inferential knowledge purely in terms of external conditions. The driving motivation behind this model is essay on sound pollution that non-inferential knowledge should be understood in just the same naturalistic sense in which one understands a good thermometer. The model aims to remove questions about non-inferential knowledge from what might be called a rationalist framework in essay about the lady of shallot, which all forms of knowledge are explicated in terms of on leadership development, reasons . Given the rationalist approach to noninferential knowledge one looks for some fact, different from the original belief, that one is aware of and that makes probable (or certain) the truth of one’s belief. The thermometer model cuts to the heart of this rationalistic project. It is not at all surprising that the thermometer model met heavy resistance.
Laurence BonJour argued that stress on the thermometer model would imply that Norman knows that the president is in New York. BonJour observes that the thermometer model has us view epistemic agents merely as “cognitive thermometers”. If they reliably record the facts then they have noninferential knowledge even though from essay about, their own perspective their beliefs have little by way of positive support. The metaepistemological issue about what to make of the essay on leadership development thermometer model is of shallot closely related to the issue of what to make of ordinary knowledge ascriptions. It is a common practice to ascribe knowledge to individuals that are in many respects like reliable thermometers. The significant question is what to make of the gleaners, this fact. Do such individuals meet internalistic conditions? Are our ascriptions of knowledge correct in cases in which individuals don’t meet any internalistic conditions?
These are areas of ongoing research. The issues here are discussed in the contextualism literature. b. Disagreement over the Guiding Conception of Justification. Another way to view the essay I-E debate is a disagreement over development plan, the guiding conception of justification. Alvin Goldman (1980) distinguishes between the regulative and theoretical conceptions of justification. Essay About? The regulative conception of biographical narrative prompts, justification takes as its aim to offer practical advice to cognizers in order to improve their stock of beliefs. This epistemological aim, Goldman notes, is about of shallot prominent in Descartes. The theoretical conception, by contrast, aims to offer a correct analysis of justification, that is, to essay development, specify the essay about features of beliefs that confer epistemic status.
Goldman sees our interest in development, a theory of justification as driven by these two different conceptions. One way of explaining the significance of the I-E debate is over of shallot, the role of essay, regulative considerations in an account of justification. About Of Shallot? The access internalist can be seen as stressing the significance of some regulative conditions for a correct account of justification. This is biographical most clearly seen in the stress on essay about the lady the ethics of belief. Mywritingpaper? If a subject’s belief is justified then, in some sense, the subject has regulated her doxastic conduct appropriately. Externalists, by contrast, want to draw a sharp distinction between regulative and theoretical considerations to get the result that regulative considerations do not enter into one’s account of the nature of justification. c. Disagreement over Naturalism in Epistemology. Another proposal about the significance of the I-E debate is about the lady that it is over the issue of whether to “naturalize” epistemology (see, for instance, Fumerton 1995, p. 66). As we saw above with the “thermometer model” a thread that runs through externalist analyses is the pollution in english idea that epistemic concepts—justification, evidence, and knowledge—can be understood in terms of nomological concepts.
Armstrong’s account of noninferential knowledge invokes the idea of a natural relation that holds between a belief and the true state of affairs believed. When a belief stands in this natural relation to the true state of the lady, affairs believed then the belief is an the gleaners painting essay instance of noninferential knowledge. Moreover this natural relation is similar to the relation between a thermometer reading and the actual temperature in a good thermometer. Essay About? Other externalist analysis invoke different nomological concepts: Goldman’s (1979) account makes use of the idea of pollution, reliability; Robert Nozick’s (1981) account appeals to about the lady, the idea of truth-tracking which he unpacks in terms of causal concepts; and Fred Dretske’s (1981) account makes use of a naturalistic concept of information processing. It’s important to stress the context in which these externalist accounts arose. As we have seen the recognition that the traditional justified true belief (JTB) account of essay development plan, knowledge failed led epistemologists to rethink the connection between true belief and knowledge. It is widely recognized that the essay about the lady traditional JTB account was largely explicated within a rationalist understanding of essay on leadership development plan, justification. Justification, on this tradition, invoked concepts such as implication , consistency , coherence , and more broadly, reasons of which the about of shallot subject was aware . The introduction of the Gettier problem led epistemologists to question whether this traditional assumption was correct. Externalist analyses attempted to explain how natural relations like causation and reliability could provide the key to understanding noninferential knowledge. Internalists, by contrast, stress the significance of mental concepts to understanding noninferential knowledge or basic justification. These concepts need not be irreducible to physical concepts.
But the key idea for internalism is that mere external facts which a subject lacks awareness of are not sufficient for analyzing epistemic concepts. As Fumerton stresses (Fumerton (1995) p. 67) the development plan key epistemic concepts for internalist are concepts like Descartes’ clarity and distinctness, Russell’s notion of direct acquaintance, or—more elusively—Chisholm’s basic notion of more reasonable than . There are wide ranging issues with respect to naturalism in epistemology. One main issue is whether the evidential relation is contingent or necessary. Internalism can be understood as the view that the most basic evidential relation is necessary and consequently the theory of evidence is an a priori matter. Externalism, by contrast, can be understood as affirming that evidential relations are contingent (see, for essay about the lady of shallot, example, Nozick (1981) Chapter 3 section III). Another issue with respect to naturalism in epistemology is its connection to naturalism in the philosophy of mind. The naturalist aims to understand the mind as a physical system. Since physical systems can be explained without invoking mental concepts a naturalist in epistemology is weary of essay development, using questionable mental concepts to essay of shallot, elucidate the essay nature of epistemic concepts.
Internalism in epistemology is not necessarily at odds with naturalism as a metaphysical view but the essay the lady internalist’s preferred concepts tend to development plan, come from commonsense psychology rather than the natural sciences. Externalists, by contrast, tend to essay about of shallot, stress natural concepts like causation, reliability, and tracking because these set up better for a naturalist view in the philosophy of essay on sound pollution, mind. The I-E debate develops out of the ruins of the traditional justified true belief account of knowledge. As Edmund Gettier famously illustrated knowledge is essay about the lady more than justified true belief. Attempts to essay pollution in english, answer the Gettier problem generated the I-E debate. This debate centers on a diverse group of about the lady of shallot, issues: the significance of ordinary knowledge attributions, the timeline nature of rationality, the ethics of belief, and the role of naturalism in epistemology.
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Why Abortion Is Bad Essays and Research Papers. Abortion : The Good, the Bad , and essay, the Ugly Abortion is biographical essay a very common topic nowadays in society. Most everyone . knows what abortion is, and knows someone who may have thought about having it done or actually ended up having an abortion . It is more common among the young kids in the United States. Abortion is defined as from Guttmacher Institute, “the removal of an essay about the lady of shallot, embryo, or of a fetus from the uterus in order to end a pregnancy” which in many of the cases the pregnancy is an mywritingpaper, unplanned pregnancy. Abortion , Childbirth , Fetus 2041 Words | 5 Pages. you slice it, abortion is the lady morally wrong. Although that should not be misinterpreted for a pro-life stance on abortion because . there are numerous circumstances that must be considered in each situation. Just because abortion is morally impermissible, it does not mean that society will deem you a bad person for getting an abortion under extreme circumstances. Quotations In Literary Essays! For that reason, abortion is a specifically tricky topic to discuss. About The Lady! There is no clear-cut answer as to essay on leadership development whether or not abortion should be allowed.
Abortion , Ethics , Human 1412 Words | 2 Pages. I believe abortion should be legal because I feel that every woman has the right to do what they want with their own body. . Abortion is the termination of pregnancy by the removal or expulsion from the uterus of a fetus or embryo prior to viability. (Grimes, 2013). Abortion is about the lady of shallot not a laughing matter and I believe when a women comes to a conclusion that they need to terminate a pregnancy they have realized the outcome of their decision. Many women are faced to terminate a pregnancy do. Abortion , Childbirth , Decision making 1461 Words | 4 Pages. Why Abortion Should Be Acceptable. ABORTION 1 Abortion should be Acceptable under Good Reasons Rachel Garcia PHI: 107 Philosophy of Human Conduct . (GSI1022F) Eszter Barra-Johnson June 28, 2010 Ashford University ABORTION 2 Abstract Abortions have been legal in the United States since 1973 after many lawsuits. Now there are controversial issues surrounding the using essays, topic of about the lady, abortion . Is it right or is it wrong? Many people believe that it is wrong, but there should be exceptions. Abortion , Abortion debate , Abortion law 2124 Words | 6 Pages. chose to discuss the good, the bad and the ugly of abortion . Development! This is clearly a very hot debate in todays world and about the lady of shallot, many of us . wonder should it be legal or illegal?
I have never really looked into the issues of essay prompts, abortion but within my recent research I have a come to the conclusion that abortion should never have been legal from the start! First I am going to just give a brief history of essay of shallot, it, then I will include both sides of abortion , why people think it is good and why others do not, and lastly I will. Abortion , Childbirth , Embryo 1792 Words | 6 Pages. ? Abortion To begin with, abortion is a process to biographical narrative which creates either a miscarriage or a failure in a women pregnancy. . Abortion is essay about a topic which could be argued in many ways because many views are taken into account. Some people may believe it could be a good thing and it could be seen as a very pleasant way to get rid of a unborn baby before it becomes an actual child. Narrative Essay! By contrast, many religions are against abortion , which is later interpreted in this essay. This issue takes account of many.
Gestation , Human , Morality 903 Words | 3 Pages. Reasons Why Stand Against Abortion. Reasons Why Stand Against Abortion An abortion is a violation of the essay about the lady of shallot, most important human right, the right to . The Gleaners Painting Essay! live. With its practice people not only make one of the grades misdeeds, but also puts at risk the life of the essay about, mother. The abortion is an action condemned by God, and narrative timeline, all those who form part of such action, will not be welcome in heaven. The abortion causes both physical and psychological damage, and doctors should raise awareness to essay about the lady their patients about these consequences, instead of.
Abortion , Cervix , Childbirth 1524 Words | 5 Pages. happen? Why me? How are you going to take care of a child that you are not ready for? Then abortion pops in your mind, thinking . that will be the best, fastest way to fix the unwanted problem, but it is not. On Sound In English! Nothing good comes from aborting that is why it should be illegal.
There are many reasons why but the essay about of shallot, three main reasons why I believe it should be illegal is it kills an using quotations, innocent child, it causes mental issues, and women think that they have no choice. The first reason why I believe abortion should. Abortion , Childbirth , Dilation and curettage 1299 Words | 4 Pages. ABORTION : GOOD OR BAD ? Abortion is the lady a social problem that affects women, bears the the gleaners, physical and mental problems, . in the world there are many stigma on the subject. About Of Shallot! As we know abortion is the termination of pregnancy, as a result the fetus can’t develop an timeline, independent life; therefore the essay about the lady of shallot, baby won’t be able to live for provoked causes. It is mywritingpaper said that abortion up to three months, it may be spontaneously, but if you exceed this period of the lady of shallot, time, there is more probabilities that the reason of the abortion. Abortion , Birth control , Fetus 1600 Words | 5 Pages. Abortion a) Compare the the gleaners painting, ways in which Natural law and Utilitarianism might be applied to abortion . (25 marks) b) “A . religious believer should never have an abortion .” Discuss (10 marks) a) Abortion is the deliberate termination of a human pregnancy and in today’s society is of shallot viewed as a very controversial ethical issue due to the conflicting moral standpoints. The Gleaners! Natural Law was first proposed by Aristotle but championed by about, Aquinas (1225 – 74) and in literary, Utilitarianism by Jeremy Bentham in the late 18th. Abortion , Ethical theories , Ethics 1459 Words | 4 Pages.
10/30/2014 Bruno Russo Marko Lovrinovic REL 3015 – Dr. Judy Skeen Abortion : The Eternal Controversy Within the context of contemporary . society, where people and structures are constantly changing, we are aware that the reference values ??undergo a profound change that is essay about the lady necessary to understand and follow. The issue of abortion can never distance itself from the ethical and narrative prompts, moral issues that surround it, given that abortion inevitably involves someone's death. This is therefore an issue that. Abortion , Birth control , Childbirth 1845 Words | 7 Pages. Introduction ( Abortion Is Not The Answer) a. Attention Grabber – Abortion is a debate that is raging in today’s . society. Essay The Lady! Each opposing side believes that their choice is the correct one. b. On Sound Pollution In English! Background Info – If one sees the constitutional infringement to of shallot a women by the restriction of abortion ; the torment to the unwanted child; and narrative, the anguish society has to sustain, then this topic would not be so debatable. About The Lady! Too many people do not see the effect that abortions cause. c. Thesis. Abortion , Childbirth , Fetus 1654 Words | 5 Pages. Philosophy Paper 1 Why Abortion Is Immoral In this paper I will formally reconstruct Don Marquis’ argument, explain it, and . Essays! offer a brief evaluation.
In his essay, “ Why Abortion Is Immoral,” Marquis argues that abortion is, except possibly in rare cases, seriously immoral, because it is in the same moral category as killing an innocent adult human being. His argument can be formulated as follows: killing an innocent human being is morally wrong. If abortion falls into the category if killing. Ethics , Human , KILL 868 Words | 3 Pages. womb. If a woman decides to essay about the lady of shallot abort her baby, they can't do anything about their life being taken away from them. Their whole future is demolished. I believe . abortion is wrong when committing it for mywritingpaper, a selfish reason. One reason why abortion is essay the lady wrong is because there are many other safer solutions. Essay On Sound! In the article, Why Do More People Choose Abortion Over Adoption?, Kristi Burton Brown stated: “In the essay about the lady, USA, there are approximately two million infertile couples waiting to adopt, many times regardless of. Abortion , Abortion debate , Fetus 827 Words | 3 Pages.
“A woman received horrific internal injuries when a consultant gynecologist attempted an abortion he was not capable of performing, the the gleaners painting essay, UK . General Medical Council (GMC) was told in March 2003. Andrew Gbinigie ruptured the patient's womb during the abortion , and pulled out her right fallopian tube and the lady, ovary, and her urethra – the tube connecting the kidney to the bladder. Only after he had removed a piece of bowel did he realize something was wrong and called for help from essay on leadership staff at Birmingham's. Abortifacient , Abortion , Birth control 1355 Words | 4 Pages. A Critique of essay, Linda Prine’s “Abortion is mywritingpaper not a bad thing” Critique of Linda Prine’s “ Abortion is not a bad thing” In her article “ Abortion is about the lady not a bad . thing”, published on June 24, 2013, the family medicine practitioner and the founder of the Reproductive Health Access Project medical director Dr.
Linda Prinehighly defend and stick to the issue that abortion itself as an experience can be positive however our culture fails to praise the women rights in taking life-term decision and demonizes women instead for having an abortion . She also shed the light. Abortion , Human rights , Logic 1095 Words | 3 Pages. Essay One topic that I feel very strongly about is the essay timeline, pro-choice movement. Many women who are pro-choice and support medical and surgical . abortions are extremely criticized. Many people fail to realize that having an of shallot, abortion is not necessarily a bad thing. Abortions can change someone’s life for the better in many ways. Many women that get abortions are not in essay on sound pollution in english, the proper place to take care of a child. Although a woman can give a child up for adoption, the foster care system is not always the. Abortion , Birth control , Embryonic stem cell 891 Words | 3 Pages. experience it; but not everyone does and one reason is abortion . Abortion is considered strictly against a civil society, as it . is murder. The Lady! It punishes the innocent unborn child, by taking away its right to live.
In thirteen developing countries about ninety seven percent of abortions are unsafe, which is killing the mothers of the children as well. Adoption is also another option, but is declining due to abortion . Due to all of the negative results, abortion should be banned worldwide, so everyone can experience. Abortion , Abortion debate , Abortion law 1298 Words | 4 Pages. Why Should Abortion Be Legal? Carlos Walcott PHI 103: Informal Logic Barri Mallin September 10, 2012 Why . Should Abortion Be Legal? In 1971 a young mother challenged Taxes and their abortion laws. By 1973 abortion was legal. There are several ways to extract an unborn human child from the womb. What does life mean to those who have an abortion and those who have not had an abortion ? There are several advocates that are pro-live and pro- abortion some are groups, individuals, authority figures.
Abortion , Abortion debate , Abortion law 1201 Words | 4 Pages. ? Why Abortion Is Immoral: An Argumentative Analysis The argument on the immorality of using quotations in literary essays, abortion is essay the lady a long standing . philosophical discourse which opens itself to numerous discussions or even attacks. That the pro-choice and anti-abortionists stances stand or fail is based on the strength or weakness of the other’s claim against the other and vice versa. The morality or immorality of abortion , however, leaves an mywritingpaper, open question which also leaves the essay of shallot, partisans reflecting on whether or not there can be. Abortion , Abortion debate , Ethics 2558 Words | 7 Pages. ? Why Abortion Should Be Illegal Many people around the world view . abortion as a normal life event for many women. However, people are unaware of the using quotations essays, psychological effect this leaves on the women.
More is the lady lost than just a baby. Mind, body, and on sound pollution, loved ones can also be involved in essay the lady, effects from an quotations in literary, abortion . The father and society as a whole are two other large things to consider into the situation of abortion . Essay! More than likely abortion has occurred or. Abortion , Birth control , Childbirth 1749 Words | 5 Pages. ? Abortion Should be Legalized The issue of abortion is very controversial in today's society. Although many . people think it shouldn't be legalized, there are just as many who think it should. Your opinion rests with you and possibly the values you were brought up with. Mywritingpaper! Whether you think women should have the right to abortion or not, you can find support for either side. Many individuals take the about the lady, side of anti- abortion or pro-life which means . Abortion , Abortion debate , Fetus 812 Words | 5 Pages. In “ Why abortion is immoral,” by Don Marquis, Marquis sets out an the gleaners essay, argument that abortion is “seriously immoral that . it is in of shallot, the same moral category as killing an innocent adult human being.” Marquis first wants us to understand why killing a person is wrong.
He presents us with an argument that the loss of on sound, one’s life is one of the greatest losses one can suffer. Because this prevents a person from having a valuable human future, a future like ours. What makes killing any adult human being wrong. Abortion , Abortion debate , Human 903 Words | 3 Pages. Why abortion should be illegal An abortion is the medical process of ending a pregnancy so it does not result . in the birth of a baby. Abortion has always been a major issue of discussion in our society and there are always different opinions on abortion . I am against this practice and I think abortion should be illegal.
To start with, it is false to the lady of shallot claim that no one knows when life begins and dishonest to argue that abortion does not kill a human being. Every new life begins at conception. Abortion , Childbirth , Human 1032 Words | 3 Pages. Why Abortion Is Wrong Abortion , the easiest way to fix one’s mistakes. If one is going to be promiscuous, . why should they have to be responsible for essay, the outcome? Why not just murder the unborn child. That is what goes on daily, the slaughtering of young, innocent children, that if born, would easily find a home. What did they, the essay the lady, unborn children do wrong?
Nothing, it’s just that the mother and/or father are just so lazy and irresponsible that they would rather see their child be butchered than. Abortion , Abortion debate , Human 1620 Words | 5 Pages. Abortion is a touchy subject in America, because if what it stands for. Abortions end the life of an embryo before it’s . completely developed. Mywritingpaper Mywritingpaper! Abortions are legal and my argument is that it’s should be illegal and for many reasons. The word abortion comes from the Latin abortio, which means to abort, miscarry, and deliver prematurely. The Latin word abortus means miscarriage, premature, untimely birth.
In medicine abortion means ending a pregnancy prematurely. The Lady Of Shallot! (http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/145870. Abortion , Abortion in the United States , Bible 1288 Words | 4 Pages. Abortion and Why it is Wrong by development plan, Ken Willaert English 10 Mr. Essay About The Lady Of Shallot! Manske January 16, 2001 THESIS STATEMENT Abortion is . Essay On Leadership Plan! wrong with respect to essay the lady of shallot human morality. Essay On Sound Pollution In English! CONTENT OUTLINE I. Abortion is essay about the lady of shallot immoral. II. Abortion affects people's lives. A. Pro-Life? versus Pro-Choice? is a serious debate.
B. Abortion is the using in literary, termination of pregnancy before the essay of shallot, fetus is capable of independent life. III. A baby is essay on sound pollution created at conception. A. The fetus forms at an early state. B. The baby is essay about of shallot considered living. C. On. Abortion , Fertility , Fetus 1998 Words | 6 Pages.
Savannah Holtam Opinion paper – ABORTION March 6, 2008 English 105 – Saturdays “Mommy Don’t Murder Me” Abortion is murder of . an narrative, innocent human life. An innocent baby should not have to die because people choose to be irresponsible; there are other ways around abortion . The best way to essay about avoid getting an abortion is giving your baby to a loving family. There are people that cannot conceive children of their own. Everyone should take responsibility for their own actions, and step up to the plate. Abortion , Pregnancy 1139 Words | 3 Pages. Part A) Thomson takes on the debate of abortion by presenting an analogical argument.
She uses other several analogical arguments . throughout her paper but the most appealing analogical argument is the sick violinist example. To begin Thomson assumes that the fetus has a right to essay plan life from the moment of conception. (1.Thomson, CC 37) Imagine that you wake up one morning to find you’ve attached to about the lady of shallot a famous unconscious violinist. The violinist is attached to you because he needs your kidneys and. Abortion , Abortion debate , Analogy 1804 Words | 5 Pages. Why Abortion is Impermissible In my own view, I believe that abortion is quotations in literary . immoral except in certain situations that the fetus puts both the essay of shallot, mother’s and its life in a serious danger. I am going to assume “the human fetus has a right to life and if the human fetus has a right to life, then abortion is biographical essay prompts impermissible”, even though it can be challenged. I believe that Don Marquis has presented a strong argument in favor of the view that abortion is essay about immoral. Abortion , Fetus , Human 1484 Words | 4 Pages. Abortion: Why Do Women Get Abortions? Why do women get abortions ? This question is very hard to answer but their maybe reasons behind this. Many women have their own . Essay On Sound! reasons as to why they choose to get an abortion or if they choose not to.
Even though abortion is legalized, their are many questions as to the lady if they should still keep it legalized or make it illegal. Essay Prompts! Most women faced with this situation, tend to go against abortion . Many women believe that this is essay about the lady of shallot not the on sound, right thing to do and should go against it. (Frick) Research has. Abortion , Abortion debate , Abortion law 1461 Words | 4 Pages. Rojas English 1111 Abortion in essay the lady of shallot, Georgia Abortion leads to the expulsion of a fetus before it is able to survive . independently. Many people support abortion , however, I believe it should be permanently banned.
Abortion has been one of the most talked about mywritingpaper mywritingpaper controversial topics in Georgia since the 1980’s. On January 22, 1973, in the Roe v. Wade case, The Supreme Court made abortion legal in the United States. The Centers for essay the lady, Disease Control showed that by 2008, 35,888 abortions took place in Georgia. Abortion , Abortion debate , Abortion in the United States 1426 Words | 5 Pages. ?OUTLINE Topic: Abortion should be banned in all over the world.
I. Mywritingpaper! Introduction: Abortion should be banned in all over the . Essay About Of Shallot! world for 2 main reasons : Its bad effect to women’s life and its immorality II. Biographical Narrative Essay Prompts! Body: 1. Abortion causes a lot of negative effects on not only women’s physical health but also their psychology: 1.1 Definition of abortion : 1.2Negative effects: + Physical health: + Emotions + Other risks 2 Abortion is against humanity III counterargument and about, refutation . Abortifacient , Abortion , Abortion debate 1052 Words | 3 Pages. Why is inflation bad ? What is inflation? Inflation is a process of continuous increase in the prices of most goods and services . in a country. This does not necessarily mean that all prices increase. Biographical Prompts! There may be some exceptions, such as computer prices which have actually declined in recent years. Inflation can therefore be described as a persistent general increase in prices. The Lady Of Shallot! How inflation is measured Inflation is measured by biographical narrative, defining a basket of goods and services used by a typical consumer.
Consumer price index , GDP deflator , Income 1015 Words | 3 Pages. Abortion In the world, the number of abortion cases is increasing. Of Shallot! This situation has been fuelled by among other factors . social and economic factors. Abortion is the murder of pregnancy. It is the removal of the fetus or embryo before it is viable. (Malcolm 1977) There are basically two kinds of the gleaners painting essay, abortions . The one that is spontaneous and in which termination is not provoked is spontaneous abortion also known as miscarriage. They are unintentional. Essay About! They usually occur before the 20th and 24th. Abortion , Embryo , Fertility 616 Words | 3 Pages.
Abortion and Its Effects By: Jesse Pietroburgo Omnibus 1 Wednesday, March 23, 20011 History of pollution, Abortion . Essay About The Lady Of Shallot! Abortion is a huge and serious problem in America today and the gleaners painting, has been since the 1970s. Abortion is an evil practice that consists mainly of the taking of an unwanted pregnancy and the killing of a beautiful creation of God for essay about the lady of shallot, no reason except that it is an narrative essay, unwanted gift. Now I will give a brief history of the lady of shallot, abortion . In Literary! Abortion used to be outlawed and looked down upon in early American. Abortion , Fetus , History of abortion 2144 Words | 6 Pages. ? Is Abortion Right? Or Is It Wrong? There is the lady of shallot a huge subject debate on the word abortion which is still going on today because . it is such a controversial topic that some states are continuing to change the law, so that abortion can once again be illegal. However, throughout the world, there are about essay timeline 115,000 abortions going on every day and some people are fine with it. An abortion is when a woman decides to kill her unborn child for whatever her reason(s) is/are.
That is why many people consider. Abortion , Abortion debate , Fetus 1512 Words | 4 Pages. Thousands of people are affected by the abuse of drugs each day. Very few people know the dangers of taking drugs. Many of the abusers are in their teens. . They are addicted and the lady of shallot, can not stop. Why would people take drugs in mywritingpaper, the first place? Some people feel pressured into drugs because of their surroundings. Their fellow peers push the person into choices that they might not be ready for.
This is known as peer pressure. The other reason to do drugs is essay about the lady because the popular people do it. Timeline! Teenagers. Addiction , Cocaine , Drug 1329 Words | 4 Pages. ? Abortion Wendy Lejeune Post University Introduction Abortion is a frail subject in society today. There are many . people that do not believe in abortion and stand against it, and I am one of those people.
Abortion is an of shallot, unethical practice of terminating an unborn fetus and should be outlawed. There are several reasons as to why abortion should be outlawed, not only is it unethical and unmoral, but it is essay timeline illegal to essay about of shallot end human life. The Gleaners! Another reason is that abortion is unsafe for several. Abortion , Childbirth , Fetus 996 Words | 7 Pages. ? Abortion is the essay about the lady of shallot, practice of ending a pregnancy by mywritingpaper, the causing the about of shallot, death of the on leadership, human fetus. Essay About The Lady! In 1973, abortion was legalized in . the United States via the famous court case of Roe vs Wade. Roe was a single and the gleaners painting, pregnant woman who was fighting the state of Texas where the law stated she was not allowed to get an essay about the lady of shallot, abortion . Roe won the case and abortion was legalized.
Even though millions of abortions have been performed since 1973, the debate over whether it ever should have been legalized is strongly. Abortion , Abortion debate , Childbirth 1025 Words | 2 Pages. In Malaysia, there are one abortion for in literary essays, every five pregnancy in essay about of shallot, the country. Eventho this number might not be higher compared to some western . countries, it is still consider a major and serious problem for a developing country. Essay On Sound Pollution! Some of the places which are less developed in the third world countries such as Vietnam which currently has the highest rate of abortion have one abortion out of essay, three pregnancy.
This would be equivalent to aborting 33333 babies out of 100000 babies which would also means. Abortifacient , Abortion , Ectopic pregnancy 1998 Words | 5 Pages. Uribe-Raya Ethics Essay P.2 Najera Abortion : A Life That Could Have Been Abortion is one of the essay, most persistently controversial . issues in the lady of shallot, American culture and politics today. Since the 1973 national legalization of development plan, abortion , competing groups have fought to either restrict or increase access to the procedure, leading to about the lady of shallot heated debates among political activists, religious organizations, state legislatures, and judges. Almost no one remains untouched by mywritingpaper, the abortion controversy. Patients and clinic workers.
Abortion , Abortion debate , Abortion law 1786 Words | 5 Pages. Marcus Pope 4/23/2012 Dr. Audrey Anton Abortion In this paper I will argue that abortion is morally correct based on about the lady of shallot, . the using in literary, situation at hand. The most common argument against abortion is that every person has a right to life. Abortion a very misleading factor in essay about, the social scheme of people lives today can never grasp the concept of rather it is right or wrong. Around for more than one hundred years and still pushing is the talk on abortion and on leadership development plan, rather it’s right or wrong. Taking the life. Abortion , Abortion debate , Ethics 1142 Words | 3 Pages. ? Abortions Janay Evans December 3, 2014 Professor Roa Abstract Abortion is the most controversial . issue having no grounds of agreement. The argument is essay the lady of shallot life and death though the uncertainty of complication makes it difficult.
I don’t believe in abortion because it’s murder we are not the narrative essay timeline, ones that can decide whether the essay, the baby fetus lives or dies. Abortion is essay a life or death matter, definite death for essay about the lady, the fetus and essay on sound pollution, a high chance of essay of shallot, death for the mom. Introduction. Abortion , Birth control , Childbirth 857 Words | 3 Pages. Abortion Abortion in on leadership development plan, certain cases can be an acceptable procedure however not in all cases. I believe abortion is . Essay About! acceptable when particular events arise. If the mother is on sound pollution in english raped or cannot hold the child or, an essay about the lady of shallot, abortion would be wrong if its incest and the child will come out in with a defect. Abortion is acceptable if the mother has a disease that can be passed down to the child that will harm or kill her baby.
If the mother gets an abortion because she can’t support the baby, that is not a reason. Abortifacient , Abortion , Birth control 839 Words | 3 Pages. Abortion There are many different views on abortion therefore making it a very controversial subject to discuss. The two main . views on abortion are the “pro-choice” view and the “pro-life” view as publicised in the article “ Abortion : A Moderate View” written by using essays, L W. Sumner. Essay! These established views are either for or against abortion although they do not take into consideration the many different factors regarding abortion . The article helps define the similarity and differences in the established. Abortion , Ethics , Fertility 1810 Words | 5 Pages. How would you feel if someone decided that you should never get a chance at life? It is horribly that many people are killing their own babies through . abortion . In statistics that showed over 1.3 million abortions are done yearly in the USA and 43 million worldwide has been the steady number for several years now (Statistics 1). Abortion is murder of an essay on leadership development, innocent unborn baby. People think that when you get pregnant, the baby isn't really anything until a certain point in the pregnancy. Whatever.
Abortion , Childbirth , Fertility 1338 Words | 4 Pages. Abortion is a very controversial subject that has been continually argued over for the past few years and probably many years to essay about the lady come. . Abortion can simply be defined as the biographical essay prompts, removal of an embryo or foetus from the uterus in order to end a pregnancy. Essay About! Also a surgical method for terminating a pregnancy especially during the painting, first six months is called a spontaneous abortion or a miscarriage. Abortion was illegal in Canada not until the Canadian parliament passed a law that allowed abortion in certain. Abortion , Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms , Human 933 Words | 3 Pages. ABORTION IN KENYA It can be described in a simple way as the about the lady, act of getting rid of an essay on sound in english, unborn child. Abortion debate has . dominated the thoughts of Kenya since antiquity. This is an issue that has been there in about of shallot, Kenya since time in memorial because it began in the traditional era before colonialism. Most communities in the past considered it a taboo to bear a child before marriage. Incase a woman fell pregnant before marriage the community’s solution to this problem was abortion of the child. Abortion , Birth control , Maternal death 1790 Words | 5 Pages.
aborting the child. At times, abortion can be the the gleaners, best decision that a young person could make. Abortion should be legal and an . alternative for all women. Abortion : one of the most common medical procedures that consist of the termination of a pregnancy by removing the about the lady, embryo or fetus and placenta from the uterus. Prompts! There are approximately forty-two million abortions that happen per year and approximately one hundred and fifteen abortions that happen per day. Abortion methods always depend on. Abortifacient , Abortion , Birth control 981 Words | 3 Pages. Abortion - Why It Is a Social Issue Today. By definition, abortion is the termination of a pregnancy by loss or destruction of the fetus before birth. The Lady Of Shallot! An abortion may be . spontaneous or induced.
It is on sound in english a practice that dates back to ancient times. When performed by essay the lady of shallot, a qualified physician and medical staff who are adequately trained about the narrative, proper medical and surgical abortion techniques, abortion is essay about of shallot relatively safe. The decision to have an abortion is never simple. The reasons women give for having an abortion stresses their awareness. Abortion , Abortion debate , Abortion law 2242 Words | 6 Pages.
Abortion : Pro Life or Pro Choice? Donna L. Painting Essay! Clark University of essay about, Maryland University College . Abortion : Pro Choice or Pro Life? The issue of abortion is one of the most contentious, and essay on leadership development, emotive dilemmas faced by modern societies (Devanny, 2000). Women should have the right to choose whether or not they want to continue or terminate their pregnancy. Since the infamous Supreme Court case of of shallot, Roe vs. Wade, women were given the mywritingpaper, right to choose what’s best for them. Abortion , Abortion debate , Human rights 921 Words | 3 Pages. Nowadays abortion is about of shallot a topic that causes a lot of essay, polemic, according to Deanne Durrett, “ abortion consists on the interruption of . the pregnancy through the expulsion of the embryo or fetus”. There are two kinds of abortion , the first one is the natural caused by the death of the essay the lady of shallot, embryo inside the belly, and biographical, the other is the of shallot, expulsion which is induced by some methods that end with the life of the baby. The problem of abortion is a reality that happens not only in Mexico but all around the world. Abortion , Birth control , Embryo 967 Words | 3 Pages.
Abortion What is Abortion ? An abortion means to end a pregnancy prematurely. There are two types of Induced . abortions : * Medical Abortion : This is when pills are used to on sound pollution terminate the pregnancy. * Surgical Abortion : This is when procedures such as Suction Aspiration or Dilation And Evacuation are used to terminate the pregnancy. Medical Abortions : Some of you may have heard of the ‘ abortion pill’, well this is essay the lady what I am referring to with medical Abortions . On Sound Pollution In English! Medical abortions are used. Abortifacient , Abortion , Dilation and evacuation 924 Words | 3 Pages. ?Should abortion be legal?
Abortion , the early termination of essay about of shallot, a pregnancy, is a very controversial topic in today’s society. . Abortion is the extraction of the essay, human fetus from the mother's womb with an intention to essay of shallot end the life of that fetus prior to its natural birth. The most popular abortion procedure is called vacuum aspiration, which is completed during the essay, first trimester of the pregnancy. A tube is simply inserted through the cervix and the contents of the uterus are vacuumed out. Essay About The Lady! The controversy. Abortion , Childbirth , Embryo 1458 Words | 6 Pages. Composition I Instructor: Rozlyn Truss-Linder Running Head: Should Abortion Be Legal? Page 2 Should . Abortions Be Legal Although this is timeline America and women have rights, abortions should only be legal if a life is at stake, threatening health issues or if the pregnancy was a result of rape or incest. Some people fill that it is murder or inhumane to have an about the lady of shallot, abortion , while others feel it is quotations your body and essay about of shallot, you should have the right to decide whether or not.
Abortion , Childbirth , Fertility 1313 Words | 6 Pages. decides to abort her baby, the baby cannot do anything about their life being forcibly taken away from them. Their whole future is demolished in a single . instant before it even begins. Narrative Essay Timeline! This is why I believe abortion is wrong no matter the reasoning behind why you’re doing it. The first reason as to why abortion is wrong is because there are many other safer solutions. It is essay stated that “In the USA, there are approximately two million infertile couples waiting to adopt, many times regardless of the essay, child’s. Abortion , Abortion debate , Human 1155 Words | 4 Pages.
?Allen Lin Stevens P.4 American Holocaust Abortion is about of shallot not a personal issue, nor is it just a woman’s issue. It is, undeniably, a human . rights issue. Accounting for more than 1.21 million deaths per year, abortion is the biographical narrative prompts, highest ranked cause of death of Americans.1 Today, abortion kills more than heart disease, cancer, respiratory disease, accidents, homicides, suicide, and cancer–combined.2 The number of American babies killed by abortion each year is roughly equal to essay the lady the number of development, U.S. military. Abortion , Abortion in the United States , Barack Obama 1268 Words | 3 Pages. Should abortion be legal? PHI 103: Informal Logic We all know there are a few options to discuss when you are hit with an about the lady, unexpected . Biographical Prompts! pregnancy. Some may choose to keep the essay about of shallot, child while others decide on adoption. Quotations In Literary! But how many women or young girls actually think about abortion ? Probably more than you think. Now, we all know women have abortions and although we may not agree with their choice, it is essay about the lady of shallot their choice. The right to an abortion is just like any other right you may have and it is a choice.
Abortion , Abortion debate , Adoption 1749 Words | 4 Pages. In a society of depression, there is quotations now, very little money, and a sad life for a woman who is about pregnant all of the prompts, time. The rough estimate of . pregnancies that occurred in 1931 is 250,600. The rough estimate of abortions in 1931 was 95,700. Women, back then, were stuck in essay the lady of shallot, their house to narrative take care of the daily household chores, take care of the kids, and tend to every one of their husband’s sexual desires.
This resulted in essay the lady, many pregnancies that women could not afford to have financially or. Abortion , Birth control , Childbirth 989 Words | 3 Pages.
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13 Do#8217;s and Don#8217;ts of essay the lady of shallot Actor Casting Call Submissions. After posting a casting call not long ago, I discovered that many beginning actors may not know the best way to go about essay in english, submitting themselves for roles in films, commercials, plays, etc. As an actor, one might assume that everyone with a passion for essay about of shallot acting would stay up to date on proper etiquette in mywritingpaper submitting headshots and the lady resumes to prospective “employers”, but it seems that's a wrong assumption. So, I'm here to the gleaners essay, help. The term employers” is used loosely because acting gigs are not always paying gigs. Whether you are being paid for your acting abilities or not, you should always take every opportunity seriously and essay of shallot professionally. (Click here to read more about when to work and on sound pollution act for free) Here's a list of about of shallot common DO's and essay prompts DON'T's when submitting for an acting role. #1 Don't send an outdated photo or picture that doesn't look like you. The Lady Of Shallot. When you submit a photo, it shouldn't be more than 5 years old. The more recent the photo, the better. Especially if you drastically change your looks by cutting or coloring your hair.
If the only headshot you have is of your blonde hair and you've recently dyed it black, then maybe it's time for a new headshot! The casting department won't be too happy if you come in to an audition looking different than in your headshot. The same goes for when you show up to an audition and development you're 10 years older than your picture. Keep it all up-to-date. #2 Don't submit a picture of your picture. If you are serious about your path as an essay actor, then you should always have a high quality photograph to send in for submission at mywritingpaper mywritingpaper any given time, no matter what device you are using.
You should always keep the original photo saved on your computer in a special “Acting” file so you can easily locate it. It's a good idea to email the the lady, high-res photo to yourself as an attachment, and save or flag that email. It's also a wise idea to save that photo to your mobile device or even Google Drive. This way, you should always have access to painting, your high-resolution headshot for sharing. Remember, be sure to essay about the lady of shallot, save the first original photo as “ LastName, FirstName Headshot.jpg ” before emailing it to yourself or anyone else. #3 Don't submit a picture of your resume. You should always have a digital copy (.pdf) of your resume ready to send via email. You really don't want to scramble to find one off the floorboard of your car and essay on sound in english snap a picture with your phone to send away. Trust me, it doesn't look good.
Type up your resume, save it as a .pdf on your computer in your “Acting” file, email it to yourself (along with your headshot), and essay about the lady of shallot save it to your mobile device and/or Google Drive. Again, this way you should have access to your resume no matter what device you're using. #4 Don't send your resume as an Excel (.xls), Word (.doc), or Power Point (.ppt) document. Pay attention to using, what types of files are requested and required for submissions. Essay. As a rule of thumb, you should always send your resume as a PDF (.pdf.) document because they are more likely to open on any computer, or device, whereas many computers cannot open up files types like Microsoft Word and the like. Also, by essay on sound pollution in english saving your resume as a PDF, you are preserving the layout and alignment of the lady of shallot all your text (aka, it will look the same no matter who opens it).
However, if submissions call for the gleaners essay a Word document, then send it as a .doc, but if they ask for a PDF, definitely do not send an Excel document. Essay. #5 Don't submit selfies or casual photos of you. A headshot is a headshot. No casting director cares to see that you caught a big fish, got to drive a fancy car, or partying with your friends. On Sound In English. The framing of the photo and what's in the photo are very important. It's difficult to make out essay about your features in a picture taken from the gleaners painting essay a distance. Pictures of essay about yourself that capture your personality through your eyes and subtle facial expressions are what they want to see; not your personality in actions. Although in some productions like reality shows, they may ask for those types of photos, in which case, send them all. #6 Don't list your “experience” as “skills” on your resume. It is essay pollution in english important to about of shallot, include both your experience and your skills on your resume. However, the two are very different things. Mywritingpaper Mywritingpaper. The films, shows, commercials, or plays you acted in are considered your experiences. Things such as singing, dancing, sports and musical instruments are considered skills.
Be sure to clearly list your actual experiences toward the top of essay about of shallot your resume, as they are the most important part, followed by a concise list of your best skills. Your submission should consume as little of the casting directors time as possible. Avoid calling the production office or casting director's office unless your given a number and asked to. It's also not the best idea to on leadership plan, submit yourself and the lady of shallot then ask for them to call you. Why would they want to call you? They have what they need and don't need to spend time on biographical prompts the phone.
If you do this and also send in multiple submissions multiple times, it can be very annoying and about will make your chances even worse. Your reputation is on the line when you submit yourself. Submitting yourself twice may not work in your favor. If you haven't heard back on your submission within a week, then maybe consider submitting yourself again, but definitely don't do it twice within a few days. It could come across as annoying, desperate or unorganized. #9 Don't provide unnecessary personal details, like full body measurements or complexion, unless asked.
By providing a high-quality, well-lit headshot along with a resume that includes your height and on leadership plan weight, casting directors should be able to tell enough about your looks to the lady of shallot, call in mywritingpaper you in for an audition if you fit the part. There is essay about the lady no need to provide additional information such as your skin complexion, body measurements or shoe size unless that info is development specifically asked for in the casting call. Essay Of Shallot. Most of the time, they will get your measurements themselves after you book the role, or they will ask in a follow up. There is no need to on leadership plan, send JIC (Just In Case). #10 Don't list your “Objective” at essay about of shallot the top of your resume. On Sound In English. For an acting career, it is not necessary to include a two sentence reason of about of shallot what you plan to do or want to do in narrative the acting industry. Actually, I don't even think people put it on standard work resumes anymore.
#11 Don't send a collage of essay pictures. Individual, high-res photos are best, but keep it to a limit of 5 different pictures. If you feel the need to on sound, send a collage, be sure it looks professional and is a large size (a full page), but always include a full size individual photo with it. Essay Of Shallot. These photo collages should have different specific reasons for essay on sound pollution in english being used together. Collages specifically focused on grouping pictures, such as genres like comedy or drama, and style of photos like close-ups or full body photos, together makes sense. #12 Don't embed or place full-size photos into your resume document. You can add in your headshot as a small thumbnail in a corner of your resume, but no one should have to scroll down to the bottom of your resume to essay about the lady of shallot, find your pictures. Chances are your headshot will be missed this way and your whole submission tossed aside. Mywritingpaper Mywritingpaper. Just make it obvious for all recipients by sending your headshot and essay about the lady of shallot resume as separate attachments. Essay On Sound. If acting is what you want, then you should never get discouraged and essay about the lady of shallot never stop practicing. If you would like to find out why it's important to keep practicing, read this article here. *UPDATE* It's also not a good idea to forward submissions from other casting calls and leaving something irrelevant in the body like I sometimes do that in the bathroom, and prompts where casting directors can see your cover letter to three other film or theatre submissions.
It's not hard to send separate emails to about the lady, different submissions. #1 Do provide links to your demo reel or any video samples of your work. The casting department shouldn't have to ask for it twice if you have it. Having a Demo Reel is ideal, but sending them any decent quality video with your acting in it helps a lot. It's best to upload your video somewhere (YouTube, Vimeo, etc) and essay on leadership share that link in about of shallot your submission. Avoid attaching your videos to the email because chances are, the file size will be too large to send via email. Also avoid using zip files because many will delete them without opening out of essay fear of computer viruses. Don't share videos via Facebook, Twitter, or Instagram because not everyone can view them, and that's really for your personal life, not professional. No one should have to search for your stuff, so send direct links to essay of shallot, each video you want to share (not your entire YouTube Channel or profile). Quotations In Literary Essays. Feel free to provide your Channel or Profile link as an extra bonus, but only after you've already linked to your specific videos.
Overall, I suggest having a Demo Reel edited together from all the videos you do have. You may want to ask for help or look up best practices for about acting demo reels before making one. Or better yet, hire a professional editor to using quotations essays, cut one together for you! (Click here for Demo Reel Tips) #2 Do include your name in the filename of all photos resume. The Lady Of Shallot. Good examples: “ LastName FirstName Headshot.jpg ” or “ Headshot – FirstName LastName.jpg” This helps keeps things organized for everyone and looks much more professional. Number them if there are multiples. Do not leave the using quotations essays, file named as the essay about, original name generated, i.e., “ Image1094bfdg4k7.jpg ” or “ Image01.jpg” A good quality headshot in timeline general is essay about the lady very important. There are photographers who can help you and there are articles all over the web about biographical prompts, what people look for in a headshot. Essay About The Lady. Ideally, it's a picture of your head (mid chest and up), and majority of the time it's with a plain and mywritingpaper mywritingpaper simple background. It should never have effects or filters added to it, but instead should have major blemishes slightly cleaned up. Again, avoid having an unrealistic headshot or a photo that doesn't look like you. Also, keep in mind that selfies, candid photos, or pictures with others in essay the lady it are not ideal to use for casting submissions (unless they are asking for that type of photo).
Here's a fairly popular video on the subject: #4 Do make sure all of mywritingpaper your contact information and/or your agent's contact information is included and up-to-date on your resume. Essay About. If you are submitting yourself, then why do they need your agent's information? You want them to contact you directly, don't you? If you submit yourself and all they have is narrative timeline your agent's info, they may not feel comfortable reaching out. Your agent may frown upon not including his or her info, but if you do all the work and book it yourself, what are you paying them for? Either have your agent's contact info plus your contact info, or have two separate resumes – one with only your contact info and one with only theirs, and send those out about of shallot accordingly. For more quality assurance, pick the former. #5 Do specify what role you are submitting for. Let them know which specific role or roles you are interested in auditioning for.
Don't feel obligated to stick to just one role, but let them know which role(s) you think you would do best at, and using in literary essays are most comfortable with. Essay About Of Shallot. Whatever you do, don't just send your picture and resume without specifying which character you are submitting. Essay Pollution In English. #6 Do include your height, weight, hair and eye color on your resume. The Lady Of Shallot. Your coat, glove, hat size, and those types of essay measurements are unimportant, but these other four details are important and useful for casting. #7 Do consider putting something in the body of your email. It's always more professional to the lady, include something in the body of the email. In Literary. Even if it's quick, small talk or flattery, I'm certain they want to hear something from you. It also helps to about, capture a bit more of your personality, but if you leave a blank space then it's up to their imagination, and that may not always go over mywritingpaper how you hope. Consider this your “first impression”.
Unless they ask for something else specifically, this is the standard format. Learn more about how to write a killer resume here. #9 Do send your high quality headshots and photos as .JPGs or .PDFs. While .JPGS are definitely preferred, .PDF images would also be acceptable. #10 Do send your pictures separately from your resume. About Of Shallot. Not as a different e-mail, but as a separate attachment. #11 Do include the city or area where you currently live. You don't have to include your exact address, but the the gleaners painting, city or general area in which you live. About The Lady. For example, people casting will likely need to essay timeline, know if you're a local or not. This helps to determine what you may or may not be available for and whether they need to add talent travel expenses to their budget. #12 Do provide a website link if you have one. Make sure it looks professional, appropriate, and not over crowded with ads. #13 Do proofread everything before you send it.
Biggest pet peeve. It's hard to be taken as a serious professional if you can't spell or complete sentences correctly. Please take this list to about the lady of shallot, become more appealing and essay pollution engaging actors. You shouldn't let yourself be tossed to the side during casting just because of bad form. Here are links and videos with more helpful tips in various areas of acting.
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Essay: WHAT IS CRIME? Crime prevention and crime reduction. Crime is any action or offence that defies a state or country and is punishable by law. Crime has many definitions. In fact the most common thing about these definitions is that crime is punishable.
Crime cuts across many disciplines such as sociology, psychology and criminology. Each of these disciplines try to explain why crime is committed and how people are compelled to commit crime, a good example is sociology. Sociology attributes crime due to poor socialization in essay the lady of shallot, society, while psychology attributes crime mainly due to biological and Pathological criminogenic behaviors. Many scholars have tried to essay define crime and each has given many reasons why crime is of shallot committed. Scholars such Cesare Lombroso attribute crime to biological anomalies while scholars like Edwin Sutherland claim that criminal behavior is learned. Generally all these come, to the same conclusions that crime is an offence punishable by mywritingpaper law. There are two main types of crime, these include violent crimes and property crime. Violent crime constitutes when someone decides to harm, threaten and conspire against someone else while property crime constitute someone who damages, destroys or steals someone’s property. Both violent and property crimes are offences which involve force and damage to society.
There are different types of punishing crime, the most common typologies are retribution, restorative justice, general and specific deterrence, rehabilitation and just deserts. Crime punishment has been there since the beginning of time, theoldesttype of essay the lady of shallot punishment was retribution. A good example of how retribution justice was used was during the Hammurabi period. In those days if crime was committed it constituted an eye for an eye. If I killed someone my punishment would be death. Timeline! No one was spared. Justice was viewed differently.
In the recent times retribution has been reviewed and has been lowered to just deserts. The punishment is still harsh but considers many factors at hand, such as the state of mindof the essay the lady of shallot, offender. Essay Development Plan! Crime has been there for essay about the lady of shallot a long time and has been defined and been punished in narrative essay, different ways. What constitutes a crime has also been reviewed .what was viewed a crime in the previous times is not a crime now. A good example is essay about of shallot freedom of the gleaners essay worship. Many people were not allowed to worship any other gods and did it secrecy due to fear of essay about the lady of shallot prosecution and being labeled a heretic. In present times one is allowed to worship any god and believe in whoever they please. Generallycrime is a wide topic and has been vigorously studied in different aspects butin this essay I am going to focus mainly on the major objectives of crime prevention, typologies of crime reduction, law enforcement and crime, recidivism of crime and interventions on reduction of crime. 2.0 OBJECTIVES OF CRIME PREVENTIONAND CRIME REDUCTION.
Crime prevention includes reducing and deterring crime and narrative criminals from committing crimes. Crime reduction is quite similar to crime prevention, for crime reduction to occur we need to essay about the lady of shallot prevent it at first. On Sound! Crime prevention strategies are usually implemented by criminal justice agencies, individuals, businesses and non-governmental agencies in order to maintain order and enforce the law. Crime prevention strategies not only deter crime but also reduce the risk of increasing victimization in the society.Crime prevention has many objectives but the most main objective is to reduce and deter crime. Many criminal justice agencies have developed strategies through public policy in order to prevent crime. Various models have been adopted by countries in order to combat crime. Kenya for example has enforced the Nyumbakumi initiative (community policing) spear headed by Kaguthi in order to combat crime.
By this strategy neighbors are supposed to be readily aw e and watchful of what happens in the neighborhood in order to deter criminals from committing crimes. There are many approaches of crime prevention; the main objectives have been included in these strategies. Essay The Lady Of Shallot! These strategies are situational crime prevention strategy, environmental crime prevention, social crime prevention, developmental crime prevention, policing strategies, and community crime prevention strategies. The environmental prevention strategy was first introduced by the gleaners essay C. Ray Jeffery a criminologist. Environmental crime prevention strategy main objective is to protect the environment which entails wildlife, Nature and the atmosphere. Environmental crime entails an illegal act that harms the about of shallot, environment. Many international bodies such as Interpol and narrative essay the UN have recognized environmental crime due to the havoc it has causedthe environment, Types of environmental crime may include dumping hazardous waste in the ocean, illegal wild life trade of endangered species, smuggling, emitting chemicals those ozone layer and illegal logging of trees. There many crimes associated with environmental crime but I am going to focus on essay about of shallot the two main which affect many countries which is illegal trade of biographical wildlife and logging of of shallot tress. Many counties have been trying to fight this crime.
Many influential people have actually fought against environmental crime and have actually received Nobel prizes for it. The late Wangari Maathai who was an activist for the environment was highly against illegal logging of trees. In fact she proposed that for every tree that was cut down, three should beplanted. Prevention strategies have been implemented in order to combat crime. In Ireland under the department of agriculture section 37 of the forestry act. It is illegal to uproot any tree over ten years old or cut down any tree of any age (agriculture, 2015). Illegal wildlife trade is also a major problem. Kenya has had this problem for years, being one of the mywritingpaper, countries that harbors endangered species such as the white rhino and elephants. It has faced a lot of problems in trying to essay of shallot combat this problem. Many poachers are killing these animals and selling the tusks of these animals for high prices.
Elephant poaching was made illegal in 1973, and hunting without a permit in essay in english, 1977. Kenya has roughened sentencing through increasing fines.Poachers caught with illegal wildlife such as tusks face fines up to 10 million Kenya shillings and jail time of 5 years(Kahumbu. 2013).Though it is still rampant prevention strategies have been implemented. Situational crime prevention strategy was a concept that gained wide recognition in the late 1940’s when Edwin in Sutherland argued that crime was a result of environmental factors. Hebelieved that crime was learned. The Lady! Situational crime prevention strategy is deeply rooted in biographical narrative, theories such as routine activity theory, crime pattern theory and rational choice theory. Situational crime prevention strategy focuses on mainly reducing crime by providing settings in which it is the lady less conducive for criminals to attack.
Unlike routine, rational and crime prevention theories, situational prevention theory not only focuses on the criminals but focuses mainly on the environment. A good example of essay on leadership how criminal justice agencies have applied this strategy is by ensuring that their heavy surveillance in the cities in essay about the lady of shallot, order to deter criminals from committing crimes. In Kenya the Government has installed cameras on mywritingpaper mywritingpaper the traffic lights in order to record criminal activity and find corrupt road traffic users (Okere, 2012). About The Lady Of Shallot! The Cameras not only deter people from committing crimes but also helps the police to .find culprits who may commit a crime and get away with it. A study done in Nairobi by Stephen Okere found out that 85.7% of all the Kenyans respondents of the study had installed CCTV cameras and found it effective in curbing crime. The Gleaners! He also found that the traffic cameras also helped in curbing crime (Okere, 2012).The main objective of this crime prevention strategy isto protect people from criminals through providing or ensuring there are safety measures such as surveillance cameras. Social crime prevention is a strategy that addresses the the lady of shallot, direct root causes of crime. The main objective of social crime prevention is on the social elements that have lead people to commit this crimes, these elements may include breakdown in familyvalues and ignorance. Lack of cohesion and environmental conditions. Narrative Prompts! Social crime prevention is not an of shallot easy task to achieve because it deals with peoples ideals bad believes.
The only way to create a society that is peaceful is to start from the beginning. This means ensuring that schooling from young age is biographical narrative essay given much importance. A good example of how governments have done this is by the lady of shallot ensuring that the on leadership plan, curriculum in nursery schools teaches children values of what wrong and what is right. There are many ways of how social crime prevention can be achieved, through changing values at home through public education and encouraging the community to about of shallot be the agent of social change in mywritingpaper mywritingpaper, their own communities. Developmental crime prevention focuses on how crime occurs; the mainobjective of this strategy is show how crime develops and essay about the lady of shallot causes victimization in society. Developmental crime prevention strategy is used by mywritingpaper many countries.
Public education is one of the of shallot, approaches that have been used. By using public education many people are taught and developed in to young abiding citizens rather than criminals. Communities may also focus on helping teachers to be an integral part in developing self-control in young people. Narrative Essay! In the USA most stateshave developed programs which develop ex offender or drug addicts in to better people. They engage in social programs and help them achieve GEDS in order to about of shallot get a better life. In general development crime prevention actually rehabilitates youth and helps develop others become better people rather than committing crime. Policing strategies are also crucial in crime prevention. The main objective of policing in crime prevention is to ensure that police officers actually do help citizens and actually, curb crime beforeit occurs.
Policing should be proactive. Narrative Essay Timeline! When police actually improve on how they combat crime it helps reduce crime. Though police officers may be reluctant to about the lady change their ways, but with additional training they can change. In order to essay reduce crime policing should be an important aspect. Community Crime prevention strategies are also important in curbing crime. Essay About The Lady Of Shallot! The main objective of this strategy is to ensure that the narrative, community and police actually work together in the lady of shallot, order to prevent crime. By the community being involved in everything it helps reduce crime. Most countries have actually adopted this model. Kenya for example calls it nyumba kumi while other countries regard it as community policing.
By the essays, community and the police being involved it helps curb crime because the police are not working alone but are working hand in hand to ensure safety. Community crime prevention strategy can be very effective if the relationship between the citizen and the police is cordial. If it is not, this approach can be very hard to about achieve. By societies using all these models of crime prevention, reduction of crime actually occurs. Crime reduction cannot occur if the government and biographical narrative prompts criminal justice agencies are not doing anything about it. If you look at countries that have high crime, the essay, criminal justice agency and government are weak, and corruption is common. Such countries are run by cartels who engage in organized crime. On Sound! Organized crime also tends to be present in countries that have strong criminal justice systems, but the difference between the two is that they are not strong as they are in failed states or weak countries. Guinea-Bissau for example which faces a lot corruption has made it easier for organized crime flourish.
In April 2007 the about, authorizes of Guinea-Bissau managed to mywritingpaper seize 635 kilograms of cocaine , unfortunately the drug traffickers managed to escape with 2.5 tons of drugs because the about the lady, police could not catch up with them (Mutume, 2007). Painting Essay! The drug traffickers could have been captured but because of corruption and a poor criminal justice system the drug traffickers were able maneuver out with more than half. Crime prevention and limitations. Crime analysis is understood as the about the lady of shallot, systematic study of essay timeline crime and disorder problems as well as other police-related issues (Santos). It is important to include sociodemographic, spatial, and mundane factors to assist in about the lady of shallot, criminal apprehension, crime reduction, and crime prevention. It is used primarily as information so that personnel, from patrol officers to police chiefs, have an idea of the gleaners when and where crime is occurring and how much it has overall occurred. While analysis has proven helpful in many cases, what it fails to about the lady do is directly inform proactive crime reduction strategies. This is because police officers are limited ion dealing with prevention. Mywritingpaper Mywritingpaper! They are often assigned to patrol areas where they are not fully familiar with. They may not fully understand the the lady, social structure and norms that fuel the neighborhood and narrative essay timeline the actions of its residents. While crime analysis was once focused primarily on tactical issues of identifying offenders, discrimination and the lady of shallot stereotyping led to social unrest and led to other tactics of crime prevention.
With the stop and frisk campaign in essay, new York, where the police had the right to stop an individual and frisk them for any sort of weapons, drugs or paraphernalia, it became apparent hat innocent young blacks were not being targeted, but were having their rights infringed upon. This emphasizes the social and cultural disconnect between crime analysts, the sworn personnel, and the civilians they are attempting to protect. About The Lady! These became a blurred line between the mywritingpaper, officers’ role of essay protecting and harassing innocent civilians. The question still remains how to effectively prevent and reduce crime. Crime analysis and quotations in literary essays crime mapping are becoming more common, but they are primarily implemented in about the lady, larger police agencies. Areas that have statistically needed more protection have been given more policing depending on the capacity of the police in the district. For example, it is argued tat there is a need for more policing in urban areas because that is where crime is usually more prevalent, but that leaves other low population, yet crime ridden areas with less assistance. Despite this all, policing is occasionally being shifted to essay pollution in english focus more on ‘hot spots,’ areas where crime is more prevalent. The close monitoring has o an extent been able to deter crime, but that again depends on the stance of the offender and of shallot what they have to lose from their potential criminal transaction. While in an ideal world all crime prevention efforts would work, that is biographical prompts not the case in the society that we live in today.
Crime and its prevention vary depending on the environment of essay about of shallot where the crime is happening. The demographics, the socioeconomic status of the on leadership development, people, and the relationships within the community all factor into crime and its prevention. To address crime rates there must be various forms of prevention attempts. From the essay about the lady, research conducted, it is evident that incarceration is using quotations essays limited in essay the lady of shallot, its effectiveness of crime prevention and narrative essay timeline reduction. While there may be fewer criminals on the streets from incarceration, this does not directly affect rising crime rates. Given that about two thirds of criminals in the U.S. return to prison, incarceration only proves to be a temporary fix. I believe that incarceration would be more effective if there are efforts made in prison to better the lives of those incarcerated. Through efforts such as education, creating job skills and community buildings, those incarcerated are les likely to return to their former criminal past. Essay! This has the ability to quotations in literary essays create crime prevention and reduction in the long run. I also believe that random patrol and reactive arrests used responses to a community’s demand are generally effective, policing in areas where crime is essay about of shallot more prevalent makes it easier to narrative identify problems within a community. It develops tailored responses in a timely manner so that crime can be controlled, reduced, and about of shallot prevented.
I see various issues in using quotations, maintaining prevention, the main one being sustainability. About! Prevention takes long-term planning with targeted spending and strong correspondence. Mywritingpaper! It requires consistent community action and essay about persistence with or without the presence of government funding. Without flexibility crime cannot be prevented or reduced. Like I have mentioned before, there are no two communities alike so there cannot be any single approach to sustainability. Narrative Essay! It is up to the individual communities and organizations to determine appropriate strategies and implement them. I agree with the World Health Organization and the understanding that creating and implementing and monitoring a national action plan for violence prevention would be effective. In order to about do so, the issues of funding must be addressed. I believe that the federal and local government should invent in testing method of policing in order to plan raise awareness and reduce crime. About The Lady! To keep time rates low, there is a need to the gleaners enhance the capacity of data collection on violence.
That way, the issues that need to be addressed are apparent. When looking at essay about of shallot issues and crimes within a community, it is important to examine the causes. Consequences and the gleaners painting costs for prevention as well as reduction. To keep crime prevention low, criminals as well as victims should be dealt with. By strengthening responses for victims, I believe that there will be a deterrence effect for criminals and less retaliation crimes that promote even more crime.
I also believe that integrating crime prevention into social and educational policies has the ability to reduce crime by promoting social equality. Search our thousands of essay the lady essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Criminology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of quotations in literary essays us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Criminology work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Criminology essay was submitted to essay of shallot us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: WHAT IS CRIME?
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The Lady Of Shalott: An analysis - UK …
Top 41 Successful Common App Essays. These college essays are from students who got accepted at Common Application . Use them to get inspiration for your own essays and knock the socks off those admissions officers! Enlist the expert help of one of essay about, our Ivy-League editors. Get individual coaching to make your essay stand out among the crowd. Learn more. Looking back at freshman year, my life was like a cityscape, busy and vibrant. Narrative Prompts? I was just another young soul eager to meet life’s challenges. I proudly reached certain goals that defined the student I wanted to of shallot, be: made it into the science institute: check, varsity soccer: check, a natio. I wended my way through the first through fourth grades mostly without speaking. My presentations during that time went in mywritingpaper two parts: a stilted “My name is ---,” then some sort of essay the lady, pantomime. So I was surprised when I got a part in the class play, notwithstanding that everybody got a part.
I played t. 3. Using? Topic of your Choice - Rainfall on Ink Last night I was thinking about ink. When rain falls on a handwritten page, the essay about of shallot ink spreads out a bit, loses its crispness. It’s rarely pleasant. But every now and then, hidden colors emerge. Suddenly you discover that simple black ink is green and shades of blue and a fragile pink edge.
If so. 4. Evaluate a Significant Experience Essay - Computer Wizardry I never intended to hire anybody. In fact, I never sought to quotations in literary, obtain employment myself. I was too busy having fun with computers to about, be bothered with any of that. But as soon as you know how to hit ctrl-alt-delete, it seems everyone wants tech support, and one thing leads to another. 5. Essay? Prompt #5: Transition from Childhood to Adulthood. As soon as I walked out of the salon, though, I received looks of ridicule and sneering from of shallot passing strangers, the first showings of quotations in literary essays, mockery that I soon learned to endure alongside jeers like: “When did you fall into a pit of radioactive goo?” “Who forgot to clean up their crayon . 6. About The Lady? Short Extracurricular Activities Essay - Volleyball Co-captain Mr. Trupe, World History teacher and former Torrey Pines volleyball coach, was taken aback when he heard I was an quotations athlete.
Kevinyou play volleyball? I could knock you down with my breath! It's trueI'm 5'10 and essay of shallot a flimsy 130 pounds. I don't have the fram. I have a disease, an ambiguous disease that coerces me into festering in a ridiculous situation until it’s even more ludicrous resolution and on leadership compels me to of shallot, exacerbate the event by essay on sound pollution in english, my own capricious nature. With neither cure nor vaccination for this disease, it can develop at any age. Its sympt. Dear Jack Daniels, Bacardi, Budweiser, the other suppliers of my mother's closet laundry basket, and about Edna Ferber Elementary, Thank you. It is the summer before Kindergarten. Face ashen, she stumbles toward me, the heavy footfalls syncing with my throbbing heart.
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After a long school day, I frequently come home and rush straight to my piano, where I close my eyes and play out my emotions. But though I have been playing traditional piano for ten years, you will be hard-pressed to find me churning out a vigorous Chopin etude for fun; instead, my greatest joy co. I told him that it was like aliens. Like flying saucers. Like Star Wars. Like Transformers. But no matter what analogy I made, the little boy standing in front of me could not grasp the concept of science fiction. “Does that mean you can’t shrink this?” The little boy revealed a small, green H.
13. Quotations In Literary Essays? Lessons from Failure Essay – Piano And I stand up, my dark blue dress cascading down my legs, the last note still echoing in my ears. Then, a thunderous applause rattles every bone in my body. I bow. It gets louder. Carnegie Hall.
This was supposed to about the lady of shallot, be a dream, seemingly unattainable. Yet, here I am. Looking bac. I never knew I’d find a second home. I guess it waltzed itself into my life the moment I timidly walked into the advanced journalism “pub,” sitting down next to mywritingpaper mywritingpaper, the only other freshmen who had been accepted onto staff that year, a tall, ungainly-looking boy with a brilliant grin and a girl who looke.
Everyone longs to be a href=http://www.happy.comhappy/a. Of Shallot? Some people seem happy regardless of whatever they are going through in their lives. Others feel secure and the gleaners satisfied even when they do not have the material things that other persons have. Another group seems happy. One bead of sweat splashes across the about of shallot newspaper headline.
Still dressed in full football pads, I sit alone in the journalism computer lab, editing copy a few minutes before 9 p.m. Three hours after football practice, my cleats, untied, remain stuck on my feet and I have barely even made a dent in th. 17. Clarinets, Calluses, and Chemisty. For as exclusive as it was, Copley's soloist room was rather simple, furnished with only a piano and a bench.
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There has always been a disconnect between the have and the have-nots in society. Wealth and poverty has been perhaps the single biggest dividing issue since the essay about the lady of shallot introduction of money thousands of years ago. It was the essay development Wu-Tang Clan that so famously said that cash ruled everything ‘around merd. My brother and I have never thought twice about the technicality of being twins. It has always been, for us, a matter of fact. Growing up, our mom was completely open about it, rarely missing the opportunity to point across East 68th street to remind us, “And that’s where you were frozen.
29. Common Application Activities List. Position/Leadership description and organization name, if applicable: Key Club: Club President; Kiwanis Coordinator (1) Details, honors won, and the lady of shallot accomplishments: High school community service organization which I helped coordinate as Club President. Timeline? Earned the Gold Member Award as well as 300+ servic.
Daydreams are often regarded as a distraction and a sign of laziness. However, I believe in the creative power of daydreams, which allows me to the lady, escape from reality. Daydreaming allows me to look within my mind, which I need as an introvert. It's essential for introverts to recharge themselves af. The wind was howling so loudly that I could barely hear the occasional car that passed by.
It was raining very heavily. Muddy water clung to my pants as I made each step. I have to go on! I said to essay, myself. As I reached school at 8.05am, I noticed that the hall was almost empty. About Of Shallot? Only four . While grabbing lunch between games at development plan a water polo tournament, I noticed one of my new teammates rarely looked me in the eye. Instead of taking the empty seat next to me, he opted to sit across the essay the lady table. Even when I tried to start a conversation with him, he only looked down, and mumbled, ld. So many characters and universes appear before me as I sit in front of the television screen, watching cartoons. Nothing quells my thirst for an escape from essay prompts reality more than animation.
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I left the mywritingpaper mywritingpaper pitch, eyes fixed on the turf that has just witnessed this football massacre, as the gleaming summer sun of Dubai sent its flaming tongues licking the back of my stooped neck, and the . 38. Describe a place or environment - The world of mathematics Ninth grade geometry began my fascination of the world and its principles. Essay The Lady? The unified and coherent system of geometry built around simple concepts--lines, circles, and polygons--captured my interest, as the idea of a system with so much clear depth seemed so unreal. Essay On Leadership Development? How can an essay about the lady individual such as Eu. 39. Timeline? Fruitealicious: Place Where I Feel Most Content. The first week was horrific. My only work experience had been a counseling job that consisted of about the lady of shallot, being expected to lounge around in a lake, eat pizza, and ensure that seven year old kids didn't drown (which, while easy and resulted in one of the greatest tans known to humankind, was so bori. 40.
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